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New York : 11 East SeventMnth Street 


\i 2>S.18. §. \t> 


JU^-7i%u 7;j lOlM^»u^L 

OopjTight, 1888, 

All rights merved. 

The Rivenidt PreUtCumbridge. 
Uectrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghton & Go. 


«% Sectknui marked with an * have been added by the translator ; thoee marked with 
a t have been oonaiderablj enlarged or changed by the translator. 


Introduction. viii 

t Divisions of universal history • 1 



1. IBflTptians 2 


2. Jews (Hebrews, Israelites) 7 

8. Babylonians and Assyrians 12 

4. Fhcenioians and Garthasinlans ...••• 16 

5. liydians. ^Phrygians 20 


t 6. Indians 22 

7. Baotrlans, Modes, Persians 24 


• 8. Farthiano 29 

• 9. Chinese 30 

* 10. Japanese 82 


* 1. Celta 34 

a. Continental Celtfl. Gaals 84 

b, Celts of the British Isles 36 

Britain 36 

Ireland 38 

2. Oreoian history 39 

.Greographicai survey of ancient Greece 39 

* Religion of the Greeks . . . . , 41 

First Period (x— 1104). Mythical Period .... 43 
Second Period (1104-500). To the beginning of the Persian 

Wan 47 

Third Period (500-^38). To the battle of Chseronea . 4^ 
Fourth Period (338-146). Grseco - Macedonian or Hellenistic 

Period .78 

iy Table of Contents* 


3. Bomaii history 81 

Geographical survey of ancient ItaJy 81 

* Religion of the ancient Romans 84 

Ethnographical sketch of Italy 85 

First Period (x— 510). Mythical epoch of the kings . . 87 

Second Period (510-264). To the beginning of the Punic Wars . 93 

Third Period (264-146). Epocli of the Punic Wars . . 109 
Fourth Period (146-31). Ejjoch of the Civil Wars . . .123 
Fifth Period (31 b. G.-476 a. d.). The Roman emperors to the 

fall of the Western Empire 147 

* 4. O^eutoDS 163 

* 5. SUva and lathauiiana 168 


FIRST PERIOD. (375^843.) 

1. Migrations of the Northern Tribes 170 

* 2. Teutonic kingdoms in Britain (449-828) .... 176 

3. The Franks under the Merovingians 181 

4. Mohammed and the Caliphate 182 

5. The Franks under the Carolingians 183 

* 6. New Persian empire of the Sassanidao 187 

SECOND PERIOD. (843-1096.) 

1. Italy and Qermany (Carolingian, Saxon, Frauconian or Salian em- 
perors) 193 

t 2. France (Carolingiana and early Capctians) 201 

t 3. England (West Saxon kings) 203 

* 4. The North. Denmark 207 

Sweden, Norway 208 

5. Spanish Peninsula 209 

6. The Bast. Eastern Empire 210 

* India 210 

* China 211 

•Japan 212 

THIRD PERIOD. (1096-1270.) 

1. Crusades 213 

2. Germany and Italy 218 

t 3. France 2^ 

t 4. Bngiland 229 

* 6. The North. Denmark 235 

Sweden d37 

Norway SS8 

6. Bpcnlsh Peninrala .240 

7. The Xast Eastern Empire. The Mongols ^0 

* IndJs. * China ... ...^ 941 

•Japan SM9 

Table of Contents. v 


FOURTH PERIOD. (1270-1492.) 

1 Germany to Mazimilian 1 244 

Origin of the Swiss Ck>nfederac7 245 

Leagues of the cities 249 

t 2. Franoe to Charles Vm 254 

8. Italy 262 

t 4. Ezigland to Henry VH. 263 

5. Spanish Feninsnla 275 

6. The North and East. Scandinavia. Russia . . .276 

Poland, Prussia, Hungary . . . 277 

Turks, Mongols, Eastern Empire ) ^« 

•China. * Japan J * ' ^^ 


FIRST PERIOD. (1492-1648.) 

1. Inventions, dlsooTeries» and golonies 279 

* 8. America. Discovery 280 

a, English colonies : South Virginia 291 

Plymouth Oompany .... 293 

b. Dutch colonies 298 

c Swedish colonies 298 

d. Kew France and the Arctic region 299 

8. Germany to the Thirty Tears' ^War. Beformation . 306 
i. Thtr^ Years' War 308 

1. Bohemian Period, 1618-1623 308 

2. Danish " 1625-1629 310 

8. Swedish " 1630-1685 311 

4. French " 1635-1648 314 

t §• Vtanoe 317 

6. Italy 326 

t. Spanish Beninsnla and the NetherUfnds .... 328 

t Tlpe Ketherlands ............ 828 

9 8. BnjiWd aed Bootl«nd 333 

9. The Vortth and Ei^ 351 

Sweden, Denmark and Norway, Poland, Russia . . . 852 

Turks. • India 353 

* Chma 354 

* Japan 355 

SECOND PERIOD. (1648-1789.) 


* 1. Ajnerioa. British, Dutch, and Swedish colonies . . . 357 

French settlements and discoveries .... 363 

t 2. Franoe nnder Ijonis XIV. 365 

8. Germany under Iieopold I. 371 

4. The North and SSast Sweden 873 

Denmark, Poland, Russia .... 874 

yi Table of CbntenU. 


* Q. Bnfl^aiid 375 

* 6. India 389 

* 7. Ohinft - . 390 


1. The War of theSpaniBhSaooession 390 

2. The Northern War 394 

3. Qermany to the Bevolution of 1789 397 

4. The North. Denmark (Nonray), Sweden 409 

Russia, Poland 410 

5. Spain and Fortuffal 414 

6. Italy. Savoji Genoa, Venice 415 

(Tuscany, Papal States) TVo Sicilies .... 416 

* 7. America. British colonies 417 

War of Independence 426 

* 8. Great Britain 433 

* 9. The 2Ba«t. India 442 

The British in India 443 

China 444 

Japan 445 

1 10. FranoetotheBevolutionofl789 445 

THIRD PERIOD. (1789-1816.) 

First French Bevolution and Napoleonic Wars . . 447 

Causes of the Revolution 448 

Constituent assembly 449 

Legislative assembly 451 

War of the First Coalition. National O)nvention . • . 452 

Directory 457 

War of the Second Coalition 460 

The Consulate 461 

First French Empire 465 

War of the Third Coalition 467 

(Fourth) War with Prussia and Rossia 468 

Peninsula War 471 

(Fifth) War with Austria 471 

(Sixth) War with Russia * . .474 

The War of Liberation 475 

Congress of Vienna 482 

The Hundred Days (War of 1815) 483 

FOURTH PERIOD. (1815— x.) 

L Inventions. Steam Engines. Steam Navigation. Railroads. Tele- 
graph 485 

; 2. Continental Burope 487 

War of Grecian Independence ..*.... 438 

Revolution in Belgium ........ 489 

Revolution in Poland 490 

Revolt of Mehemet AU 491 

Table of Contents. vii 


Civil war in Switzerland 492 

Confusion in Germany ; attempts at anion .... 492 

Revolt of the Hungarians ........ 494 

Crimean War 499 

Kingdom of Italy 603 

War of Austria and Prussia with Denmark .... 505 

Austro-Prussian War 507 

Austro-Italian War • . 510 

North German Confederation 511 

Franco-Grerman War 513 

German Empire 519 

Turco-Russian War 522 

Congress of Berlin 524 

t 3. Franee (1815— x) . ' 526 

July Revolution of 1830 529 

February Revolution of 1848. Second Republic ... 630 

Second Empire 531 

Third Bepublic 532 

•4. Great Britain 1(1783— X) 535 

The British m India (1785-1836) 541 

Great Britain (1837— X) 642 

The British in India (1836— x) 546 

* 5. The United States of America^ 547 

War of 1812 561 

War with Mexico 664 

The CivU War 667 

• 6. China (1796— x) 660 

• 7. Japan (178T— x) . 662 

Restoration of the Kikado 568 

* Index 665 

1 CoQtribnted by IBdivrd Chanaingf Fh. D. 


Prof. Dr. Carl Ploetz, well known in Germany as a veteran 
teacher, is the author of a number of educational works haying a high 
reputation, among which none has better approved its usef uLaess than 
the " Epitome of Universal History." ^ The admitted excellence of 
the book renders an apology for its translation unnecessaiy, but an 
extract from the author's preface respecting the nature and purpose 
of the work may not be out of place. 

" The present ' Epitome,* which now appears in a seventh edition, enlarged 
and improved, is intended, in the first place, for use b^ the upper classes in 
higher educational institutions, as a ^ide or handbook m the historical class- 
room. The handy arrangement of the book and the elaborate index are in- 
tended to adapt it for private use, and to facilitate rapid acquisition of informa- 
tion concerning historical matters which have, for the moment, escaped the 

'* I £ave endeavored to g^ve everywhere the assured results of recent hbtor- 
ical investigation, adding, as far as possible, references to my authorities. 

" The exposition of ancient history is based upon the works of Duncker, 
Curtius, Mommsen, and Peter. 

**Media;val history, which was treated somewhat too briefly in the earlier 
editions, has been made proportionately full since the fourth, and has been, 
moreover, enlarged, as has modem history, by the addition of a number of 
genealogical tables. 

** In modern history the treaties of peace have been brought into especial 
prominence, and the principal conditions of the great treaties, through which 
alone one can get an insight into the historical formation of the present system 
of European states, have been stated with all possible accuracv. 

" Recent history baa been brought down to the present Jav. The purpose 
and the compass of the book alike permitted nothing more than a compressed 
narrative of facts, as far as possible, free from the expression of personal opin- 
ion. This limitation of itselt excludes the possibility of offending, whether in a 
religious or a political sense. 

" All are probably now agreed that it is unadvisable for scholars to write out 
the lecture of the instructor in full, which, however, should not prevent them 
from taking notes here and there. No one denies the necessity of a guide as a 
basis for instruction ; bnt widely differing ideas prevail concerning the arrange- 
ment and extent of such a work. 

** The author of this * Epitome,' who was for a number of years historical in- 
structor of the first and second classes in the French Gymnasium at Berlin, 
holds the opinion that even the best handbook can in no way take the place of 
an animated lecture, and that any guide which gives a connected narrative in 

1 AfttBug aut d€r alien^ miuleren und neueren Geichichie von Karl Floet*. 
Siebente verbeeserte und stark vermehrte Auflage, Berlin. A. G. Floetz, 1880. 
The preparation of this edition was confided to Prof. Dr. O. Meltaer, author of 
OudUekte dtr Knrthager^ i. 1880. 

X Introduction, 

some detail necessarily detracts from the value of the teacher's lecture, if in the 
haudii of the pupiit« in the clat^.H-ruom. 

*' I am persuaded that such a work should place before the pupil facts only, in 
the wider sense of the word, and these grouped in the moiit cumi)reheu8ive iiian- 
ner. The task of animating these facUi by oral expo&ition ought to be left to 
the instructor." 

The translator has enlarged the book in no small degree, with the 
hope of increasing its general usefulness, and of giving it especial 
value in this country. 

Under ancient history an attempt has been made to bring the 
ethno?raphical relations of the early peoples into prominence ; but 
believmg that the uncertainty of our knowledge in this respect can 
hardly bie dwelt upon too strongly, the translator has tried to speak 
guardedly. Even the Indo-European family is far from being satis- 
factorily understood; the details of the relationsliip of its constituent 
gproups are not clear ; the theory of a primitive Asiatic home and a 
wave-like series of westward migi-ations is but one, though perhaps the 
best, among many speculations. Recent text-books have delighted us 
with minutely ramified tables of Indo-European relationships, show- 
ing, with close approximation, when each group left the parent stock, 
each tribe the common group ; this, though liarmless as speculation, 
is dangerous if taken for knowledge.^ 

The speculations in regard to the early inhabitants of the British 
Isles should be received with like caution. Their provisional accept- 
ance, however, is so useful as to justify their insertion. 

The mytiiical history of England, Ireland, and Scandinavia has 
been deemed worthy to stand beside that of Greece and Rome. The 
undoubted historical value of many of these traditions and the part 
which they play in general literature will explain the presence of 
even the distinctly fabulous tides. The distinction between myth, a 
theoretical explanation of myths, and tolerably trustworthy history 
has been kept constantly in view. 

The history of certain countries, as China, Japan, Parthia and Per- 
sia under the Sassauidie, which the stricter limits of the German 
work had caused the author to omit, has been added ; in the cases of 
India, the Scandinavian monarchies before 1387, and France, the 
meagre account in the original has undergone considerable amplifica- 

The greatest clianges, however, wiU be found in the history of Eng- 

1 ** "We must content ourselves, for the present, with the recognition of a 
fundamental primitive community of Indo-European lanjcuages, and refrain 
from dividing tUvac languages into pfroups (except in the case of tlie Indo-Ira- 
nian tongues). Especially is this true of the unity of the Greeks and Italians, so 
often taken for granted. It cannot be said that' this unity did not once exist, 
but neither can it be asserted that its existence is demonstrable. Whether or 
not the future will succeed in reaching more certain results remains to Ikj seen; 
until such results are reached historians will do well to refrain from making use 
of such groups of languages and of tribes as the Grirco-Italian and the Slavo-Ger- 
man." (B. Delbriiok, Einltitunrf in dos SprachMudium^ Leipzig, Breitkopf 
& Hiirtel, 1880.) Not all philologists will agree upon this point, — upon what 
point do all philologists agree ? — and the archaeologist** have something to say 
up<m the matter; the words just quoted are, nevertheless, worthy of oonsid- 

Introduction, xi 

land and in that of America, which have been rewritten from the 
beginning with a fuUness of detail proportional to that observed by 
the original in the history of Germany. 

In the additions notlung more than a compilation from reliable, 

but easily accessible, sources has been attempted. A few notes have 

been inserted and a few dates and facts interpolated in the text of the 

original, but these changes have been duly attributed to the transla- 

^ tor, either directly or by the use of brackets, where they seemed of 

,' sufficient importance. 

Absolute accuracy cannot be looked for in a work dealing with so 
vast a number of dates and covering so wide a range in time ; the 
translator, however, in the sections for which he is responsible, has 
endeavored to verify each date by reference to independent authori- 
ties. He will be grateful to all who will take the trouble to inform 
him of errors that have escaped his notice. That the proportion ob- 
served in the space allotted to different countries and epochs is open 
to criticism, the translator is well aware ; the fault is due in part to 
the plan adopted by him of sending the earlier portions of the book 
te press before the later were finished, in the vain hope of hastening 
its completion. 

Except in the cajse of the Anstro-PrusBian and Franco-Prussian 
wars, where much of the minute descriptive detail has been omitted, 
no attempt has been made to condense the original. 

Various circumstances have delayed the appearance of the book 
much beyond the time for which it was announced ; that it is at last 
ready is due to the kindness of Dr. Edward Channing, of Harvard 
College, who took upon himself the preparation of those sections 
which contain the history of Great Britain and her colonies from 
1784 to 1883, and that of the United States from 1789 tP 1883. Hie 
thanks of the translator are also due to Professor H. W. Torrey, of 
Harvard College, for the loan of material of which free use has been 
made for English history in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
and for French history in the nineteenth century ; and to Mr. Justin 
Winsor, Librarian of the University, for the free use of books. 

To Dr. R. H. Labberton and to Messrs. E. Claxton & Co. of Phila- 
delphia, the translator is indebted for courteous .permission to use 
certain genealogical titbles in Dr. Labberton's exceedingly useful 
*« OnUines of History." i 

The distinguishing feature of the " Epitome " is the arrangement 
whereby a brief connected narrative is accompanied by a clear, well- 
graduated chronology which emphasizes the sequence of events with- 
out breaking up the story or fatiguing the mmd. An attempt has 
been made, bv the use of italics and two sizes of black type, to mark 
and distinguish events according to their relative importance, and 
also to relieve the page ; while, with the latter object in view, the 
use of capitals has been as far as possible dispensed with, although 
the manner of printing the book has prevented consistency in this 

1 Iiabberton, B. H., Outlines ofHistorifj with original tables, chronological, 
genealogical, and Hterarv. Thirteenth edition. Philadelphia, E. Claxton 8c 
Co., 1883. Text and Historical Atlas. The tables used are II., III., XVI., 
which appear on pages 265, 256, 332, of the present work. 

xu Introduction, 

respect. Especial cai^ has been deyoted to the index, which has been 
made very full, in order that the book might serve as a historical 
dictionary, as well as a chronology. 

Note. — The appendix mentioned npon p. 2 has been omitted^ 
owing to the increased size of the book. 



X B. c. — 375 A. D. I. Ancient history, from the begin- 
ning of historical information to the commence- 
ment of the migrations of the Teutonic tribes. 

375 — 1492. II* MediaBval history, from the conunence- 

ment of the migrations of the Teutonic tribes to 
the discovery of America. 
1492 — X, III. Modem history, from the discovery of 

America to the present time. 

Ancient histoTy, treated ethnographically, falls into two great divi- 

A ZSaatem peoples : Egyptians (Hamitic) ; Jews, Babylonians, As- 
syrians, Phoenicians, Lydians (Semitic); Hindus, Bac- 
trians, Medes, Persians (^Aryan); Parthians, Chinese, 
Japanese (Turanian?). 

B. Western Peoples: Celts, Britons, Greeks, Romans, Teutons 


MedlsBval history can be divided into four chronological periods: 

375-843. 1. From the commencement of the migrations of the 

Teutonic Tribes to the Treaty of Verdun. 
843-1096. 2. From the Treaty of Verdun to the beginning of the 

1096-1270. 3. The epoch of the Crusades. 

1270-1492. 4. From' the end of the Crusades to the discovery of 


Modem history can also be divided into four periods: 

1492-1648. 1. From the discovery of America to the Peace of 

1648-1789. 2. From the Peace of Westphalia to the outbreak of 

the first French Revolution. 
1789-1815. 3. From the outbreak of the first French Revolution 

to the Congress of Vienna. 
1815-x. 4. From the Congress of Vienna to the present time. 


2 Ancient History, b. c. 



§1. EGYPTIANS. HamUes. 

(Geography : Egypt ^ (Kem, L e. '' black earth " in old Egyptian) 
is the valley of the Nile, which extends between two chains of low 
hills for 550 miles, vdth a breadth, above the Delta, of but a few miles. 
It is divided into Upper Egypt (PhUcRy Elephantine, Thebes or Dias- 
pdLis, called by Homer iicaTt^/iTvAof, the '< hundred gated," a designa- 
tion which must refer to the entrances of temples and palaces, smce 
the city had neither walls nor gates) and Low^er Egypt {Memphis; 
in the Delta, 7Vznts, Buhastis, Naucratis, Sals; west of the Delta, 
Canopus, now Abukir ; on the east, Pelusium; the latter cities stand- 
ing on what were, in ancient times, the largest mouths of the Nile). 
These divisions were originally, in all probability, independent coun- 
tries. They are not to be confounded with the separate principali- 
ties which became numerous at a later time. This division was com- 
memorated in the royal title of the kings of the united countries, 
'< lords of the upper and lower country," " lords of the two 

Religion : Worship of personified forces of Nature and symbolical 
animal worship. In Memphis especial reverence paid to Ptahy the 
highest of the gods, the first creator ; in his temple stood the sacred 
biul Apis (Egypt. Api), also closely connected with O^is, Ra,^ wor- 
shipped particularly in (M or Heliopolis, represented the transmitting 
and preserving power of the godhead embodied in the sun. Khem, 
was the god of generation and growth. Beverence was also paid to 
the goddess NeUh, whose worship at Sais was considered by the Greeks 
to be identical with that of Athena, to the goddess Bast or Pacht (at 
Bubastis^f and to the goddess of BiUo, on one of the mouths of the 

At Thebes, cult of Ammon (Amim), the god of heaven, later united 
with Ra to form a single divinity. In Upper Egypt worship was paid 
to Mentu, the rising sun; Turn or Atmu, the setting sun; Chnum or 
Kneph, god of the overflow, always represented with a ram's head and 
double horns, and later becoming united with Ammon to form one 
divinity; and to the goddess Mut (i. e. "mother"). The educated 
classes recognized the various gods as personified attributes of the 
one Divinity. 

1 For authorities, see Appendix I. 

3 See Kiepert, Atlas AntiquuSy Tab. III. 

8 According to Bosellini and Iiopsius the title of Pharaoh is derived from 
this name, and means Son of the Sun. fibers and BruRSOh derive it from 
Pe'raio)y the "jjjreat house.'' (Compare *^ Sublime Porte.") 

B. c. Egyptians, 3 

Myth of Ostm, the creative force in Nature, who was killed and 
thrown into the sea by Set (Typhon\ the destructive force in Nature 
(especially drought) ; sought after oy his sorrowing consort Isis (the 
earth), he was avenged by their son Horos^ who slew Set- restored to 
life. Charts thenceforward ruled in the lower world (decay and resur- 
rection of the creative force in nature; immortality of the soul). Con- 
joined with HoroSy the goddess Hathor, considered by the Greeks to be 
the same as Aphrodite, 

Highly developed moral code. 

Civilization : Fertility of the valley of the Nile maintained by the 
regular overflo'w of the Nile, beginning at the end of July and last- 
ing four months. 

Hieroglyphics, very early in conjunction with the hieratic, and after- 
wards the demotic, characters (syllabic and phonetic signs), which 
represented the language of daily life, the dialect of the common 

Jbmbalming of the dead. (MviinmieB.) 

Avoidance of intercourse with foreign peoples and adoption of 
foreign customs. Strict regulation of the entire life by religious 

Castes : Priests, warriors, agricultural laborers, artisans, shepherds. 
These castes, however, were in no wise absolutely separated from one 

Form of Government: Despotic monarchy, with divine attributes, 
also in possession of the highest spiritual power. Strong influence of 
the priests, especially after the fourteenth century, but they never 
controlled the supreme power.^ 

The Pyramids are gigantic monuments of the kings. Over thirty 
still exist.^ The largest, at Gfizehy was originally 480 feet high, and 
still measures 450 feet. The Obelisks — of which one is now at 
Paris, several in Rome, one in London, and one in New York — are 
cut hojXL single blocks of stone (monoliths), and were offerings to 
the sunrgod &a; the Sphinxes were symbols of the smi-god. 

Chronology: The Egyptians filled the space before Mena, the 
first of the historic line oi kings, by the assumption of three dynas- 
ties of gods, demi-gods, and ''the mysterious manes." The list of 
kings aner Mena was given at length by the priest Manetho (about 
250 B. *c.), in his history of Egypt. He arranged them in thirty dy- 
nasties, a division which is stm used. To reconcile the names and 
dates given by Manetho with the records upon the monuments is a 
difBcmt matter, owing in part to the fact that several of the dynasties 
of Manetho probably reigned contemporaneously in different parts 
of Egypt, that it was the custom for a king to associate his son with 
himseft during the latter part of his reign, and that the son after- 
wards reckoned his reign from the date of such association. Hence 
the systems of chroncSogy, drawn up by Egyptologists, vary greatly. 
There are, in general, two schools: (1.) "fiie long chronology, advo- 
cated on the continent, wherein the dates assigned to Mena vary from 

1 SeeDuncker, History of Anti^uilyy 1. 180. 

3 Lepsitis saw traces and remains of sLxty-seven pyramids; Brussoli of 
more than seventy. 

4 Ancient History, b. c. 

5702 (Boeckli) to 3623 (Bunsen). (2.) The short chronology, advo- 
cated in England, wherein the dat^ assigned to Mena VKry between 
2700 and 2&0. In the following pages the chronology of Lepsius 
is followed, with the exception of the date assigned to Mena, which 
Lepsius gives as 3892 b. c. These dates should be compared with the 
lists given by Brugsch ^ and by RawUnson.^ Before 

3000. The old empire of the Egyptians, in the lower val- 
ley of the Nile, founded according to Egyptian tradition 
by Mena' (Menes). Capital : Memphis. 

2800-2700 (?). The kings Khufo, Khafra, Menkaura (according 

to Herodotus, Cheops, Chephren, Mykerinos), the builders of 

the largest pyramids. I Vth dynasty (Memphis) called the 

" Pyramid dynasty." 

About 2400. Removal of the centre of government of the empire to 


Of the princes of this line the following deserve mention: Amenem- 

hat I. (2380-2371), who seems to have extended the power of Egypt 

up the rfile and over a part of Nubia ; Usurtasen I. (2371-2325) who 

continued the conquests of his predecessor, and erected obelisks; Ame- 

nemhat II.; Usurtasen II,; Usurtasen III,; Amenemhat m. (2221- 

2179) constructed lake Meri^ (i. e. " lake of inundations "), a large 

reservoir for regulatinf^ the water supply of the Nile, and bidlt S. of 

this lake the so-called Labyrinth, a lai^ palace for ceremonial acts 

and sacrifices. These six monarchs belong to the Xllth dynasty (of 


About 2100. Egypt concjuered by the Hyksoe, or Shepherd Kings. 
The Hyksos (derived from Hyk, king, and Schasu, shepherds, 
contracted into Sos) were wandering tribes of Semitic descent. 
About 1800. Thebes revolted against the rule of the Hyksos. Native 
rulers maintained themselves in Upper Egypt. After a long 
contest the Shepherd kings were oriven out of Egypt com- 
pletely under King Aahmes (Amosis), of Thebes (1684-1659).* 
Their epoch covers the Xlllth to XVIIth dynasties. 

1670 — 525. The new empire (capital at first Thebes), 
under Thutmes HI. (Thutmosis, 1591-1616 ; XVIHth 
dynasty) increased rapidly in power and extent. 

1524-1488. Under Thutmes and his successors, especially Amen- 
hotep in. (Amew^his), successful expeditions against the 
Syrians (^Ruthen) and against the Ethiopians in the south. 

1 nUtory of Egypt, Appendix. S<?e also T. 37, and xxxil. note 1. 

2 flistory of Erjypt^ or Manual of History^ p. 61, and foil. 

8 The royal nomenclature of the E^'ptinns i» as picturesquely varied as their 
chronology. I have given first some form of the true £g>'ptiati name, as found 
on the monuments, generally that adopted by Brugsch, ana have followed it by 
the more common name, as given by Manetho, Herodotus, or the Jewish Scrip- 
tures, in parentheses. [Trans.] 

* Called by the Greeks Marii (Motpof, Herod. I. 101), and erroneously inter- 
preted as a royal name. 

B Dunoker, History of Antiquity ^ 1. 130, and foil. 

B. c. Egypttann. 5 

£ieetion of magnificent palaces and temples at Thebes. 
(Ruins near the present villages of Comae, Luxor, and Medi- 
net-Ha/u; near the latter two sitting colossi, statues of Amen- 
hotep, one of which the Greeks called the musical Statue of 
1438-1388. Similar success in war fell to the lot of Setl L (Sethos). 
Expeditions to Ethiopia, Arabia, and to the Euphrates. Tem-^ 
pie of Ammon on the left bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes. 
His sou, 

1388-1322. Bamessu II., the Qreat {SestUrRa^ Bamses), 
was yictorious in the early part of his reign, but could 
not long maintain his supremacy over Syria (XlXth dy- 

In spite of this a peculiar tradition transformed him into that mili- 
tary hero whom the Greeks knew as Sesostris (Herodotus, U. 102- 
110), or Sesooais (Diod. Sic. I. 53^58), and to whom they ascribed 
fabulous expeditions to Thrace and India. This tradition seems to 
have had its origin in the bombastic expressions common to the royal 
inscriptions of Uie Egyptians, and in poetic exaltations of his earlier 
victories. In the Greek account we have besides a confusion of recol- 
lections of the glorious deeds of Thutmes and Amenhotep, of Sed and 
Ramessu III, 

During his long reign he covered Egypt with magnificent buildings. 
Splendid palace known as '* the House of Ramses, south of Camac; 
temple of Ammon, 400 miles above Syene. Commencement of a canal 
between the Red Sea and the Nile. Ramessu II. was probably the 
oppressor of the Hebrews. Under his successor, 
1322-1302. Mineptah, L e. << beloved of Ptah," occurred the exo- 
dus of the Hebrews from Egypt (see page 8).* 

1269-1244. Bamessu m. (Rhampsinitus, XXth dynasty). 

Successful resistance offered to the Libyan and Semitic tribes; 

expeditions as far as Phoenicia and Syria, (Story of the theft 

from the treasury, Herodotus, II. 121.') 
1244-1091. Decay of the empire under the later kings of the name 

of Ramses. 
1091. A new dynasty (XXI.) came to the throne with King Hirhor 

(Smendes). The seat of their power was Tanis, in the Delta, 

whence tney are called Tanites. 

Loss of supremacy over Ethiopia, where the kingdom of Na- 

pata or Meroe was founded. 
961-9&. Shashang L (Sesanchis, Shisak), from Buhastis, founded a 

new dynasty (XXIL).^ He undertook (949) a successful ex- 
pedition against JudcBO, Jerusalem conquered and plundered. 

1 It may have occurred under his successor of the same name; the date of 
whose reign, as well as the reigns of the kings immediately preceding, would 
have to be placed several decades earlier, in agreement with Duno&er and 

3 The opinion of Bmgsoh, History of Egypt, IT. 198, that an Assyrian con- 
quest of ^ypt occurred at this time, and that Shashang I. was the 8nn of the 
conqueror, Nimrod, king of Ass^Tia, has not found favor amon<; K^vptulo^iita. 


6 Ancient History. B. c. 

730. The Ethiopians, under Shahak {Sabako), conquered Egypt, 
which they governed for fifty-eight years under three succes- 
sive kings. (XXVth dynasty.) 

672. An expedition of the Assyrians, under Esarhaddon (p. 15), 
against Egypt. The king of the Assyrians and his son, Asshur- 
banipal (Sardanapalus), put an end to the rule of the Ethi- 
opians (under Takarak or Tirhakahj the second succe.s.sor of 
Shabak), and entrusted the government of Egypt to twenty 
governors, most of whom were natives. 

653. One of these governors, Psaxnethik, in alliance with 
Gi/ges, king of Lydia, with the help of Carians, Phceni- 
cians, and lonians, made himself independent of Assyria, 
and sole ruler of Egypt (XXVIth dynasty, of Sais). 

The tale of the twelve native princes (the Dodeoarchy of Herod- 
otus and Diodorus), according to which Psammeticus defeated his 
eleven co-regents at MometnphiSy is not historical. The number, 12, is 
derived from the twelve courts of columns in the Labyrinth, which, 
according to Ilerodotus and Diodorus, was built by the twelve princes, 
whereas this gigantic building had already been standing 1500 years 
(p. 4). 

653-610* Psamethik I., king of Egypt, from the mouths 
of the Nile to Elephantine, above which place the Ethio- 
pians held the supremacy. (XXVIth dynasty.) 

New capital, SaXSj in the Delta, where Psamethik built a magnifi- 
cent palace. Egypt opened to foreigners, who were favored in the 
army and settled at various points. Caste of Interpreters. Greek 
factory at Naucratis. Dissatisfaction among the military caste; emi- 
grations upward along the Nile to Ethiopia. 

Psamethik carried on wars in Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine ; they 
were probably undertaken in the first instance to strengthen his 
frontier against a new attack by the Assyrians, which he dreaded. 
These wars led to no lasting conquests. The son of Psamethik, 

610-595. Neku (Necho), revived the plan of Ramses to unite 
the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal, but did not succeed in 
carrying it out. By his orders Africa was circumnavigated by 
Phoenician seamen. He undertook expeditions to Syria where 
he was at first successful, and defeated the king of Judah in the 
battle of Megiddo (609), but was afterwards defeated by the 
Babylonians m the 

605. Battle of Blarchemiah. Loss of all his conquests in Asia. 
Neku's son, 

595-589. Psamethik IL Expedition against Ethiopia without suc- 
cess. His son, 

689-^70. Hophra (Apries), fought without lasting success against 
Nebuchadnezzar, and sent help to the tribes of Libya against 
Cyrene. His defeated army revolted, and he was defeated 
at the head of Ionian and Carian mercenaries, captured and 

B. O. Jews, 7 

57<X-^26. Aahmes {Amdsis)^ an Egyptian of low origin, ascended 
the throne. Encouragement of foreigners, especially of the 
Greeks, carried still farther; numerous Grecian temples erected 
in Naucrdtis. Friendship with Cyrene and Polycrates of Samos. 
Magnificent buildings, especially in Sals, The son of Amasis, 

525. Psamethik III., defeated in the battle of Pelusiuxn 
by Cambyses. Egypt a Persian province. 


Geograpl^y* The land of the Jews is bounded N. by Codo-Syria; 
W. by PhaemciOj the Mediterranean, and the land of the PhUistmee; 
S. bv Arabia Petrcea; E. by the Arabian Desert, 

llie name Canaan,^ i. e. '' low land," was originally applied to the 
region along the coast, but was at an early date extended to the inland 

The names Canaanite and Phoenician have properly the same mean- 
ing; the first was the Semitic, the second the Grecian name for the 
inhabitants of the whole land before the Jewish conquest. 

Palestine was originally the name of the southern coast-land, which 
was so called after the Semitic tribe of the Philistines (Pelishtim) 
which had possession of it, but was transferred by Egyptians and 
Greeks to the land occupied by the Jews. In the Bible the country 
is called 'Hhe promised land," i. e. the land promised by Jehovah to 
the children of Israel. 

The river Jordan, which rises in the mountain range of AntUebanon 
and empties into the Dead Sea (Sodom, Gomorrah), runs through the 
middle of the country. After the Jewish conquest the country was 
divided into the twelve provinces of the twelve tribes; after the death 
of Solomon into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel; at the time of 
Christ into ybur districts: 1. Judsea (Jerusalem, Hebr. Jerushalalm; 
Greek *Upoa6KvfM^ with the fortress of Zion and the Temple on Mt. 
Moriah; Bethlehem, Jericho, Joppa, now Jaffa, on the coast) ; 2. Sama- 
ria (Samaria, Sichem) ; 3. Qalilaoa (Nazareth, Capemaitm on the sea 
of Tiberias or Qenezareth, Cana) ; east from Jorden 4. Persea. 

In the country of the Philiatinee, the coast region between Pales- 
tine and Egypt: Ashdod, Ascalon, Gaza, Ekron, Gath. 

Chronology.' As is the case with the earUest history of all na- 
tions, the chronology of Jewish history is uncertain. There is a long 
and a short system, but here the short system found favor on the con- 
tinent, while the long system prevails in England. 

2000 (?)• Abrckham (Abram), Patriarch of the Hebrews 
(i. e. "those from the other side," because they immi- 
grated from Ur in Babylonia), Israelites, or Jews. 

According to the traditions of the Hebrews, Abraham had two sons: 
Ishmael by Hagar, the ancestor of the Ishmaelites (Arabians) ; and 
Isaac, by Ids lawful wife Sarah. The son of Isaac by Rebekah, Jacob 

1 Cf. Kiepert, Atlna nntiquus. Tab. III. 

3 Cf. Duaoker, Uiatury of Antiquity j II. 112, note. 

8 Ancient Htstary, b. c. 

or Israel, the true tribal ancestor of the Hebrews. Jacob's twelve 
sons : by Leah — Reuben^ Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zelndon; by 
Rachel — Joseph, Benjamin) by Bilhali — Dan, NaphUUi; by Zilpah — 
Gad, Asher. 

1550 (n* Joseph. The tribe of the Hebrews migrated to 
Egypt. They settled in the land of Goshen, on the right 
bank of the Pelusian mouth of the Nile. It is cktimed that 
the master of Joseph was Apepi, the last of the Shepherd kings 
of Egypt (see p. 4, where the chronologr does not as^e 
with the theory, which, however, is no objection, as it could be 
easily made to conform.) 

1320 (?)*^ Mosee conducted the Hebrews out of Egypt 
Ten commandnients at Mt. Sinai. The laws of 

About 1250. The Israelites (Joshua) after a long nomadic life in the 
peninsula of Sinai and on the east of Jordan conquered the 
Promised Land, but without entirely subjugating me former 

Tlieooracy, i. e. the nation was under the immediate guidance of 
Jehovah. The office of the highpriest was hereditary in the family 
of Aaron, the brother of Moses, The Tabemaole, a portable temple 
or holy tent. The Ark of the Covenant. To the family of Levi (son of 
Jacob-Israel) was given the exclusive care and service of the tabeis 
nacle and all things used in the religious ceremonial. 

The other twelve tribes (named fiom ten sons of Jacob Tsee above) 
and ttoo sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh) settled m separate 
districts, which were more or less cut off from one another by remnants 
of the former inhabitants, and formed an exceedingly loose union of 
twelve small states under tribal chiefs, which was at times hard 
pressed by neighboring tribes. 

Judges (Shof etim) : men raised up by Jehovah in times of need, 
especially military leaders in the wars against the Canaanite tribes: 
Amorites (of whom the J^usites were a part), Amalekites, Hittites, 
Hivites, and against the Philistines, Midianites, Ammonites, Moabites. 
Judges : Ehud; the heroine Deborah; Gideon, conqueror of the Mid- 
ianites; Jephthah, conqueror of the Ammonites; Samson, the terror 
of the Philistines. 

1070. The Philistines subjugated the whole country this aide Jor- 

At the demand of the people, Samuel, the last <* Judge in Israel," 
anointed a brave man of the tribe of Benjamin, 

1055 (?)• Saul* as king of the Jews. 

Victory of Saul over the Modbites, Philistines, Edomites, and Amalek- 
ites. Samuel, being at variance with Savl, anointed David, from the 
tribe of Judah, as king, at the command of Jehovah. David fled to 
the Philistines from &e persecution of Sand, Saul defeated Ir^ the 
Philistines, put an end to his life (1033 ?). For seven years David 

1 English scholars place the Exodus at 1652 or 1491. 

B. c. Jewz. 9 

was recognized as king by the tribe of Judah only, the other tribes 
under the influence of the captain, Abnety adhering to Saul's son, /sA- 
hosheOi, After the murder of Abner and Ish-bosheth, all the tribes 
acknowledged David as king in the assembly at Hebron. 

1025 (?)• David. Kingdom of the Jews at the highest point 
of its power. David wrested Jerusalem from the Jebwites, and 
made it his residence. He restrained the Philistines within 
their own borders. His sway extended from the N.£. end of 
the Red Sea to Damascus, Erection of a royal palace at Zion, 
Ark of the Covenant placed in Jerusalem. (Organization of 
the army. Religious poetiy of the Hebrews at the height of 
its development. The Fsalnui. Revolt and death of Absalom 
(^Ahithophisl). David passed over his son Adonijah, by Haff~ 
gith, and other sons, and appointed his son by Baihsheba his 

993 (^y Solomon. Erection of the Temple of Jehovah and 
a new palace in Jerusalem, with the aid of workmen from 
Tyre. Magnificent court. Standing army. Extensive com- 
merce. Defection of Damascus. Foundation of Tadmor in 
an oasis of the Syrian desert. At the close of Solomon's reign, 
toleration of foreign idolatry in Jerusalem. After the death 
of Solomon, 

953 (?)) Division of the kingdom of the Jews.^ 

The tribe of Judahf the tribe of Stmeon, which had become united 
with Judah, and a part of Benjamin with the LeviteSj remained true to 
Rehoboam the son of Solomon, and formed the Kingdom cf Judah 
(capital, Jerusalem); the other tribes, under Jeroboam^ formed the 
Kingdom of Israel farther north ^capital at first Sichemj stUl later 
Samaria and Jezreel). These two kmgdoms were frequently at war 
with one another. 

Kingdom of IsraeL 

After the death of the energetic Jeroboam (953-927), his son iVo- 
dab was murdered by the captain Baasha, who ascended the throne 
(925^. His son and successor Elah was slain by Zimri; Tibni and 
Omn disputed the throne, but Omri prevailed in the end (899). The 
son of Omri, AJiab, married Jezebel f princess of Tyre, whereby the 

Practice of FhcBuician idolatry {Baal and Astarte) was extended in 

Contest of the Prophets (Elijahy Elisha, etc.) with the idola- 
trous monarchy. Israel and Judsdi united for a short time. Ahab's 
son Akaziah (853-851). The captain Jehu, anointed king by ElishOy 
slew the brother of Ahaziah, Jeram (851-843), and put to death 
Jezebel and seventy sons and grandsons of Ahab. Jehu (843-815) 
destroyed the temple of Baal and put to death the priests of that goa. 
Decline of IsraeFs power, which was only temporarily revived by the 

^ About the chnmohgy, cf. Dunoker, II. 234, note. The long eystem 
gives 975 b. o. 

10 Ancient History, B. 0. 

fourth king of the line of Jehuy Jeroboam II. (790-749). After the 
fall of the house of Jehu, the kingdom of Israel became tributary to 
the Assyrians. Tiglath-Pileser conquered the northeastern part of 
the kingdom. Hoshea, the last king of Israel (734), tried to free his 
country from the Assyrian yoke, but was defeated and captured by 
Shalmanefler IV. iVftcr a three years* siege, 

722.^ Samaria was captured by Sargron, king of the Assyr- 
ians, the Kingrdom of Israel was destroyed, and a 
part of the people carried away and settled in Assyria 
and Media. 

Kingrdom of Judah. 

In the reign of Rehoboam the country was overrun by the Egyptians 
under the Pharaoh Shashang {Shishak). 

Sack of Jerusalem (949). RehoboarrCs grandson Asa (92^-873) 
abolished idolatry, which was prohibited by the law. He was compelled 
to buy assistance from the king of Damascus against Baasha of Israel. 
Energetic reign of his son Jehoshaphat (873-848). In the hope of put- 
ting an end to the war with the Kingdom of Israel, Jehoshaphat mar- 
ried his son Jehoram (848-844) to Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab of 
Israel and Jezebel. After the son of Athaliah, Ahaziah, was murdered 
while on a visit to the king of Israel, toother with the whole royal 
family of the Kingdom of Israel as above described (p. 9), Athaliah 
(843-837) seized the supreme power in Jerusalem, put to death her 
own grandchildren in order to destroy the tribe of David, Joash alone 
being miraculously rescued and brought up in the Temple of Jehovah, 
and mtroduced the worship of Baal in Jerusalem. Athaliah was over- 
thrown and put to death by the high priest Jehoiada, and the young 
Joash raised to the throne. The worship of Baal was abolished. 

Joash (837-797) was obliged to purchase the retreat of the army 
from Damascus which was besieging Jerusalem. Murder of Joash. 
Under his son Amaziah (797-792) Jerusalem was captured by the 
Israelites; the Temple and palace plundered. Amaziah was murdered; 
but his son Uzziah {Azaruihy 792-740) successfully resisted the mur- 
derers and raised the kingdom again to a position of power and au- 
thority. The Prophet iBaiah. 

Under the successors of Amaziahj the Ejngdom of Judah, hard 
pressed by the Kingdom of Israel and by Damascus, became tributary 
to the Assyrians. King Hezekiah (728-^97) again abolished idolatry, 
refused to pay tribute to the Assyrians, and allied himself with the 
Egyptians. The Assyrians under Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem in 
vain, but carried off many of the inhabitants of the open country into 
captivity. Hezekiah*s son Manasseh (697-642^ transformed the Tem- 
ple of Jehovah into a temple of Astarte, and sacrificed to Baxd and 
Moloch in spite of the opposition of the prophets ; he submitted again 
to the Assyrians, was carried captive to Babylon, but in the end re- 

^ In the date 722, the Hebrew chronology ag^rees with that of the Assyrian 
inoniiment.fl. ^ Cf. Schraderf Die KeUiruchriften u. das alte Testament^ 1872, 
1882, and Menaat, Annnlts das Rois d'Auyrie^ 1874. 

B. c.-A. D. Jews. 11 

stored to his throne. Under his grandson Josiah (640-609), the conn- 
try was ravaged by Scythians. 

Religious reaction against idolatry (Jeremiah). Reformation of 
the worship of Jehovah, according to the book of the law of Moses 
which was rediscovered in the Temple (622). King Josiah fell in the 
battle of Meffiddo (609) against the Egyptian king Necho (Neku). 

The Kingdom of Jnoah subject to the Esyptians, and, alter the de- 
feat of Necho at Carchemish (605), to the Babylonians. Jehoiakim en- 
deavored to revolt, but was put to death. Uis son, Jehoiachin^ was 
carried into captivity with many of his subjects by the Babylonians 
(597). An attempt on the part of the last king, ZedeHah^ to regain 
independence was unsnccessrul in spite of Egyptian assistance. Jeru- 
salem was besieged (588-586) ; an Egyptian army advancing to its 
relief was defeated and compelled te retreat. 

586. Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, captured Jenisar 
lem. Destruction of the city and burning of the Temple. 
Many of the Jews were slain ; those who were left were 
carried into the Babylonian captiyity. (The prophet 

537. The Jews sent back to Palestine by Cyrus. Rebuilding of the 
Temple (Zerubbabel), which was not completed, however, un- 
til the time of Darius I. (516). The Jews subject at first to 
the Persians (538-332), then to Alexander the Great (332-323), 
afterwards to the Ptolemies (32^-198), finally to the Selen- 
cid kings of Syria (198-167). 

IGT-ISO* Emancipation of the Jews by the Macoabees, or 
AsmonaBans, after a struggle lasting nearly fourteen 
years. Leaders: the priest MattathiaSy and his five 
sons, especially Judas Maooabsdus. 

A great-grandson of Mattathias, AristobtduSf assumed the title of 
king (105). Under his successors, strife between the Pharisees and 

63. Pompeius, called in to help the Pharisees, made the Jews tribu- 
tary to the Romans. 
40. Herod (the Great), son of the Idumiean AntipSier, recognized by 
the Roman Senate as dependent king of Judasa. 

Birth of Christ (four years before the beginning of our 

6 A. D. After a short reign of the three sons of Herod, Judaea be- 
came a part of the Roman Province of Syria. (Two Te- 
trarchieSf however, remained independent: Galilasa, until 32 
A. D. ; PeroeOy until 33 A. d.) 

41-44. Judsea again a dependent kingdom under Herod Agrippa /., 
a grandson of Herod the Great; then a Roman province again. 
Agrippa XL was made king over a small portion in dependence 
on Rome. 

66. Revolt of the Jews against the Roman supremacy, ending in the 

12 Ancient History, B. o. 

70. DeBtruction of Jerusalem by Titus. 

A large part of the Jews assembled in Jerusalem for the obserranoe 
of the passover perished by starvation and the Roman sword ; manj 
thousands were taken captive to Rome. (The historian Josephus,) 
132-135. Another uprisal of the Jews, under Hadrian, on account 
of the foundation of the colony, ^lia CafitoLvna, on the site of 
Jerusalem, wherein more than half a million perished. Dis- 
persal of a great part of the survivors; nevertheless a consid- 
erable number remained in Palestine. 


(Geography: Babylonia,^ called by the Hebrews Sliinar, is the 
country lying between the Euphrates and Tigris, and stretching from 
the point where these rivers approach one another, about 350 miles 
from their mouth, to where they empty into the Persian Gulf by sev- 
eral arms, as Pasitigris (now Shatt-el-Arab). In the neighborhood of 
the present village of HxUah stood Babylon (in the Babylonian form, 
Babilu, called by the Hebrews Babel, L e. gates or dwelling of the 
god Be/), a huge rectangular city, situated, since the time of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, on Doth banks of the Euphrates, about thirty-four miles in 
circumference (Clitarchus; Herodotus gives about forty-five miles), 
and surrounded by two brick walls of unusual thickness and height. 
The city was large enough to afford a refuge to a great number of the 
inhabitants of the country during incursions of nomadic tribes, and 
contained fields of considerable extent, woods, and gardens. In Baby- 
lon: (a.) The temple of Bel (To'wer of Babel), a huge square buila- 
ing of brick, consisting of eight diminishing stories rising in pyramidal 
form. It is said to have been originally 600 feet hi^.^ (b,) Two 
Palaces, the one on the east side of the Euphrates having the Hanging 
Gardens, the construction of which is wrongly ascribed to Semiramis, 
and which were terraced pleasure grounds. 

Assyria (Asshiir) is bounded on the N. by the highlands of Arme^ 
nia, on the £. by the plateau of Iran, on the S. by the DiSla, a branch 
of the Tigris, and on the W, by the Tigris itself. The smaller region 
called Assyria by the Greeks lay within this territory, between the 
Tigris and its branch, the great Zab, which flows into the Tigris below 
the present Mdssul. On the Tigris stood Nineveh (Ninua, <'the 
Palace,'^ il Vivos) surrounded with huge walls. The ruins lie opposite 
the present Mdssul. Oldest residence of the kings, Asshur; afterwards 
founded, Calah; founded by Sargon, Dur-Sarrukin (Khorsabad), 

Religion of the Babylonians and Ass^Tians. The religion of the 
Semitic peoples, with the exception of the Hebrews, was a worship of 
nature, wherein divinity was conceived as the personified force of na- 

1 See Kiepert, Atlaa Antimtu. Tab. II. 

^ According to Oppert {Expm, SdenL en Mitopokimit) the temple of Bel ib 
to be sou^t m the ruins of Burs-Nimrud (on the site of old Borsippa), Raw* 
linson ( The Five Great Monarchies of the Eatt) disputeft this, because Borsippa 
was a separate village Iving outride the walls of the capital until the reign of 
Nebuchadnezzar, and finds the Tower of Babel in a ^rcat quadrangular ruin, 
called Bdbil, by the Arabs, on the ea»t bank of the Euphrates in Babylon. 

B. o. Babylonians and Assyrians. 13 

tare in human form, male ajkd female. Among the gods of the Baby- 
lonians the oldest was £1, among those of the Assyrians, Assur. The 
third, Bel (BacU), the ** Lord of all,'' appeared as the creative, but 
also the destructiye force in Nature. The goddess Belit or Baaltia 
(in Herodotus Mylitta), the queen and mother of the gods, is the 
fruitful and reproductive principle, the goddess of love, fertility, and 
birth. Her opposite is litar, the goddess of war and destruction. 
Confused with Belit is the |^dess who brings alternately life and 
blessing, death and destruction (like the Ashera-Astarte of the Phoe- 
nicians and Carthaginians). In Babylon there was a complicated sys- 
tem of star-worship. 

The Chaldeans, or caste of priests, in Babylon, possessed some 
astronomical and astrological skill. This name was properly that of 
the Semitic population of Babylonia, but western writers applied it 
chiefly to the priests. 

Civilixatioii. An exact system of weights and measures, which 
was used far outside the borders of Babylonia. Cuneiform writing, 
a system of characters formed by the gradual abbreviation of hiero- 
glyphics. Magnificent structures of brick. System of canals for the 
irrigation of the country, and for the regulation of the yearly overflow 
of the Tigris and Euphrates. Important manufacturing industries 
and extensive commerce. 

Chronology. Owing to the astronomical skill native to the nations 
of the Euphrates valley, their chronology is throughout less uncertain 
than that of other ancient nations, and became quite correct at an 
early date. The oldest dates rest on the authority of Berosus, who 
wrote at the time of Alexander. The Assyrian monuments furnish 
exact dates from 909 ^ B. c. 

8000. Beginning of Babylonian civilization, originating per- 
haps in a people of Turco-Tatar descent {Sumir and Akkadf). 
Before 2500 b. c. the Semitic people of the Babylonians {Chal^ 
deans) coming probably from the S., invaded and conquered 
the country, taking to themselves the civilization which had 
then developed, and with it the cuneiform writing. Founda- 
tion of several states in the southern part of the country. 

Abont 2000* Old Babylonian or Chaldean Empire. 
Babylonia, for some 300 years a dependency of the neigh- 
boring empire of Elam (Elymais, Stcsiana)^ regained its 
independence. Babylon became the centre of tibe united 

Berosus mentioned the following dynasties as ruling in Chaldea : 
Chaldean (Nimrod, Chedorlaamer) dynasty about 2001-1543. Ara- 
bian dynasty, about 1543-129o. Dynasty of forty-five kings, 
about 1298 to 772. Reign of Pul about 772 to 747. Under the 
third dynasty Chaldea was subordinate to Assyria. 

1600-606 (625). Assyrian Empire. Abont 1500 As- 
syria became an independent power alongside of the Babylo- 

1 Bawlinson, Manual, p. 28. 

14 Ancient History. b. o. 

oian (Chaldean^ empire, whence it seems to have derived its 
population and its civilization. 

For several centuries it was involved in constant warfare with 
Babylonia and its other neighbors with varying fortune. The chro- 
nology falls into three periods.^ I. 1500 to the capture of Babylon, 
about 1250. 11. 1250 to the accession of Tiglath-PUeser, 746. III. 
From 745 to the fall of Nineveh, 606 (625). Of the kings of the 
first period little is known. The second period began with the reign 
of Tiglathi-Nin (Ninust). TigUUh-PUeser /., a warlike king, reigned 
about 1130 and fought in Syria and Babylonia. Historical materials 
are scanty until 909, then the inscriptions become frequent, full, and 
exact. U was a time of expansion, conquest, and great activity in 
architecture, sculpture, and literature. Among the kings may be 

886-858. Asshur-izir-pal I.^ (Sardanap<dus). Military expeditions 
to ZagroSt Armenia, Babylonia, Syria.- Erection of a palace at 
Calah. His son, 
858-823. Shalmaneser IL, fought with Ahab in Syria and subju- 
gated Jehu, 
810-781. Vul-lnflh nL captured Damascus and made Samaria and 
* Philistia tributary. His wife Sammuramit (Semiramis). 
A tradition of later growth reported by the Greeks {Diodonu on 
the authority of Ctesias) connects the establishment of the Assyrian 
supremacy over almost the whole of western Asia, the building of 
Nineveh and Babylon, with the names of the king Ninus and his con- 
sort Semiramis. Both Ninus (son of the god Bel) and Semiramis 
(daughter of the goddess Mylitta) are mythical creations, into whose 
reigns tradition has condensed the deeds of a long series of warlike 
rulers, so that no achievements were left for their successors, and these 
from Ninyas down appear as efPeminate weaklings. Ninus is unknown 
to the Assyrian monuments, and Semiramis first appears in the ninth 
century. On the other hand we know that a cfoddess answennff to 
htar-BdU was worshipped in Syria under the i>L>e of Semiramis? 

Medo-Persian bards seem to have changed the divinities Bel and 
Istar-Belit into heroes, and have formed the names Ninus and Ninyas 
from the name of the city Ninua (Nineveh),^ 

745-727. Tiglath-PileBer IL (identical with the king Put men- 
tioned in the Bible ?) (see p. 13) made Babylonia, which was at 
that time divided into several states, western Iran, Armenia, 
Syria, Phoenicia, Judah and Israel, subject to Assyria, 
727-722. Shalmaneser IV. suppressed the revolt of tiiie Phcenician 

cities and the Kingdom of Israel. 
722-705. Sargon (Sarrukin) conquered Samaria and destroyed the 
Kingdom of Israel (see p. 10). He received tribute from 
Arabia, Egypt, and Cyprus, suppressed revolts in Armenia, 
Media, and Babylonia, and united the latter state with Assyria. 

1 Rawlinson. 

s Formcrlv called Asshur-idanni-pal. Bawlinson, Five Oreat Monarchies, 
II. 246, note' 10. 

> Dunoker, II. 17. Sohrader, Die KeiUnschriften, etc. "M-irksnt, Annates, 
etc. Lenormant, Li tires Assyriolor/iques. Bmitb, Assyrian Discoveries. 

B. c. Bahylonians and Assyrians. 15 

Residence: Dw-Sarrvkin, now Khonabad, not far from Nine- 
yeh. His son, 

705-681. Sennacherib (Sin-akhi-irib) retained his hold upon Baby- 
lonia in spite of repeated insorrections, but was unsuccessful in 
his Wars with Egypt and Judah, and lost the supremacy over 
Syria. Fleet in the Persian Gulf. Foundation of Tarsus. His 

681-668. Bsarhaddon (Asshur^akh-iddin) suppressed a new revolt 
of the Babylonians, reconquered Syria, Jrhcenieia, Cyprus, Ju- 
dah, and a part of Arabia, and in 672 conquered Egypt from 
the Ethiopians, entrusting the government to 20 governors, 
most of whom were natives (see p. 6). 
Assyria at the height of her power. One of his sons was made 

viceroy of Babylonia, ihe other, 
668-626. Asshur-bani-pal V. (Sardanapalus) defended Egypt, at 
first with success, against the kings of Ethiopia and native in^- 
surrections, but lost it in 653 by the revolt of Psammeticus 
(see p. 6). On the other hand he strengthened the Assyrian 
power in Syria, Arabia, Cilicia, as well as in Babylonia, where 
his brother had revolted, conquered the Kingdom of Elam, and 
received tribute from Lydia. Erection of magnificent palaces. 
Foundation of a library at Nineveh. Highest development of 
Assyrian art. About 

640 (650). Revolt of the Medes. Of the Medes little is .known 
until they were attacked by the Ass3rrians about 830 b. c. 
About 710 their resistance was broken and their country was 
soon subjected to Assyria, and so continued until about 640. 
Phraortea {Fravartis)^ son of Dejoces ^Dahydvka), a petty 
chief among the Medes, revolted but fell m battle. 

633. His son Cyazarea {(Jvakhshatara) continued the struggle, 
which was, however, soon interrupted by the 

632. Irruption of Scythian tribes which had wandered 
about western Asia, plundering as they went, as far as the boiv 
ders of Egypt, for 28 years it is said, though 8 is the more prob- 
able number. After Cyax&res had rid the country of them, he 
made another attack on Assyria, which had been much weakened 
by the Scythians. For the purpose of destroyins^ the Assyr- 
ian kingdom, CyaxSres allied himself with the Chsldean Nabo- 
polassar (Nabu-habal-usur), Assyrian governor of Babylon 
since 625, who had made himself independent. Desperate 
struggle with the Assyrian king Sarakos (Asshur-emid-Um), 
626^25, son of Sardanapalus V. After a long siege, 

606 (625 ? 1) Nineveh was taken and destroyed; as the enemy 
broke mto the city, Sarakos set- fire to the royal palace and 
perished in the flames with his wives and treasurer. End of 
the Elingdom of Assyria. Nahopdassar united with Baby- 

1 The date is doubtful. Herodotus implies a date ba late as 607-600. Be- 
rosus (as reported hy Ahydtnua and PolyhUtor) gives 625. The former date 
is advocated by Clinton and Duncker {IlUtory of Aniiq., III. 266-292). 
the latter by d* Rawlinson (Fire Great Afotmrchies^ II. 391, note 5), ana 
Lenormant {Lettres Astyriologiquts^ I. § 12, esp. pp. 84, 86. 

16 Ancient HUtory, b. c. 

Ionia the whole of northern Mesopotamia on the right bank of 
the Tigris, the rest failing to the share of Cyaxdres,^ who liad 
already subjugated Armenia and the Iranian portions of the 
kingdom of Assyria. 
The Grecian story of the effeminate Sardanapalus {Ctegias in Dio- 
dorus, II.) is the counterpart of their tales about the masculine Send- 
ramis. According to this story, Sardanapalus, on the fall of the city, 
burns himself upon a magnificent bier, 400 feet high, which bums for 
16 days. This story seems to be an application of the myth of the 
god who burned himself and rose from the flames, whom tiie Semitic 
peoples associated with Istar (Astarte), and whose nature they con- 
founded with hers.* 

605 (625)-538. (New^ Empire of Babylon. After the 

Assyrian conquest of Babylonia, about 1250 (see p. 14), the 
latter country continued subject to Assyria, with intervals of 
independence, until the successful combination of Nabopokts- 
sar and Cyaxdres destroyed the power of Assyria. Babylon 
then took the lead among the nations of the East, riyalled by 
Media alone. 

605-661. Nebuchadnezzar (Naburhudur-ussur), son of Nar 
bopolassar, during the reign of his father defeated Necho, king 
of Egypt, at Carchemisch on the Euphrates (605), conquered 
Synttf destroyed Jerusalem (586), and subdued Tyre (585). 
'Enlargement and adornment of Babylon (on the east bank of 
the Euphrates). Construction of a bridge over the Euphrates, 
and of a new palace, with the *^ hanging gardens " whicn tradi- 
tion assigns to Seiniramis. Erection of the Median wall from 
the Euphrates to the Tigris. Magnificent water works. The 
reservoir at Sippara (bepharvaim). After Nebuchadnezzar, 
rapid decline of the dynasty, which became extinct in 555. 

638. Babylon (last king Nabonetiis^ or Nabunahid, reigning 
in conjunction with his son Belsh/ir^ussur^ the Biblical 
BeUhazxar) taken by Cyrus. Babylon a Persian prov- 


(Down to the war of the latter with the Romans.) 
Geography .^ Phoenicia (*»wlKri, Phanice) is the Grecian name of 
Canaan (see p. 7), and was derived from the tribal name 
^ciivil. In the narrower sense the name denotes the strip of 
coast, 5-14 miles wide and 150 miles long, which lies N. of the 
country of the Philistines and the Hebrews and W. of Mt. Leb- 
anon. This strip was inhabited by three tribes : 1. Bidonians, 
i. e. " fishers " (cities: Sidcn, Zor, called by the Greeks Tyros); 
2. Arvaditea (city : Arvad, in Greek Arados); 3. Giblites 
(cities : Byhlus or Gebal, and Berytos), 
Religion of the PhcBnicians. The god Baal (Be/, of the Babylo- 

1 For the Median Umpire, nee p. 25. 
. s Dunoker, II. chapter i.; also \\\, 265. 
8 Kiepert, Atla» Antiquut', Tab. III. 

B. c. Phcenictans and Carthaginiam, 17 

iiians) and the goddess Ashera (Baaltis, Belit of the Bahylo- 
nians), the divinities of life, birth, and the genial forces of na- 
ture, were opposed to the god Moloch (i. e. <*king," the 
Babylonian iififar), the devouring and destroying, and yet cleans- 
ing fire, also god of war, and the maiden goddess Aatarte. 
Human sacrifices: to Moloch, boys and youths ; to Astarte, 
youths and maidens. Afterwards Baal and Moloch were con- 
fused into one divinity, who, under the name of Melkart (i. e. 
'< king of the city " ), became the guardian divinity of Tyre. In 
the same way Ashera and Astarte were united into one oivinity, 
who when represented as a grim wandering goddess vanishing 
with the changinfi^ light of the moon bears tiie name Dido, but 
when representea as a kind and gentle divinity newly restored 
to the knowledge of mankind that of Anna (i. e. ** pleasant "). 
The Political Conatitation of the Phoenician cities was an he- 
reditary monarchy, but the royal power was checked by the existence 
of two senates. 

1300. Period of 8idon*8 greatest po^wer. Favored by the sit- 
uation of their country, and urged by an energetic industry 
which led to the invention or development of many arts and 
manufactures, such as purple dye, weaving, ^4ass-making, min- 
ing, work in metals, and architecture, the x^hoeniciens estab- 
lished at an early period, certainly not later than 1500, a car- 
rying trade by land (to Babylonia, Arabia, Assyria, Armenia) 
as well as by sea, which time only made more extensive. 
In close connection with the commerce by sea was the foundation 
of numerous colonies. Thus in Cyprus were founded Cttiunif Amor 
thikSj PaphoSf the centre of the worship of Ashera, whence originated the 
Grecian worship of Aphrodite, that goddess " bom of the foam of the 
sea " (i. e. whose cult came to Greece by sea). Other colonies were 
founded in CicUia, Rhodes, Crete, Cythera, as well as on many of the 
islands of the iEgtean sea, and at points along the coast of Greece; 
farther west, again, colonies were planted in AfelUe or Malta, in Sicily 
(on the southern coast Minoa, Gr. Heralds, on the northern coast 
Soloeis (sela = " cliff "), Panormus (Machanath ?), at the western end 
of the island Motye), on Sardinia {CarWis), on the north coast of Af- 
rica (two cities of Leptis, HadrumStum, U&ca, the two towns of Hip- 
po), in the country called Tar^ or Tarshlsh, i. e. southern Spain, 
oeyond the columns of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar), Gadir or 
Gades, i. e. " walls," " fortress," now Cadiz, founded about 1100. 

From this point the Phoenicians extended their commercial deal- 
ings still further to the western coasts of Africa, and to the Islands 
of Tin (the Cassiterides\ Britain, * and the coasts of the German 
Ocean, where thev bought amber which the native tribes obtained by 
barter from the Baltic. 

Mythical representations of these voyages and settlements of the 
Phoenicians are contained in a series of well-known Grecian tales. 

1 English antiquarians of the present day consider it probable that the Phoe- 
nicians never set foot either in the Scilly Isles or in Britain, but received what 
British tin (hey did obtain, at second or third hand, from the Celts of Gaul 
(Veneti?). Tin was found in the river beds of western Gaul. [Trans.] 


18 Ancient History, B. c. 

Story of the rape of Europa (i. e. " the grim **), daughter of PhcB- 
nix (i. e. ** the Phoenician ") from Sidon by /^eus in the form of a bull 
(whereby is denoted the moon-goddess Dido-Astarte, who flees to- 
wards the west). Story of Minos, the son of Zeus and Europa, the 
powerful ruler of Crete; his wife is PaHphaS (i. e. ^* she who shines 
upon all "). Story of the Minotaur (i. e. Bull of Minos, another con- 
ception oi Baal-Moloch), shut up in the Labyrinth, to whom Athens 
had to send human offerings. Dcedalus, builder of the Labyrinth in 
Crete, is the personification of that technical dexterity which the Hel- 
lenes acquired from the Phcenicians. 

Cadmus, too, who in search of his sister Europa landed in Thera 
and Thasos, built the CadmSa in Bceotia, and invented the alphabet, 
is the mythical representative of Phoenician settlements from which 
the written alphabet and other elements of eastern civilization were 
carried to the Greeks. 

1100. Tyre, though younger than Sidon, attained the first 
rank among the Phoenician sea-board towns. 

1001-967. Tyre, at the height of its prosperity, under king 
Hiram, the contemporary of David and Salomon, and the lat- 
ter's friend. Exploring expedition of the TVrians, accompanied 
by the servants of Solomon, through the Aed Sea to the coast 
of India (Ophir), 
Hiram filled in the space between the island upon which stood the 
temple of Melkart, and New Tyre (which was also situated on an 
island), and erected buildings on the new land. He also narrowed 
the strait between New Tyre and Old Tyre, on the main land. 
917 (?). Eihhaal (Ithabalus), high priest of Astarte, murdered PhaUs, 
the last descendant of Hiram, and made himself king. 
About seventy (?) years later, according to a Grecian authority, a 
grandson of this Eihhaal decreed in his will that his minor son Pyg- 
malion and his sister Elissa should govern T^re in common under 
the guardianship of their uncle, the high priest Sicharbaal, who was 
to marry Elissa, The democratic party deprived Elissa of her share 
in the government, and Pymnalion, coming of age, murdered Sichar- 
baal, In consequence of tnis internal strSe, and influenced probably 
by the unfavorable state of the foreign relations (advance of the 
Assyrian power towards the Mediterranean, see p. 15), a large part 
of the older families left Tyre with Elissa, On an excellent site, 
on the north coast of Africa, they founded about 

850.^ Carthage ^ (in Punic, Kathada., i. e. " the new city "^, 
between Utica in the W. and the present cape Bon in the E., 
not far from the present Tunis, Double harbor. Citadel 
Byrsa, Later the foimdress, Elissa, became confused with the 
goddess, Dido-Astarte, the protectress of the colony." 

^ According to Timous, 814. Concerning the chronologv, see Dunoker, 
IT. 270. 

2 vSee Kiepert, Atlas Antiquum, Tab. VTII. 

3 The credibility of this narrative and the interpretations put upon it, both as 
regards the chronology and the fact^, are contested by O. Meltser, Gesch. d. 

B. c. Phcenicians and Carthaginians. 19 

Carthage, so far as it comes within the realm of history, appears to 
have heen an aristocratic republic, with two Sufetes, or judges, fre- 
quently called " kings," and compared with the Spartan kings, and 
two senates, a large and small. Only upon occasion of a disagree- 
ment between these branches of the government were the people 
called upon to give their opinion. The government tended constantly 
toward the oligarchical form. 

8oO. Decline of the power of the Phoenician cities, especially of 
Tyre, which was distracted by civil dissension. 

The Phoenicians fell repeatedly under the rule of the Assyrians, and, 
for a time, under that of the Egyptians. After the fall of the Assyr- 
ian empire (625, 606), they became dependent upon the Babylonians, 
Tyre alone maintaining its freedom until 573. 

Favored by the political situation, the Greeks, who had already 
(about 1000) driven the Phoenicians out of the JEgean Sea, began to 
extend their influence in the eastern Mediterranean, and, especially 
after the second half of the eighth century, along the coasts and 
islands of the western Mediterranean, and in Lower Italy and Sicily 
(p. 51). 

Foundation of Cyr&fie (p. 49) and Massalia (about 600), attempted 
settlements upon Corsica^ Sardinia^ and the shores of Spain, In short, 
the Phcenician power was threatened with destruction throughout the 
entire West. 

Brought face to face with this danger, Carthage, which had mean- 
time CTown considerably stronger, began about 600 to gather the 
other Phcenician cities under its control, to subjugate the country 
around its own commercial stations, and to secure its possession by 
the establishment of new colonies. The Carthaginians annexed to 
their territory the African coast from Hippo in the W. to beyond 
Leptis in the £., and opposed armed resistance to the advancing power 
of Cyrene. In the peace which was concluded, the altars of the Phi- 
Iceniy E. of Leptis, were made the boundary. The Carthaginians 
subjugated Southern Spain and Sardinia, and, with Etruscan aid, drove 
the Phocoeans from Corsica (537 ?). 

586-673. Tyre successfully endured a three years' siege, from the 
land side, by Nebuchadnezzar, but was finally forced to ac- 
knowledge the supremacy of the king of Babylon. 

538. After the destruetion of the Babylonian monarchy, by 
Cyrus, Phoenicia became subject to Persia. The Phoenician 
cities, however, retained their independence and their native 
kings. The Phoenicians henceforth furnished the principal 
part of the Persian fleet. An expedition for the conquest of 
Carthage, proposed by Cambyses, king of Persia, after the con- 
quest of Egypt, was rendered impossible of execution by the 
refusal of the Phoenicians to fight against their colony. 
During the Persian supremacy, Sidon was again the first city of 

Phoenicia. The Carthaginians, favored by the civil dissensions of the 

Karihagtr^ Bd. I., 1879, who admits the truth of these ptatemonts only: that 
Carthage was a Tyrian colony, and was certainly founded before the eighth 

20 Ancient History, b. c. 

Greeks in Sicily, and by the Persian war with Greece, attacked the 
Greek colonies in Sicily (being secretly in alliance with Xerxes ?) 

480. War of the Carthaginians, in alliance with Selinus, 
against the other Greek cities in Sicily. 

The Carthaginian army under Hamilcar was utterly defeated and 
scattered at Himira by the tyrants Gelon of Syracuse (XvpdKova-ai) and 
T heron of Agrigmtum ('AKp^yas). 

The Carthaginians purcluised peace for 2000 talents, thereby say- 
ing their SicUian cities, Panormus, Soloeis, Motye. 

409-339. Repeated wars between the Carthaginians and 
Greeks in Sicily. 

The Carthaginians, called in to assist Segesta (^y^trra) against Sell- 
nHs, after conquering SelinHs, Him^a, Agrigentum, and Gela, secured 
the supremacy over the western half of Sicily, a position which they 
maintained against all attempts of the tyrant Dionysius I. and Timch 
leon, who restored republican liberty to the Grecian cities, to dislodge 

332. Capture of the island city, New Tyre, by Alexander the 
Great after a seven months' siege. 

PhoBnicia became a part of the great Grsaco-Macedonian 
monarchy, and later a part of the kingdom of the SeleucidsB, 
and for a time of that of the Ptolemies. 

317-275. New wars between the Carthaginians and Greeks 
in Sicily. 

AgathdcleSf tyrant of Syracuse, sought to bring all Sicily under his 
rule. The Carthaginians despoiled him of his conquests and besieged 
Syracuse. AgathScles effected a landing in Africa (310), and overran 
a large part of the Carthaginian territory, while the Syracusans re- 
pulsed and annihilated the Carthaginian army under the walls of Syrar 
cuse. Agathocles returned to Sicily; his army, which he left before 
Carthage, was destroyed. In the peace with Syracuse the Cartha- 
ginians regained their former possessions in Sicily (306). 

After the death of Agath5cles, party broils in Syracuse favored the 
advance of the Carthaginian power. Pyrrhus of Epirus, then in 
Tarentum, was called to the aid of the Syracusans (278). He was at 
first successful, but offending most of the Grecian cities by his sever- 
ity, they took sides with the Carthaginians, and Pyrrhus was forced 
to leave Sicily. On the voyage back to Italy he was defeated by a 
Carthaginian fleet (276). 


Lydians. Semitic 

Geography : Lydia^ in the strict sense, or Mseonia, was the middle 
one of the three divisions of Asia Minor lying on the ^gsean Sea, the 
northern being Mysia, tlie southern Caria. Hi vers: HermuSy Caystrus, 

B. c. Lydians and Phrygians. 21 

Pactolus (golden-sand) in Ljdia; MoBonder in Caria. Capital of Lydia: 
Sardes at the base of the Tmolus range. The Lydians belonged to 
the Semitic race, like the CUicUms, and probably the Cartons, whereas 
the other peoples of Asia Minor were in all likelihood Aryans. 

The kingdom of Lydia at the period of its greatest extent reached 
to the HcUys river (now the KisU Irmak), and included, beside the 
countries mentioned above, BUhynia and Paphlaamia on the Pontus 
Euxmus (Black Sea), and the inland country of Phrygia. 

Religion: Worship of the sun-god Sandon, and the goddesses 
Bla (Mylitta-Ashera) and Ma (Astarte). The last two became united 
in one goddess, under the name '< the ereat mother " (jCyhde), who 
was worshipped in Ephesus as Artemis {Diana), 

Chronology : Lydia was ruled by two successive mythical dynas- 
ties, the AUyada from AUys, son of the god Manes (prior to 1229), 
and the Sandonida^ who traced their origin to the god Sandon (1229- 
724). The Greeks saw in this latter divinity Sieir Heracles, and 
called this dynasty, therefore, the Heradidoi, The last king of this 
line, Candaxdes, was murdered (689 M by his favorite Gyges in collu- 
sion with the king's consort. W ith Gyges the 

689*-549(?). Dynasty of the Mermnadee came to the throne. 
Under these sovereigns the Lydian kingdom, after suffering 
severely from the Cimmerians, and being at times subject to 
Assyria, grew in power and extent. Gyges himself extended 
his sway over Mysia and to the Hellespont. His two succes- 
sors conquered Phrygia, and carried on an unsuccessful war 
with the Grecian cities on the sea coast. 

Alyattes, the fourth of the Mermnadcs, warred with Cyaxdres, 
king of Media, with success. 

610 (?). Indecisive battle between Alyattes and CyaxSres. Eclipse 
of the son predicted by Thales of Miletus. In the treaty 
of peace the Halys was made the boundary between the 
Lydian and Median kingdoms. The daughter of Alyattes was 
given in marriage to Astyages, son of Cyaxdres. Alyattes sub- 
dued Bitkynia and Paphlagonia in the north, Caria in the 
south, took Smyrna and Colophon, but failed to subdue the re- 
maining coast towns. A vast treasure collected in the royal 
palace at Sardes. Magnificent buildings. Buins of royal 
tombs north of Sardes. 

563-649 (?). CroBSUS, Son of Alyattes, 

captured Ephesus, and afterwards subdued all the Grecian cities 
of the coast, Ionian, iBolian, and Dorian, with the exception of 
Miletus, with which he formed a league. Active intercourse with 
European Greece. Solon, of Athens, visited Sardes. After the 
deposition of his brother-lu-law Astyages, of Media, by Cyrus the 
Persian, Crcesus attacked the Persian empire. Following the am- 
biguous advice of the Delphic oracle he crossed the Halys. Inde- 
cisive battle between Croesus and Cyrus at Pteria. Croesus returned 

1 Ensebius, 699 ; Herodotus, 710. 

3 Donoker, Hitl. of Antiq., 111. 4J4, note 2. 

22 Ancient History. b. c. 

irresolutely to Sardes, whither he was followed by Cyrus, who de- 
feated him in a second battle, captured Sardes, and took Croesus 
prisoner (see p. 26). 

549 (?). Fall of tiie kingdom of Lydia, which was united 
with the Persian empire. 


750, or earlier, an independent monarchy was formed in N. W. 
Phrygia, having its capital at Gordiceum. Its monarchs, the 
dates of whose reigns are uncertain, bore the names of Gordias 
and MidcLs alternately. A Midas contemporary with Alyat- 
tes (about 600-570^, and a Gordias with Crojsus (570-560). 
Phrygia conquered oy Lydia about 660. (Rawlinson.) 

§ 6. INDIANS. Aryan. 

Geography : India, the central peninsula of the three which pro- 
ject from the southern coast of Asia into the Indian Ocean, is a vast 
triangle, having a base and a height of about 1900 miles, bounded 
on the N. by the Himalaya Mountains, on the E. by the Bay of 
Bengal, on the W. by the Gulf of Arabia. It falls into three geo- 
graphical divisions : I. The region of the Himalayas. The central 
range forms an almost impassable barrier between India and the 
Mongol tribes of central Asia (Mt. Everest, 29,000 ft.). On the 
E. this region is separated from Burmah by the lower ranges of 
the Ndgd, Patkoi, and Yomas {Aeng Pass), which are pierced by 
the Brahmaputra, On the W. the Siifed Koh, Suldiman, and the 
Holds separate India from Afghanistan and Baluchistan, but are 
pierced by the Indus River, the Khaibar Pass (3373 ft.), and the 
Boldn Pass (5800 ft.). This region includes Nepal and Kashmir. 
II. The fertile valley of the great rivers, which receives the 
drainage of the northern as well as of the southern slopes of the Hima- 
layas. River systems: Indus, Sutlej (provinces of Punjab, i. e. the 
five streams,! Sindh); G-anges (provinces of Bengal, Oudh, Rdjpu- 
tdna ; cities : Calcutta, Benares, Delhi, AUahahad) ; Bramaputra 

Srovince of Assam). Deltas of the Ganges and Brahmaputra. 
I. The Deccan, or southern plateau, separated from the Granges 
valley by the Vvndhyd mountains (5000 ft.), and bordered by fiie 
East Ghats (1600 ft.) and West Ghats (3000 ft.). Rivers: Goddoari, 
Krishna, Kdveri, all flowing through the East Ghats into the Bay of 
Bengal. Provinces : Madras, Bombay, Mysore, etc. 

Religion : The religion of the early Indians, as portrayed in the 
Vedic hymns, was a worship of Nature : Dyaush-pitar, Father of 
Heaven; Varuna, the sky; Indra, the rain-vapor; Agni, fire; Maruts, 
gods of the storm. After the settlement in the Ganges valley, this 
primitive faith underwent a change. 

History : The Indians {Hindus) migrating from the northwest, 
came at first to the valley of the Indus and the Punjab, and thence 
slowly pushed their settlements down tlie valley of the Granges, 

1 Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej (modern names). 

B. c. Indians, 23 

where they were probably established as early as 1500 B. c. The 
native tribes whom they found in the country they either enslaved or 
pushed into the Himalayas on the N., and on to the Deccan in the 
S. {Dravidians), At a later date the Hindus spread along the coasts 
of the Deccan and reached Ceylon. 

Foundation of numerous despotic kingdoms. In the conquered 
district strict separation of the Aryan conquerors from the subjugated 
aborigines. Development of the royal power and of the priestly in- 
fluence. Four principal castes: Brahmana, priests; Ksliattriyas, 
warriors; Vaisyasy agricultural settlers. These three were of pure 
Aryan descent. The S^dras, or servile caste, were of aboriginal 
descent, the Ddsds, ''slaves." Transformation of the ancient faith 
into the religion of Brahma: Brahma, the creator; VishnUy the pre- 
server; Siva, the destroyer and restorer. Spiritual tyranny of the 
Brahmans, accompanied by a high development of philosophy, gram- 
mar, etc., by the Brahmans, in connection with the explanation of the 
Vedaa ('' revelations "), or services for the various religious cere- 
monials : Riff- Veda, the simplest form; Sama-Veda; layur-Veda 
(black and white), Atharva-Veda. To these were in time attached 
prose treatises composed by the priests and called the Brahmana^, one 
being attached to each Veda. A second series of additions were the 
StUrds ("sacred traditions"). Poetry, the epics: Maha-bhdrata, 
Ramdyana, Regulation of the entire thought and life in accord- 
ance with strict prescriptions, which were afterwards (about 600 ?) 
gathered together into the book of the laws of Mann, being, as it 
was claimed, a divine revelation to him, the tribal ancestor of the 
whole race. Complicated system of rites and ceremonies. Pre- 
scriptions concerning cleanliness. Terrors of the doctrine of the 
second birth. 

Ma^ificent monuments of Indian architecture, especially the 
Cliff" Temples, which were excavated in the rock, both upon and be- 
low the surface of the earth. Later, Pagodas. 

In the sixth century, appearance of the reformer Buddha, i. e. 
"the enlightened" (623 to 543), properly Gautama, afterwards Sid- 
dkartha (i. e. " he who has fulfilled his end "), son of king Sud- 
dhodana. Buddhism, called after its founder, was originally a 
philosophical system, without creed or rites, having for its object the 
attainment of moral perfection. Through its doctrine of the essen- 
tial equality of all men, it was directly opposed to Brahmanism. 

The prog^ss of Buddhism produced, along with certain changes in 
the old system, a strong Brahmanistic reaction. The war of the re- 
ligions ended with the expulsion of Buddhism from India. It main- 
tained itself in E^hmir and Ceylon only, but the loss was offset by 
great gains in central and eastern Asia, where it has to-day over 
300,000,000 devotees in Thibet, China, Japan, etc. 
327. Invasion of the Punjab by Alexander the Great (p. 75). 
317-291. Formation of great empires of short duration (empire of 
Magadha, under Chandra-gupta (Greek, Sandra-kottos), and 
his crrandson, 
263-226 (?). Acoka, the friend of Buddhism. After the reign of A90- 
ka the Punjab fell under the supremacy of the Gneeo-Bactrian 

24 Ancient History, B. c. 

empire in central Asia, and thus some tincture of Greek civ- 
ilization was imparted to this part of India. The Bactiian 
rulers were finally expelled by Scythian invaders, several dy- 
nasties of whom appear to have reigned in the Punjab and 
along the Ganges. Wars of the native prince Vikramaditya 
against the Scythians (57 b. c). Kaniskka, 6r. Kanerkef was 
the founder of the last dyna^^ty of Scythian kings, who were 
succeeded by an unknown people, the Gftptas. Another branch 
of the Indo-Scythians making their way down the Indus came 
into conflict with the Guptas^ and with a general league of the 
Hindus of the south. In the 

78 A. D. (?) Battle of Kahror the invaders were utterly defeated 
and are henceforward not mentioned. 
Tlie Guptas reigned in Oudh and northern India until they were 

overthrown by foreign invaders (Tatars ?) in the latter half of the 

fifth century A. D. 


Oeography: The Bactrians, Medes, and Persians inhabited the 
plateau of Iran,^ between the Suldimdn range on the £. and the val- 
ley of the Euphrates and Tigris on the W., between the Caspian Sea 
on the N., ana the Erythraxm Sea (Indian Ocean) on the S. On the 
western border of this highland: Media (Ecbatana, Med. Hangama- 
tana, i. e. ** place of assemblies ") ; on the southern border along the 
Persian Gulf, Persin (Pasargadce, Persepdlis), Carmania: on the iiry- 
thnean sea, Gedrosia; on the eastern bonier, Arachosia^ the land of the 
ParopanisddaSf at the foot of the Paropanisus (Hindu Koosh) ; * on the 
northern border, Bactria or Bactriana (Baktra), Parthia and H}fr- 
cania on the Caspian Sea; in the centre, ^ria and Drangianaj between 
the Oxu8 and the Jaxartes, Bogdiana (Maracanda). 

East of the lower course of the Tigris, in the lowlands: Busiana 
(the ancient Elam) with Susa^ the principal residence of the Persian 
kings. Within this broad plateau, a widely accepted theory locates 
the primeval home of the Aryan or Indo-European or Japhetic race, 
from which in prehistoric times successive colonies wandered away to 
the south and west. 

About 1000 (?)• Zoroaster (Zarathtustra) whose doo* 
trine, a spiritual reform of the old Iranic superstitions, waa 
contidned in the 21 (?) books of the Avesta, of which one 
only has come down to us: the Vendidad, i. e. *< delivered 
against the Daeva" the bad spirits. The pith of the doctrine as 
set forth in the Avesta ' is the conception of a continuous war- 
fare of the good spirits, whose leader was the good god Ahura- 
mazda or Auramazda (in modem Persian (hmuzd)^ and the 
evil spirits, or Daeva, whose leader was Angromainyu, in mod- 
em Persian Ahriman), over the life and death, welfare or in- 

1 Kiepert, Atlnn Antiouus^y&h. II. 
^ Kiepert, Afanual of Ancient Geography^ p. 39. 

3 Avesta h the law itself, Zend the later cominentary on the law; hence Zend-. 
avesUif and the expressions Zend-language^ Zend-people. 

B. c. BactrianSy Medeg^ Persians. 25 

jary, of man and his soul after death. In this new doctrine 
Mithra the sun-god, originally the highest of the Iranian gods, 
appeared as a creature of the creator Ahuramcusda, but never- 
theless the equal of the latter in dignity and divinity. Worship 
of fire, whose blaze scared away the evil spirits oi the night ; 
reverence paid to water, and the fertile earth, the daughter of 
Ahuramazda. The priests, called Athrava (from cUhao, fire), 
by the Bactrians, and Magians {MaghusK) by the Medes, 
formed a distinct hereditary class ; an institution which was 
copied by the ancient priestly families of Persia, after the 
general acceptance in that country of the reformed faith, 
which came to them from Bactria, tnrough Media. 

About 1100. Formation of a powerful Empire in Bac- 
tria, mythical reminiscences of the deeds of whose kings 
are perhaps contained in the Shahnameh of the poet 
Firdusi (about 1000 a. d.). 

As early as the ninth century, the Assyrians imdertook expedi- 
tions against the plateau of Iran, and in the middle of the eighth 
century, the western portion of this plateau, Media, and Persia, be- 
came permanently subject to Assyria. 
640. Revolt of the Medes from the Assyrians. 

640-558. Median Empire. 

The first prince of a Median dynasty mentioned was 

708-655. Dejdces (^^tfi6icnsi old Pers. Dahyaukd)^ to whom is as- 
cribed the foundation of the capital Ecbatdna. He does not 
appear, however, to have reigned over the whole of Media, or 
to have been independent, but rather to have continued to pay 
- tribute to the Assyrians. His son, 

655-633. Phraortes {^paoprrj^y Pers. Fravartis), was the first 
who united the whcke country under one ruler and established 
the independence of Media. He made the Persians tributary, 
although their native ruler AchasmSnes {Hakliamanis), who was 
raised to the throne after the revolt of the Persians from As- 
syria, retained his crown under Median supremacy, and be- 
queathed it to his descendants. 

After Phraortes had fallen fighting against the Assyrians (p. 
15) his son, 

633-593. CyazSres (Kvo^t^s, Pers. Uvahksathra) succeeded him 
and continued the war with Assyria successfully. Inroad of 
the Sq/thians. After their departure (about 626 ? see p. 15), 
Cyaxdres subjugated Armenia. War with Alyattes king of 
Lydia (p. 21). 

606 (625?). Cyaxdres, in alliance with Nabopolassar of Babylonia, 
captured Nineveh and destroyed the Empire of Assyria 
(p. 15), whose territory on the left shore of the Tigris fell to 
the Medians. He also conquered eastern Iran. Media at the 
death of Cyax&res was the most powerful monarchy of Asia. 
His son, 

593-558. Afltyages (^Aarudyris), last king of the Medes. CyruSj of 

26 Ancient History, v.. c. 

the family of the AchctmenidcB in the Persian tribe of the Pa- 
sargadce, which reigned in Persia under Median supremacy, 
deposed Astydges. The supremacy passed (008) from the 
Medes to the Peraians. 
Herodotus (I. 107, etc.) reports a tradition of the Median descent 
of Cyrus through his mother Manddne, daughter of Astydges, which 
is adorned after the Oriental maimer, with the dream of Astydges, the 
interpretation of the Magi, the exposure, miraculous rescue and rec- 
ognition of the boy Cyrus, the cruel punishment of HarpdguSy his 
treachery, etc. This story is evidently an invention of the Medes, 
who would not atlmit that they were conquered by a stranger. 

According to Ctesias, the daughter of Astydges was named Amy- 
lis, and was the wife of a Mede, Spitamas. After the deposition of 
Astyages and execution of Spitamas, Cyrus made her his consort. 

558-330. Persian Empire founded by 

558-529. Cyrus (KGpos, Pers. Kunis). 

Cyrus strengthened the Pei*sian power over those peoples of 
Iran which were formerly subjects to the Medes, and over the 
Armenians and Cappad(xnans. War against CrcBSUs of Lydia 
(p. 21). After the indecisive battle of Pteria (00^ ?\ Cyrus 
advanced on Sardes, defeated CrcBsus in a second battle on the 
Hermus, stormed Sardejt, captured Croesus, and deprived him 
of his kingdom, but otherwise treated him as a friend and ad- 
viser (554).* 
The Grecian story told by Herodotus (I. 86) of Cyrus' intention to 
bum CrcBsus, who, on the pyre, calls to mind his interview with 
Solon, of his consequent pawlon by Cyrus, and the miraeidous 
quenching of the flames by the Delphic Apollo, who had formerly re- 
ceived valimble presents from Crcesus, betrays a purpose of bringing 
Grecian wisdom into strong relief (proverb of Solon, that no mortal 
is to be called fortunate before death), and of vindicating the 
Grecian god. It is inconsistent with the conuuand of the Persijin 
faith, not to contaminate the saered fire. Probably Crcesus wished 
to appease the anger of the gods against his people and country, 
according to Semitic usage, by burning himself; according to the 
Lydian story, the sun-god Sandon does not accept the otfeidng, but 
puts out the flames with rain. 

Cyrus returned to Ecbatana. A revolt of the Lydians was quickly 
repressed. Mazdres and Harpdgus made the Grecian coast cities 
tributary to the Persians. A portion of the Phocwans migrated to 
Corsica; driven thence (see. p. 19) they went to Elea (^Velid) in 
southern Italy. Harpagus conquered Caria and Lycia. 

539-538. War of Cynis against the Babylonians. After 
a siege of nearly tw^o years (diversion of the Euphrates) 
Babylon was captured. The Babylonian Empire "waa in- 
corporated with the Persian ; the Phoenicians and Cilicians 

1 The date of the fall of Sardes is disputed. Dunoker (Book viii., chap. 6), 
gives 549. 

B. c. Bactrians, MedeSy Persians. 27 

retained their native rulers under Persian supremacy ; the 
Jews were sent from Babylon back to Palestine (p. 11). 
529. Cyrus, who was occupied during the last nine years of his 
reign with wars against the eastern peoples, fell in one of these 
expeditious. The story of his death, like that of his birth, 
has been poetically adorned and variously related. According 
to one tradition, probably of Median origin (^HerodotuSf T. 
202-214), Cyrus fell in battle against Tomffris, the queen of 
the AfassagetcB, whose son he had overcome by deceit. She 
thrust the dissevered head of the Persian monarch into a skin- 
bag of blood that he might " drink his fill of blood." Ac- 
cording to Ctesias, Cyrus died, on the fourth day, of a wound 
which he received in a victory over the Derbices, The son 
and successor of Cyrus, 

529-622. Cambyses (Ka^/^vcn;?, Pers. Kamlitjhja), con- 
quered Egj-pt by his victory at Pelusium (p. 7). 

525.^ Capture of Memphis, Expedition up the Nile toward Ethiopia; 
failure of provisions in the desert compelled him to turn back. 
The tyrant ot Cyrene acknowledged the supremacy of Cam- 
hyseSf but a projected attack upon Carthage by sea was pre- 
vented by the i*efusal of the Phoenicians to lend their ships 
(p. 19). Destruction of the army corps dispatched against the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon (Oasis Sivah). 
Cambyses slaughtered the bull Apis in Memphis * (?), and nmni- 
fested in all ways a choleric and bloodthirsty disposition. On the 
way back from Egypt, he died in Syria, either from an accidental 
wound, or by his own hand. A Magus seized the sceptre and pro- 
claimed himself the brother of Cambyses, 

522. Bardija (Gr. ^ufpdis), who had been murdered at Cambyses' 
command. Aft<»r a short reign the usuq)er was put to death 
by the princes of the seven Persian tribes, the most influential 
of whom, 

621-485. Daxius (Aapcto?, Pars. Darayauus), son of Hys- 
taspes ( Vista f pa), was made king. 

The father of Darius, Hysiaspes, was the. head of the younger line 
of the Acha!menld(B (the elder became extinct with Cambyses and 
Bardija) and the rightful heir to the Persian throne. The son, 
Darius, however, was recognized by the other princes as king. Later 
his accession was ratified by the production of auguries. (Anecdote 
of the neighing horse in Herodotus, III. 85.) 

Revolt of the Babylonians. Tlie city of Babylon recaptured only 
after a siege of more than 20 months. (Self-mutilation of Zopprus, 
in order to deceive the Babylonians.) 

608 (?). Afterwards Danus suppressed revolts which had broken 
out in other parts of the empire (in Media, Persia, Parlhia, 
etc.), and conquered the right bank of the Indus. 

1 According to Bruffsoh, 527. 

« See on this point BruRSob, Hist, of Egypt, II. 289 fif., who, by the 
genealogy of the Api, showed the improlwbility of the story. 

28 Ancient History, B. c. 

513 (?). Unsuccessful cxi)edition of Darius against the Scythians 
with a land force of 700,000 men. The fleet of the Greeks of 
Asia Minor was eoudueted by the tvraiitis of the Ionian cities. 
Bridge of boats across the Bosphoras. Bridge over the Ister 
(Danube). After an aimless advance, lack of pro visions in- 
duced a retreat (Herodotus, IV. 130 seq.). Darius rescued 
by the faithfulness of Histiasus of Miletus (against the advice 
of Miltiades of AthenSy tyrant in the Chersonese). Thracia 
made subject to Persia. Cyrene conquered by a force sent 
from Egypt. 
Susa, in SwuanOy since the time of Darius the principal residence 
of the ** Great King " (i8airiA*t/y tuv fi<uri\4coyt fi4yas fiaai^tvs, Pers. 
Khshayathiya-Khshayathiyandm, whence the modern Persian Shahvn- 
shah), Ecbatdna in Media was the summer residence. Erection of 
a new royal palace at Persepolis in Persis, where ruins with inscrip- 
tions and scidptures have been discovered, as well as at Susa. At 
Persepolis, too, the tombs of the kings. 

Divine worship paid to the king, the satisfaction of whose wants 
was the final purpose of the state. Maintenance of a costly court, 
with an elaborate ceremonial. Construction of great uulitary roads. 
Completion of the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea, which Ramessu 
II. liad begun and Neku had continued (p. 5). Establishment of 

fostal stations, of course only for the carriage of royal messages. 
H vision of the empire into 20 (?) satrapies^ each under a satrap 
(Persian Khshatra-patiy i. e. " lord of the province "), with regal 
accommodation in palaces surrounded by extensive gardens (Para- 
disice). Subject cities or tribes, and indeed whole nations, enjoyed 
their own laws and separate administration, under native though de- 
pendent princes. 

500-494. Revolt of the Ionian Greeks, incited by His- 
ticBus of MUetuSy who had been accused to Darius and sum- 
moned to Susa, and his son-in-law Aristagdras. With the 
assistance of Athens and Eretria, Sardes was captured and 
burned. The lonians, defeated by the Persian army, were 
abandoned by their allies from Athens and Eretria; their fleet 
was defeated at Lode, opposite Miletus. The lonians were 
again reduced to subjection, and the Milesians, by command of 
Darius, were settled about the mouth of the Tigris. 

493-490. War of Darius ag^ainst the European Greeks (p. 56). 
Great preparations for a new expedition against Greece. Re- 
volt among the Egvptians. 

485. Death of Darius, lie was succeeded by his son, 

485-465. Xerxes I. (E«>{i?s, Pars. Khshayarsha). 

480. War against Greece (p. 58). Xerxes and his eldest son mur- 
dered by ArtahanuSy captain of the body-guard. The second 
son of Aerxes, 

465-424. Artazerxes L (Pers. Artachshatra), called MaKp6xtip, Lon- 
gimdnuSf succeeded to the throne. 

462-455. Second revolt of the Egyptians under InSros, assisted by 

B. o. BactrianSy MedeSy Persians^ 29 

the Athenians, suppressed by the satrap Megahfzus (Amyr- 
Ukus alone maintained himself about the mouths of the Nile). 
Wars with the Greeks (p. 63). Beginning of the internal de- 
cay of the Persian empire. Revolts of the satraps. Merce- 
nary troops. The son of Artaxerxes, 

424. Xerzes II., after ruling one month and a half, was murdered, 
by his brother, 

Sogdianus, who after six and a half months, was murdered 
by his brother OchuSy who reigned under the name 

424^405. Darius n., Nothus, He was under the influence of his 
wife Parysdtis. Third revolt of the Egyptians, who maintained 
their independence for sixty years (414-354). 

405-i362. Artazerzes II., Mnemon, Kevolt of his brother, the 
younger Cyrus, who, assisted by Grecian mercenaries, attacked 
the kmg in the neighborhood of Babylon. 

401. Cyrus fell in the battle of Cunaza in personal combat with his 

400. Retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, Xenophon (Anabasis). 

362-338. Artazerzes m. Revolt of the Phoenicians and Egyptians 
suppressed. Artaxerxes poisoned by his favorite, the Egyp- 
tian BagoaSy who placed on the throne the kind's youngest son, 

338-336. Arses, whom he likewise murdered, in order to put a great- 
grandson of Darius Nothus in his place. 

336-330. Darius HI., Codomannus. Bagoas executed by poison. 
War with Alexander of Macedonia ; Darius murdered by the 
satrap Bessus while fleeing, after the battle of Gaugamela 

330. Destruction of the Persian Empire. See Grecian history, 
4th period, p. 74. 

§ 8. PARTHIANS.i Turanian?^ 

Geography: The Parthian empire extended from the Euphrates 
to tlie Indus, from the Caspian Sea and the Araxes to the Indian 
Ocean, covering nearly the same ground, and having in the main the 
same divisions, as the Persian empire, of which it was, indeed, in many 
ways an avowed imitation. Parthia proper, the region between the 
Jaxartes, and the desert of Iran, the Caspian Sea and the province of 
Aria, was a satrapy of the Persian empire. About 
255. The Parthians revolted under the lead of Arsaces, the chief of 

a tribe of the DaJioi (Scythians). The revolt succeeding, 
255(?)-253. Arsaces I. was raised to the throne. He was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Tiridates as 
253-210. Arsaces II., who firmly established the independence of 

Parthia. His son, 
210-196. Arsaces m., successfully resisted Antiochus the Great. 
Arsaces IV. (Priapatius) and Arsaces V. (Phraates I.) accom- 
plished but little of importance. The son of the latter, 

1 Bawlinson. 

2 The use of this name must not be understood as implying belief in the racial 
unity of all the peoples to whom it in applied. It denotes merely the maps u£ 
Asiatics who belonged neither to the Semitic nor to the Aryan fam'ii}-. 

30 Ancient History, b. c-a, d. 

174-136. Mithridates I., founded the Empire of the Par- 
thians, extending his sway over Med in ^ Snsiana^ Per- 
sia , Babi/lonia^ Bactria, Subject nations were permitted 
to retain their native kings in subjection to Partbia. The 
Parthian civilization was rude and of a low order. 

136-127. Phraates n. {Arsaces VII.) repressed a revolt of Bahy^ 
Ionia, but fell fighting against the Turanians. Tlie incursions 
of these nomadic tribes became more frequent under Artabanus 
(Arsaces VIII.), 127-124, who likewise fell in battle against 
them. Tliey were, however, effectually checked by Mith- 
ridates II. {Arsaces IX.), 124-87, who also extended the 
power of Parthia in other directions, until towards the close 
of his reign he was defeated by Tiffranes of Armenia. Under 
Phraates III. {Arsaces XII.), CIMM), the Parthians first be- 
came embroiled with Rome, war with this power breaking out 
in 54. Under Orodes I. (Arsaces XIV.), 54-37, Expedition 
of CrasBus (p. 140). Expedition of Antonius, 3<>, against 
Phraates IV. {Arsaces XV.). From 37 B. c. to 107 A. D. 
Parthia was ruled by a series of ten monarchs, whose reigns 
were mostly occupied with family broils and struggles for 
the succession. An atteinj>t made by 

107-121 A. D. Chosroes {Armres XXV.) to recover Armenia 
brought about the successful Parthian exi>edition of Trajan, 
whose concpiests were, however, abandoned as soon as made. 
Vologeses III. {Arsaces XXVII.), 149-192 A. D., became in- 
volved in a war with AI, Anrelitts, which terminated in the 
complete submission of the Parthian. His successor, Vologeses 
IV., 192-213 A. D., lost northern Assyria to Rome. 

215-226 A. D. Artabanus m. {Arsaces XXX.), last king of Par- 
thia. In his reign Parthia suffered severely at the hands of 
Caroicalla, but, after his death and the defeat of Macrinus, had 
regained its former power, when the empire was brought to 
an end by the success of an insurrection of the Persians under 
Artaxerzes, son of Sassan, who defeated and slew the Parthian 
monarch. The Tatsir empire was replaced l)y the Aryan king- 
dom of the BasBamdae, or the New Persian Empire (22&- 
652 A. D. (p. 187). 

§ 9. CUINESE. Turanian. 

Geography : China in the broad sense, or the Chineae Empire, 
embracing Manchuria, Mongolia, and Tibet, as wcU as China proper, 
is bounded N. by Asiatic Russia, E. by the Sea of Japan, the Yellow 
Sea, and the Sea of China, S. and S. W. by the Sea of China, Cochin 
China, Rummh, W. by A'as^m/rand Eaf>t Turhestan. China (land of 
the Seres among the ancients, Cathai/ in the Middle Age), comprises 
less than half of the Chinese emj)ire, being about 1474 miles long by 
1355 wide. Vast alluvial plain and delta in the N. E. Moimtainous 
and hilly in south. Rivers: Hwang-ho (Yellow River); Yang-taze- 
Keang; Se-keang. Provinces: 1, ChiliM (or Pe-chUi4i), \sith Peking, 

B. c. Chinese. 31 

the capital of the empire; 2, Keang-soo, the most popnlons and best 
watered of the provinces, vnih the cities, Nan-king, Shang-hai; 3, Gan- 
htcuy; 4, Keang-sp; 5, Cht-keangy with the city Ning-po; 6, Fuh-keerif 
comprising the island of Formosa ( Taiwan) ; 7, Hoo-pih; 8, Hoo-nan; 
9, Ho-7ianj 10, Shan-tung with the Tai'Shan momitain ; 11, Shan-se; 
12, Shensej 13, Kansuh; 14, Sze-ckuen; 15, Kwang-tung, with the 
cities, Canton, Macao, Hong-Kong (properly Hiang-kiang) ; 16, Kwang^ 
se; 17, Fiirj-nany 18, Ktvei<'howj 19, Shing-kiang. 

Beligion: Uncertainty concerning the oldest religion of the Chi- 
nese. By some writers it is considered little higher than fetichism, 
wliile others see a monotheistic belief in the worship of TL Their 
religion embraced a worship of ancestors, of deiiied rulers, and of 
spirits generally, classed in antitheses of opposing qualities (yang and 
yin)f heaven and earth, male and female, from whose int^rnction 
all created beings sprang. Ideas of future life indistinct, no i^'stem 
of rewards and punishments. System of offerings; never human sac- 
rifices. In the fifth century B. c. appeared the philosopher Con- 
fuciuB (JCung-foo-tszey 551-478), who tjiught no new theology, and 
did not remodel the old religion, but whose ethical code and personal 
influence secured for him an enthusiastic following. It was a revi- 
val, rather than a reformation, of the ancient faith. Enunciation of 
the Golden Ride.^ Contemporary with Confucius was Lao-taze, the 
author of a system of ethical philosophy, Taoism^ the " way or method 
of living which men should cultivate as the highest and purest devel- 
opment of their nature" (Leo^ge). At a later time there grew up a 
system of gross and mystical superstition, which took the name of 
Taoism, deified Ldo-tuze, and became one of the recognized religions of 
the empire. Baddhiflm introduced into Cliina about a. d. 6o, where 
it has degenerated into a low superstition, but still numbers many dev- 
otees and has deeply affected the older religions. Begging priests. 
Mohammedanism has also its adherents. The common religion of 
the lower classes is the old ancestor and spirit worship, complicated 
by the introduction of elements from all the sects above mentioned. 
No state religion; toler^ition of all faiths. 

Chronology. The Chinese regard themselves as aborigines. For- 
eign scholai's derive them from wandering bands of Tatars, or from 
the peoples of Tibet and Farther India. It is probable that the first 
settlements were made in the valley of the Htcang-ko. 

The Chinese possess an intricate system of chronology which ear- 
lier writers trusted almost implicitly, but which modern scholars Imve 
severely criticised. The dates assigned before 800 B. c. are probably 
wholly untrustworthy. Chinese ammlists phace the creation between 
two and three millions of years before Confucim, and divide the inter- 
vening space into ten epochs. In the eighth of these are placed the fa- 
mous emperors Yeio-chaou-She (" nest builder "), Suy-jin-She, the dis- 
coverer of fire, Fuhi, Chin-nun g, inventor of the plough, and Yaou, 

who first drained the vallcv of Hwann-ho. These sovoroitnis are to be 

* 1 • 

regarded as largely mvthical, as are the dynasties of Hia (2205-1 700) 

and Shang (1700-1123). 

1 IiOKKe, litlif/ions ofChifin, l.'J7-l.'.-9. 

32 Ancient History. b. c.~a. d. 

1123-255. Chow Dynasty. During the time of this dynasty 
we reach historic erouud. Development of a feudal system. 
The imperial domam lay in the miadle of the empire, whence 
the name applied to the empire, " Middle Kingdom." Un- 
der Sing-wanQy birth of Confucius, 551 B. c. 

255-206. Dsmasty of Tsin, famous for the energetic 
monarch Che-toang-4e (246-210), who extended the empire to 
the sea, defeated the Mongols, built the Chineae "Wall (1400 
miles long, 15-^ feet high, 15-25 feet broad); 213, Ch6- 
toang-te ordered the destruction of many thousand historical 
and philosophical books. 

206 B. C.-221 A. D. D3maaties of East and West Han. 
.Brilliant period of Chinese history. The power of the 
feudal lords limited, the empire consolidated and strength- 
ened, and extended westward to Hiissian Turkestan. 
Conquest of northern Corea (109 A. D.). Annexation of 
Hainan. This period was succeeded by one of great 

221-265 A. D. Epoch of the Three Kingdoms: Wei^ in the north; 
Wit, in the east; and Shuh, in the west. WtUi, 265 A. D., re- 
united a large part of the empire and founded the dynasty of 
Tsirif but the country soon relapsed into a divided state, which 
continued until 

590 A. D. Tang-Klan, prince of Sny, in the northern king^ 
dom of Weij extending his conquests southward, united the 
whole empire under his sceptre and founded the dynasty of 

§ 10. JAPANESE. Turanian. 

Geography: The Japanese ^ empire, Dai Nippon, is a chain of isl- 
ands which skirts the eastern coast of Asia opposite Corea, Man- 
churia, and Amur. It comprises four large islands: Kiushiu; Skiko- 
kii; Hondo,^ or Honshiu, the principal island; Yezo; and some three 
thousand small islands.' Nature of the country, rocky, mountainous, 
volcanic. Highest moimtain, Fusiyama (12,000 ft.), in the centre of 
the east coast of Hondo. Rivers numerous but small; among the 
largest: Tone-gawa, Shinano-gaway Kma-gaway Ti-gmoa. T^ke BUca 
in Hondo. Principal cities: Kioto, Yedo, or Tokio, Yokohama^ Osaka. 

Religion: Tlie most ancient religion of Japan bears the native 
name of Kami-no-micki, " the way of the gocls,' but is better known 
abroad by the Cliinese term Shinto, It consisted of a theology which 
comprised the gods of heaven, the mikados, many deified mortals, ani- 

* Japan [Zipnnrju in the Middle Apre) is a name given to the empire by 
foreigners. It is probably of Chinese oripn. 

2 This is the name recently applied to the main island by the Japnnese gov- 
ernment; previously the Japanese had no name for this island. Nippon, i\i% 
name frequently given it bv forciqne?'«. is the name of the wh<«ii' cinpire. 

B Saghalin was given to kutisia in 1875 iu exchange for the Kurile islands. 

B. c.-A. D. Japanese. 33 

mals, plants, and natural objects, and of a ritual for the worship of 
these deities. The chief command of the religion was implicit obedi- 
ence to the gods, especially to the mikado. It had no moral code. 
It was emphatically a state religion, and was often used as a political 
engine. Li 552 A. d. Buddhism was introduced into Japan, where 
it spread rapidly. Development of a score or more of sects. (Among 
others Skinshu, which teaches salvation by faith in Buddha.) Bud- 
dhism for a time overshadowed the older religion, but the present 
government has fully reinstated the Shinto faith. 

Chronology: The origin of the Japanese is uncertain. They in- 
vaded the islands from Asia, and conquered them from the savao^e 
AinoSf whom they found there. The present Japanese are certaimy 
a mixed race, containing Turanian and Malay elements. 

While the mythical history of Japan comprises a dynasty of gods, 
followed by a dynasty of rulers descended from the sun-goddess, and 
who are sometimes assigned reigns of hundreds of thousands of years 
each, the earliest date of what is believed in Japan to be authentic 
history is 660 B. c; the dates are probably untrustworthy until much 

660-585 B. c. Jimmu Tenno,^ the first Mikado,^ being 
the 5th in descent from the sun-goddess. He was leader of 
the invasion, and conquered Kiushiu^ ShihokUf and a part of 
the main island. Jimmu is regarded by many foreign scholars 
as a mythical character. He was the founder of an unbroken 
dynasty, of wliich the reigning mikado, Mutsu-Hilo, is the I22d 
(123d counting Jingu) sovereign. The 10th mikado, Sujin 
(97-30 B. c.) introduced reforms, reorganized the administra- 
tion of the empire and generally advanced the civilization of 
the people. Intercourse opened with Corea. Succeeding em- 
perors continued the war with the native Ainos^ who were 
pushed further and further to the north. Especially famous is 
the reigfii of the 12th mikado, 

71-130 A. D. Keiko, whose more famous son, Yamato-Dake, " the 
warlike," conquered the great eastern plain, the Koanto, The 
14th mikado, Chinai, dying suddenly, was succeeded by his wife 
the renowned 

201-269 A. D. Jingn-Kogo, sometimes called the 15th mikado, al- 
though never formally crowned. She suppressed a rebellion 
in KiushiUf and herself led an army to Corea, which she re- 
duced to submission. Diplomatic relations with China. Her 
son and successor, 

270-310 A. D. Ojin, was a great warrior, and is still worshipped as 

* His true name was Kan-ynmato-twart-htko-no-^mkoto. After the introduc- 
tion of Chinese character*, tne long native names of ^oda and emperor? were 
transcribed info the shorter ('hine!*e equivalents. It also became customary for 
the mikados to receive after death a nifferent name from that which they had 
borne while livinj; The tirst mikado received the name .//mwM, " spirit of 
war/* to which was joined one of the official titles of the mikado, Tenndf " lord 
of heaven." 

* Mikado, the most general title of the emperors, is derived either from J/», 
"honorable," and Katfo, ** gate " (compare "Sublime Porte," and "Pharaoh " 
p. 1, note 3), or from Mikn, "great," and to, " place." 


84 Ancient History. B. c. 

the g^ of war. Introduction of Chinese literature and civil- 
ization, which at this date was far in advance of the Japanese. 
From this time to the sixth century the auiials of Japan are 
marked by no gi'eat events. 


§ 1. CELTS. Artjnn. 

Celts, or Kelts, is the name given to tliat trcq which, at the dawn of 
authentic history, occupied the extreme west of Europe. They be- 
lon«jcd to the Indo-European family, and, if the Asiatic origin of 
that family be accepted,* were the lii-st branch to enter upon the 
westward migration. 

a. Continental Celts. Gauls. 

Geography: At the time of the Roman conquest (59-51), 
Gaul, or that ]>art of Europe occupied by the Ctlta (K^KtoI) or 
Gauh {vdXKoi), was divided among three great groups of ti-ibes: 
Belgians, dwelling between the lower Rhine, the forest of Ardennes^ 
the Marne, and Seitie. This people have been claimed as Teutons, 
but the weight of evidence assigns them to the Celts.^ Tribes : 
Remi, Suessiojies, Nerrii,^ Menapii. Gauls, ^ dwelling between the 
Seine, Marne, middle Rhine, Rhone, and Garonne. Tribes : In the 
valley of the Seine (Sequana): Pari,sii (with the city Lntetia Pansi- 
orum, now Paris), Sendnes ; in the valley of the Loire (Liger) : 
Namnctps, Turones, Carnutes, Boii, JEdui, Averni ; W. of the Seine: 
Trrviri ; in the valley of the Saone and Rhone: Sequani, Allobroges. 
Tlin Aquitanians, between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, were not 
Celts, but Iberians. In Switzerland: Helvetii, VindeHci. 

Religion : Soon after the conquest the theology of the Gauls was 
largely superseded and corrupted by the iiitrotliu*tion of the Roman 
gods. Little is therefore known of the pure Celtic religion, whose 
nature has consequently become a favorite subject for dispute. It 
was a pantheism, which had its cycle of great gods, its local divin- 
ities, its deifications of forests, rivers, and fountjiiiis. Among the 
great gods are the following, with their Roman equivalents : BormOy 
(iranuus {Apollo), with his companion the goddess Damona ; SegomOf 
Cannuhis (.l/ar.-*), vnth the goddess Nemetonia; Jifliaama (Minerva f); 
Taramicm (Jupiter). Conij)licated and imposing ceremonial, con- 
ducted by the Druids, or priests, who were accorded at least equal 
honors vnth the nobles. They did not form an hereditary class, but 
were recruited from the people. Exemption from military service 

1 Roe Introduction. 

2 The Hfl^ians arc also claimed as iion- Aryans, of the same race as the 

* Dahn, Urfnich, d. Germ. III. 2G, note 9. 

4 In spite of Ta^^ar's statement that the Gauls were called Celts in» their own 
lanffiuiji^e, the two names are not considered synonymous. It is probable that the 
Gallic tribes formed a division distinct from* the Celtic tribes (usinp: ('elt in the 
narrow senne of inhabitant of Gaul). The attempt has even been made to draw 
the geographical boundary between them. 

B. c. Celts, 35 

and taxes. Use of writing, with Greek alphabet. Exercise of juris- 
diction. Human sacriiices. 

Civilization : That the Celts of Gaul had reached quite an ad- 
Taiieed staji^t* of civilization ^ is clear from the readiness with which 
they accepted the higher ciWlizatiou of Rome, and from the fact that 
their sociiil state as depicted by Caesar exhibits a degeneracy which 
w^as not seen again in nortbem Europe until the decay of the Neus- 
trian state under the Merowdngians, in the fifth and sixth centuries B. c. 
Chronology: Before the conquest the history of the Celts of 
Gaul is the history of their collisions with the southern nations. 

The Celtic migration was slow, and large bodies were left behind 
at various points, as in Bohemia and throughout Germany, where 
many traces of Celtic occupation survived the Teutonic conquest. 
According to some writers the Celts immigrated in two b<ands, the 
(Joidelic or Gadhelic Celts being the more nortlierly, and the Bry- 
ihonic or Cymric Celts the more southerly ; this is but a surmise. 
Not earlier than 

2000L The Celts reached the western shores of Europe. Their 
principal settlements were made m central France. They 
here attained their highest culture, and from this point 
detachments went forth to conquer new lauds. Tliere were 
four principal emigrations. 

1. To the British Isles. Date unknown. Sec p. 36. 

2. To Spain, where they mingled with the Iberian inhabitants 
and formed the Celtiberians. Celts in Spain were known to Herodo- 
tus in the fifth century B. c. 

3. To Northern Italy. The legendary history of Rome places 
. this event in the reign of Tarquinins Priscus, or about 600 B. c. 

Tribe followed tribe until the whole of northern Italy was occupied 
{Gallia Cisalpina). Tribes : Bituriges (Milan), Cenomani (Brescia and 
Verona), Boil (holognsi), Senones (coast between Rimini and Ancona). 
390. Conquest of Rome by the Senones imder their BreimuSy i. e. 

military leiuler. 
283. Extermination of the Senanes by the Romans ; defeat of the 

Boii on the Vadimonian lake. 
238. Grencral league of Cisalpine Gauls against Rome. Defeat 

of the league at Telamon, ii'Jo. Ctipture of Milan by Scipio. 

Formation of Roman colonies at Placentia, Cremona, Mutina. 

In the second Punic War, Hannibal induced the Gauls to 

take up anus, but in the 
193. Battle of Mutina, the last resistance of the Boii was broken 

and northern Italy was i*apidly Romanized. 

4. To Greece and Asia Minor. In 278 a band of Gauls under a 
Brennus ravaged Mjvcedonia and Gwcce. After a futile attack upon 
Delphi, the survivors made their way by land to Asia Minor, where 
they settled in the interior, and guyc their name to Galatia. 

* Tlip -tiiffe of developmont in civilization attained hy ancient peoples mu?t 
bo larir»»ly (let**rmincd by the defxrco of ci»mplpxitv found in tlieir social and 
political systems. In our day, wlicn material comt'ort-* and CMnvi'ii'rnoes form 
a so much larpjor part of the popular idea of civiii/ation than thfv ever did 
before, it is well tu remember this iu judging the civilizations that are gone. 

36 Anci€7it History, n. c. 

Of the Celts of Gaul little is known until the Roman conquest. 
Some time before this, it is probable, the pressure of the Teutonic 
migration had made itself felt in tha west, but the details of the 
conflicts are unknown. Celts and Teutons became here and there 
interspersed, but in general the Rhine waa the boundary. About 
125-121, the Romans conquered Southern Gaul and made it a 
province (Gallia Narbonensvi). While the Celtic origin of the Cimhri 
may not be admitted without question, it is certain that Gallic tribes 
played a considerable part in that great invasion of Italy (113-101). 

58-51. Conquest of Gaiil by CsBsar (p. 138), after 
which the history of Gaul belongs to that of Rome. 

b. Celts of the British Isles. 


Geography : The island of Britain forms an irregular triangle, and 
is bounded E. by the German Ocean, S. by the Straits of Dooer and 
the English Channel, W. by St. George's Channel, the Irish Sea, North 
Channel, and the Atlantic Ocean. It falls into three geogpraphical 
divisions, corresponding somewhat to the later political £visions. I. 
The extreme north, beyond the deep indentations of the Frith of 
Clyde and the Frith of Forth, is mountainous and barren, with numer- 
ous small lakes (Loch Ness, Loch Tay, Loch Lomond), and sharply 
cut coasts on the west. II. The southern and eastern portion : hilly 
in the N. and W. ; on the E. a broad plain, well watered and fertile. 
Eastern rivers : Number (Ouse, Trent), JVitham, Welland, Nen, Ouse, 
running through a broad fen-land into the Wash, Thames. Western 
rivers : Severn, Mersey. Island of Wight. In early times the greater 
part of this plain, the modem England, was covered with forests, 
of which scanty traces remain. The Andredsweald covered a large 
part of the counties of Surrey and Sussex ; north of the Thames a 
huge forest extended nearly to the Wash, of which Epping and Hain- 
avM forests formed a part. The feus about the Wash were much 
more extensive than now. III. The broad western promontory of 
Wales, mountainous with small rivers. Island of Angiesea. 

Religion and Civilization : The Celts of Britain were ruder than 
their brethren of Gaul, and never reached the same stage of civiliza- 
tion, but they seem to have resembled the continental Celts in cus- 
toms and religion. Druids. Bards. 

History, a. Mythical: Inordinate pride of ancestry, a fertile im- 
agination, and an acquaintance with Biblical and classical history en- 
abled the British bards and priestly historians to compose for their 
race a mythical past, unique iir its extent, its detiiil, and its disregai'd 
of time and space. Gaul was colonized by Meschvih, son of Japhet, 
son of Noah, about 1799 (Anno Mundi) under the name of Samothes. 
Meschish rided Gaul 109 years, when he conquered Britain in 1908 
(a. m.) and reigned over both countries 47 years. He was followed 
by six sovereigns of liis race, but on the accession of the seventh, 
Lucius, 2211 A. M., Britain was wrested from his rule by Albion, a 
descendant of Ham, He and his successors reigned over Britain 

B. c.-A. D. Celts. 37 

until 2896 a. m. or 1108 B. c, when the line of Japhet recovered the 
island in the person of Brute, great-grandson of jEneas of Troy. 
Brute built Troynouant, afterwards Lud^s Totcn, London. He was 
followed by his descendants, among whom we may mention Bladud, 
founder of Bath, Leir (841-791), Ferrex and Porrex (49^-491), with 
whom his line expired. Britain for a time divided into five king- 
doms, was finally reunited under Malmucius Dunwally the son of 
Cloten king of Cornwall (441-^01), whose son Brennus left his island 
home to sack Rome, assault Delphi, and found the kingdom of 
Oalatia.^ Among the successors of Malmucius were CoUl (100-140). 
Pyrrhus (66-64), and Lud (who in some mysterious maimer began 
to reign in 69) Cassivelaunus (expedition of Csesar), Cymbeline (19 
B. C.-16 A. D.), CaractacuSf Vortigem (445-455 (485) a. d.). Arthur 
(508-542). Finally the list merges in the historical line of the 
kings and princes of Wales. 

b. Probable. The Britons of historic times were Celts who came 
to the island from Gaul at two periods. The first invasion was very 
early, and the invaders were Celts of the Goidelic (Gadhelic) or 
northern branch. From the testimony of sepulchral monuments it 
is conjectured that the Celts foimd two races in Britain : a small, 
dark-haired race, perhaps of Iberian stock, and a large light-haired 
• race of Scandinavian origin. The Goidelic Celts conquered without 
exterminating the previous inhabitants, and held the land many cen- 
turies, until a new invasion of continental Celts occurred. This time 
it was the Brythonic or Cymric Celts of the southern stock, who crossed 
the channel, probably not very long before the expedition of Caesar, 
and dispossessed their kinsmen of the southern and eastern portion 
of the island. Tribes : Canlii, the most civilized, AtlrebcUii, Belgas, 
Dammmii, Silures, Trinobantes, Icenij Brigante.% etc. 

The ancients received their first direct knowledge of Britam from 
Pytheas of Massilia, who landed on the island in the third century 
B. c. That the Phoenicians ever visited Britain is doubted by English 
scholars, who contend that they obtained their tin either from the 
rivers of Gaul, or from the Gallic tribes who imported it from 
Britain. With 

55-54 B. c. The two expeditions of Caesax, the actual 
history of Britain begins. The effect of the invasions was 

43 A. D. Claudius began the conquest of Britain in earnest, and his 
generals reduced the country south of the Anon and Severn. 

58. Revolt of Boadicea, leader of the Iceni ; her defeat. 

78-85. Agricola, under Vespasian and Domitian, carried the Roman 
arms far into Scotland and built a wall from the Frilh of Forth 
to the Frilh of Clyde as a defense against the wild tribes of 
the north. Henceforward Britannia formed a tolerably quiet 
part of the Roman empire. Roman fortresses, towns and vilhis 
covered its soil in profusion. 

121. Hadrian built a wall from the Tyne to the Solway. In 

1 Brennus killed himself after the repulse from Delphi; his army settled in 

38 Ancient History, B. c. 

139. Antoninaa strengthened the wall of Agricola. In 210 Severus 

added new defenses to that of Hadrian. 
180. Le«i^i'n(lary conversion of Lucius, kiiiji^ of the Trinobantes, to 

Christianity, after which the new reHj^ion spread throngh- 

out the eonntry, a ehnreh was orgjuiized and bishoprics founded 

at Cnudrhnrtf and York' (/). 
With the cU^eay of the empire its power in Britain declined. Troops 
were withdrawn to assist in defending the continental borders, or in 
sup])orting the claims of rival a.spirants for the crown. During the 
third century the attacks of the Picts and Scots in the north grew 
more and more severe, while the southern aud eastern coasts suffered 
from the ravages of the Fraidt aud Saxon pirates. Count of the 
Saxon Shore,^ tlie officer in cluirge of the coast between the Wash 
and Soutlmmptou water, which was most exposed to these ravages. 
28G-l2i)4 Britain vrsm independent under Cerausius, who proclaimed 

liimself emperor of Britiiin. 
300. Scots from Ireland ravaged the western shores. 

410. HonoriuB renounced the sovertMgnty of Britain. Tlie with- 

drawal of the legions left Britain to her own resources. A 
period of civil dissension aud exposure to foreign inroads fol- 
lowed, broken by the 

411. ^'Alleluia Victory " of the Britons accompanied by St. Ger- 
manus^ over the Pict'i. Finally the king of the Damfionii, 
Vortigern (Guorthigrn), either by usurpation or election, ob- 
tained the sovereignty over a large j)art of the island, and, as 
the story goes, invited the invasion of the Teutonic conquer- 
ors (p. 17G). 


Geography : Lying W. of Britain, Ireland is bounded on the E. 

by the Xorth Channtly the Irish Sea, and St. George^s Channel ; on all 
other sides by the Atlantic Ocean. It is a low plain, fringed with 
hilly tracks upon the coast ; abounding in lakes {Lough Corrih, L. 
Mask; L. Enie, L. Neagh, Lakes of KUlarnr?/, L. Dearg, L. Ree), and 
rivers (Bogne, Liffey^ Barrow, Black 'rat tr^ Shannon). 

Religion sind Civilization: In Ireland as in Britain we find 
Celtic iidiabitants, Celtic religion, and Celtic culture, but both in 
a still more primitive form than in England ; so much so, indeed, 
that it may be, the Celts of Ireland were the best representatives of 
primitive Aryan civilization. Druids. Bards. 

History: Again the lustorian is confronted with a vast mass of 
very valuable tradition mingled with a great amount of priestly in- 
vention. The Irish historical books speak of five invasions of Ire- 
land. I. Partholan led a force from central Greece, which ruled 

I CoJites Liton's Snxoniri per Bi itnnninm. An attempt has hcon mado (T^p- 
pcnboriT, Keniblo) to show tliat thi> nanie in(licat<'N the settlcnuMit of Saxons 
upon this slinre lon^ before the Teiitoiiio c'()ii(|iH'st. What people, it has been 
asked, would name a portion of their country after its worst enemies ? A ref- 
erence to our "Indian Frontier," by which is meant land held by the whites 
but molested by Indiana, might dispel this objection. The arjrument from 
coinage is stronger, but on the whole the assumption does not seem to be 

B. (\ Greeks. 39 

Ireland 300 years, and then died of the plague, and were succeeded 
by II. Nemed, from Scytliia, who also died of the plague. III. Fir- 
bolgs, who came under five chiefs and settled in various parts of 
the island. IV. The Tuatha D^ Danann, of the i-ace of Nemed, who 
defeated and nearly exterminated the Firbolgs. V. Milesians or 
Scots, who under Oalam, sou of Breogan, came from Spain, and . 
conquering the Tuatha Dt Danann, divided Ireland among the sons 
and other relatives of Galam. The ancestry of Galam goes back 
to Noah. The historical interpretation of these legends seems at 
present to be that Ireland at the commencement of the Christian 
era was occupied in the north by Goidelic Celts (Cruithni, Picbt) ; 
in the east and centre by British and Belgic tribes (Cymric), and in 
the southwest (^Munster) by a people ot southern extraction {Ibe- 
rians 1), Between the numerous petty kingdoms thus established 
incessant war prevailed, with the details of which the legendary liis- 
tory is tilled. Tuathal (died IGO a. d.), a powerful king who reigned 
oyer Leinster and Meath, and warred with the rival kingdom or 
kingdoms in Munster, is probably historic. Irish Invasions of Brit- 
ain : Settlements in Wales, Devon, and Cornwall, and especially in 
the north. Ireland was never conquered, or even invaded, by the 
Romans, though Agricola had planned an Irish expedition. The 
Irish were converted to Christianity in the fifth centiu-y. Palladius, 
sent to Ireland, 431 a. d., died soon after. St. Patrick (Succath or 
liJaitn), took up the work and brought it to a successful conclusion. 
Establishment of numerous monasteries, which in tlie next cen- 
tury attained wide renown for the learning of their members. 


See Kiepert, Atlas Antiquuf*, Tab. V and VI. 

The peninsula of Greece (Hellas, ^"EAAaj) bounded N. by Mace- 
donia and lllyria, and on all other sides by the sea (E. mare yEgoium, 
S. mare MyrtoUm and mare Cretlcum, W. mare Ionium), is divided into 
four priuLipul regions : Peloponnesus, Central Greece, Thessaly, 

A. Peloponnesna (^ Tit\ofc6virnffos, Island of Pelops), connected 
with the mainland by the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, washed on the 
N. by the waters of the Corinthian Gulf, is divided into nine dis- 
tricts : 1. Achaia, formerly inhabited by lonians, in twelve com- 
mimities, or cantons. JEglum, capital of the confederacy, Patras. 
2. Elis or Eleia, in ^Eolic dialect, VcUis, drained by the Alpheus and 
PenSus. It is 8u])divided into Elis Proper, or Hollow ISlis: Elis 
and its harbor Cyllene, Pisatis : Olympia, which was not a city but a 
temple of Zeus, surrounded by groves, places for games, altars and 
various buildings, and TriphyUa. 3. Messenia: Pylos, the home of 
Nestor, opposite the Lslaiul of Spharteria, Messene, ])uilt in 309 b. c, 
the hiU foi-tresses of Ithome and Ina. 4. Laconia (Acucwn/f^), with 
the mountain range of 7'aygrtns, ending in the promontory Tainarus : 
Sparta (iwdprrj), on the right bank of the EurOtas ; north of Sparta, 
Sellasia ; on the coast Ildos and Gythium, the liarbors of Sparta, 

40 Ancient History. B. c. 

5. Argolis (rb "Apyos, ^ ^hfrytia) comprised many cantons, politically 
independent of one anotlier : Argos, with its harbor Nauptta, on the 
gulf of Argolif, near by Tinpis, with Cyclopean walls, Hcrmidi^, 
TroEzetiy EpUlaurus, on the Saronicu.^ sinus; inland, Mycence with 
Cyclopean structures. Tlic Lion Gate, the so-called Treasure House 
of A treiis. 6. Phliasia : PhliOs. 7. Corinthia : Corinth^ formerly 
Epkfira with its citadel ^crocormMu.?. 8. Sicyonia: Sicyon (^lkwI^v), 
9. Arcadia, the mountainous region in the interior, with the ranges 
Cj/llene and ErymatUhus on the borders of Achaia; Mantinea, Tegea^ 
Alegalopdlis, the latter founded in 370. 

B. Central Greece,^ also divided into nine districts: 1. Megaria, 
since the Dorian conquest, belonging ethnographically and politi- 
cally to Peloponnesus: Megara^ and its harbor Nis(ea, 2. Attica 
(*Attiic^) with the mountauis Pames, BrUissus {Pentelicus), HymettuSf 
and the promontory of Sunlum, the rivulets Cephissus and Ilissus, 
Athens {'Aerjyat) with the Acropdis (^Propylcea, Partkenon^ Erech- 
theion), the fortified liarbor of Pirceus (IleipaiftJj), connected with the 
city by the Long Walls (rh fjuucph, re(xv : tA trK(\ri), the two unimportant 
liarbors Munychla and Zea and the open bay of Phaleron, which served 
as a roadstead. Attic demes : Eleitsis, Mardthony Decelea, Phyle, etc. 
3. BoBOtia, with Mts. HelXcon, and Cithceron, Lake Copais, traversed 
by the Cephissus; Thebes (^TrrfiruAos), with its citadel the Cadmea; 
Thespifp- ; Leuctra ; Plat<trr,y which separated itself very early from 
the B(Eotian league and allied itself with Athens ; Haliartus, Coronea, 
Orchommos. On the coast; Aulisy Dellumy and, not far distant, Tan- 
dgra, 4. Phocis: At the base of ]Mt. ParnassuSy Delphi (AcA^oO, 
with the oracle of the Pjrthian Apollo, Crissa, with its harbor, 
Cirrha ; ElatSa. 6. Eastern Locris : (AoKpol ^^oi), for a time di- 
vided by a part of Phocis into the southern region of the Opuntian 
Locrians with the town Opus, and the northern of the Epicne- 
midian Locrians (i. e. they who dwell on the mountain of Cnemis) 
with the town Thronium. 6. Western Locris {AoKpoX iair4pioh called 
by the other Grecians AoKpol 6i6\cuy " the stinking "). Amphiisa, 
Naupactus. 7. Doris (A«f»/j), between the mountains (Eta and Par- 
nassuSy the country of a small body of Dorians, who at the time of 
the Dorian invasion remained in the north, called from its four unim- 
portant villages, the Tetrapolis, 8. .iEtolia, CalydOny Pleurony and 
Thermum (no city, but the place where the assembly met at the time 
of the xEtolian league). 9. Acarnania, with the promontory Actium; 
StraluSy near the river Achelous, ('Ax^Ayos) which separates Acarna- 
nia from jEtolia. 

C. Thessaly, watered by the Peneus (valley of Tempe)y with the 
mountain range of Pindus in the W. on the border of Epirus; in the 
S. Othryu; in the E. Peliony Ossa; in the N. Olympus and the Cambu- 
nian mountains.^ Five divisions from S. to N.: 1. Phthiotis, in the 
most southern part, Malis, on the Sinus Malinnis was the Pass of 
Thermopylae, i. e. " gate of the warm springs ; " LemXa. 2. Thessa- 
liotis, Pharsalus. 3. Pelasgiotis, Pherce, CraurtOUy Larissa on the 

1 The expression TTfllns prnprii firj^t appears in the Roman p(»rii>fl ; the 
Greeks never used IJellns for the name of thi< imrticiilar part of the country. 

2 i3ui see Kiepert* Lthrb, d. a. Gtoyr.y § 210, note 1. 

B. c. Greeks. 41 

Peneos. 4. HestiaeotiB. 5. The eastern coast land, Bffagnesia, 

lolcoSf on the Sinus Pagasceus, Demetrias. 

D. Epirus. In historic times inhabited by lUyrian tribes not of 
pure Grecian blood. Principal tribes: MoloBBians, in whose terri- 
tory was Anibracia, not far from the Ambracian gulf, and Dodona 
(oracle of Z^us); Thesprotians, PandosXa on the Acheron, Chao- 

In Macedonia, which lay north from Thessaly, the following 
places are to be noted: Pydna, Pelta, ihe royal residence since the 
reign of Archelaus (formerly jEgae or Edessa enjoyed this distinc- 
tion). On the peninsula Chalcidilce: OlynthuSy Potidcsa, Staglrus, In. 
Thrace: Arttphipdiis near the mouth of the Strj/mon, PhUippce, Ahdera, 
Perinlhus (neraclea), ByzanlXum. In the Thracian Chersonese: 
SistoSy opposite Abydos in Asia Minor. 

Most important islands : In the M%e2ji sea : 1, Crete 
(KpijTVi iKaT6fnro\ii) : Cfwsus (Gnossus), and Gortyn (a) ; 2, Thera, a 
colony of Sparta, itself mother city of Cyrene in Africa (p. 49), 
Melos; 3, the 12 Cyclades: Paros, Naxosy to the north the small De- 
los (Mt. Cynthus, sanctuary of Apollo), Cythnos, Ceos, AndroSj Tenosy 
etc. In the Saronic gulf: 4, jEglna {Aiy lya); 5, Scdamis. In the sea 
of Etdxxa; 6, Euboea with the promontory of Artemisium in the 
north, Ckalcis, Eretria. In the Thracian sea: 7, Lemnos; 8, Samo- 
thrace; 9, Thasos. On the coast of Asia Minor from N. to S.: 10, 
TenedoSy not far from Ilium or Troy^ in the district of Troas; 11, 
Lesbos: Mitylene, Melhi/mna; 12, Chios; 13, 5amo5 opposite the prom- 
ontory of Mycdle; 14, Cos; 15, Rhodes. 

In the eastern part of the Mediterranean the island of Cyprus, 
(K^irpos), cities (originally Phoenician, afterwards Greek): Salamis 
iSchalem), Paphos and Amathus, centre of the worship of Aphrodite 
(Venus Amathusia). 

In the Ionian sea from S. to N. : 1, Cythera, south of Laconia, with 
temple of Aphrodite; 2, Zacyntho^; 3, Cephallenia, called by Homer 
Samos; 4, Ithaca; 5, Leucas; G, Corey ra (K«p«i/po), perhaps the Scheria 
of Homer. 


The religion of the early Greeks was a pantheistic nature-worship, 
distinguished among others by the multiplicity of its deities, and their 
intricate gradation, as well as by the wealth of biographical detail 
which the imagination of the poets provided for them. The great 
gods, Olympic deities, were 12 in number. Male divinities: Zeus " the 
God," lord of the sky, and ruler of all other gods as well as of men; 
Poseidony god of the sea; Apollo, probal)ly originally the highest god 
of some local district, the divinity of wisdom, of healing, of music and 
poetrj", but not until later the sun-god; Areg, god of war; HephcestuSf 
god of fire, and of work accomplished by the application of fire, set 
apart from the other gods by his lameness; Hermes, god of invention, 
conMnercial skill, cunning, bravery. Female divinities: Hera, con- 

1 Rawlinson, Reliffioru of the Anrlent TFnrW. \ho Qrote, Hist, of Greece^ 
vol. I.; Cortius, (Jriech. Gesch, I. 54<1-6U; 456-549 passim. 

42 Ancient History. B. c. 

sort of Zeus; Athene , the maiden goddess spniiig from the head of 
Zeus, the embodiment of wisdom and of housewifery; Artemis^ god- 
dess of hunting, afterwards eonneeted with the moon, as her brother 
Fhoebus ApoUo, ^^-ith the sim ; AphroflUe, goddess of sensual love, prob- 
ably introduced from the- East; Hestia, goddess of tire, especially of 
the hearth-fire ; Demeter, " earth-mother," presiding over agriculture. 

In the lower rank of gods may be mentioned: Dionysius, god of 
wine and drunkenness; Iladrs, god of the lower world, the Graces^ 
the MuseSf the Fates, the Furies, etc. The fields and forests, the 
ocean and the rivers were crowded with Nymphs and Hamadryads, 
Naiads and Nereids, wliile creatures of a lower order. Satyrs (among 
whom Pan rose to the level of a god of the second rank) and monsters 
(^Cyclopes, Gorgons, Centaurs, etc.) abounded. 

Reverence was also paid to the heroes, ideal representations of fa- 
mous men, real or imaginary. Such were Cadmns (TlielMis), Theseus 
(Athens), and Heraclfs, the mostly widely known of all (see p. 4o). 

The gods were worshii)ped by invocation, and by sacrifices offered 
in accordance with a rigid ritual at altars which could be im- 
provised anywhere. There were, however, permanent altars for all 
divinities, in temples where the statue of the divinity was also en- 
shrined. Tliese temples were frequently erected on lofty and com- 
manding sites, and upon their construction and decoration was lav- 
ished the highest skill in architecture and sculpture. Brilliant 
coloring was also employed upon the temples. Kach family, tril)e 
and race, each city, distiict and country had its recurring fes- 
tivals of special honor to the gods {Panathenaa at Athens). Re- 
ligious festivals of all Greece: Olympian (Zeus) every fifth year, in 
July or August, at OljTiipia in Elis; Pythian (Apollo), every fifth 
(9th) year, at Delphi; Isthmian (Neptune), every five years on the 
Isthmus of Corinth; Nemean, every third year, at Nemejv in Argolis. 
These festivals were the centre of Grecian national life. Amphyctio- 
nic Council, the most important of the Ami)hyctioni''s (p. 51), a reli- 
gious conference which met at Delphi, and represented the political 
side of the Pan-Hellenic religion. Consult^ition of oracles, for obtain- 
ing the counsel of the gods, especially at Delphi. Mysteries, or rites of 
secret relijjious societies, the most renowned at Eleusis. No hierarchv 
of priests; yet those who liad charge of tlie sacrifices, and more espe- 
cially of the oracles, often attained great influence. 

Ideas of future life vague and unsatisfactory. Tlie more advanced 
miiuls among the Greeks undoubtedly attained to the idea of the es- 
sential oneness of divinity. 


x-1104 (?). I. Mythical period down to the Thessalian and Dorian 

1104 (?)-500. II. Formation of the Hellenic states. Period of con- 
stitutional struggles dowai to the Persian icars. 

50O-338. III. Persian vars and internecine strife for the hegemony 
do\vn to the loss of independence at the battle of Charonea. 

338-146. IV. Grteco-Macedonian or Hrllrnuitic period down to the 
subjugation of Greece by the Rinnans. Destruction of Corinth* 

B, c. Greeks, 43 


Mythical time, do^rn to the Thessalian and Dorian migration 


The Greeks,^ or as they called themselves the Hellenes (^ZWtiv^s), 
helong to the Indo-European or Aryan family. 

The Greeks state that the original inhabitants of their country 
were the Pelasgians. The meaning of this name is much disputed. 
According to some scholars it denotes the band which afterwards 
divided into the Italians and Hellenes. Another view regards the 
Pelasgians and Hellenes as the same people, but holds that the latter 
name is applied to those tribes wliich, " endowed with peculiar abil- 
ities and inspired with peculiar energy, distinguished themselves above 
the mass of a great people, while they extended their power within 
the same by force of arms," * so that their name became in historic 
times the one generally accepted. Others, again, regard the name 
Pelasgian as Semitic, and so applied originally to the Phoenician in- 
habitants of the coast, esi>ecially to the Afinyce of (Jreliomenos, and 
afterwards erroneously transferred to the lUyrian aborigines of 
Epirus, Acadia, etc. 

Dodona, in Epirus, with the oracle of Zeus, the god of the sky, 
was the oldest centre of the Pelasgian life and religion. Remains 
of Pelasgian buildings, called by the Greeks Cyclopean, are found in 
Tiryns in Argolis, and iu Orchornenos in Bceotia. 

Our earliest historical information shows the Hellenes divided 
into various tribes. Of these the Achaeans were most prominent 
during the heroic times, and their name was therefore used by Homer 
to denote the entire race. In historic times, on the contrary, the 
Dorians and lonians occupy the foreground; the other tribes are 
then classed together under the name iBolian, and the dialects 
which were neither Dorian nor Ionian are known as ^Eolian. The 
following mythical genealogy seems to have been invented at a very 
late period, and to have originated at Delphi. 

Hellen (son of Deucalion) 

, — ; • , 

.3k)lus (i. e. the many-colored) Dorus Xuthus (i. e. the exilS) 

. * . 

Ion Achffius. 

We have no authentic information about the mconner of the Hel- 
lenic migration into Greece. According to one well-founded theory, 
a part of the immigrants, and among them the ancestors of tlie Do- 
rians, forced their way over the Hellespont into the mountainous 
region of northern Greece, whore they establislied themselves ;us 
shepherds and tillers of the land. Other bands, among whom w(Me tlit; 
ancestors of the lonians^ haWng descended from the highlands of Phi*y- 

1 Aoronlinp: to Dunoker, fJid. of Antiq., TOO years later. 

2 (Jrdktn ((Jra'ci, rpat<nt) was tlie iiainc f^ivcn to the Greeks by the people of 
Italy; it was the name of a tribe in Epirus, or the Illyrian name for the Hellenes 
in general. 

» Curtius, Griechhrhe Gefichlchfi-, I. 29; Hist, of Greece, X. Y. 1876, I. 41. 

44 Ancient History. b. g. 

gia, by way of the valleys, to the coast of Asia Minor, were there 
transformed into a race of seamen, and gradually spread themselves 
over the islands of the Archipelago to the mainland of Greece.^ (Tlie 
former formed the western, the latter, the eastern Greeks). 

Remembrance of the fact that western Greece received its civiliza- 
tion from the East gave rise, at a later period, to stories about un- 
authentic immigrations.^ 

Cecrops (Kficpoif*), according to the original story autochthonus 
king of Attica, and builder of the Cecropla (Acropolis of Athens), 
was afterwards, in consequence of that identification of Grecian 
and Eg^^ptian mythology which is illustrated by the conception of 
Neith, goddess of Sais, as Pallas Athene (p. 2), falsely represented 
as an Egyptian immigrant from Sais. 

The truth seems to be that the cliffs by the Ilissus, which were 
called the Cecropla, formed the first fortress of the inliabitants of 
the region, upon which their altars and sanctuaries found protec- 
tion, and around which the first beginnings of political life in 
Attica grouped themselves. Afterwards the Cecropla was per- 
sonified under the name Cecrops. According to the legend Cecrops 
was succeeded by. ErichthonioSy the latter by Erechtheus, the two 
becoming soon united into one person, in whom the Erechtheion, 
the temple of Poseidon Erechtheus, on the Acropolis, is personified. 
The legend makes Erechtheus the founder of the festival of Pan- 
athenaea and conqueror of Eumolpus (i. e. sweet singer) of Eleusis, 
the centre of the worship of Demeter (story of her daughter Core, in 
the lower world Proserpina; the Eleusinian mysteries). Eleusis was 
united with Athens into one community. Erechtheus, according to 
the legend, was succeeded by (Eneus, the latter by Mgeus, the father 
of Theseus, the national hero of the lonians (p. 45). 

A later legend tells how Danaua, brother of jEgyptus, came from 
Upper Egypt to Argos, lie, too, with his fifty daughters, the Dan- 
aidea, who, with the exception of Hypermnestra, murdered their hus- 
bands, the sons of ^gi/ptus, and were for this crime condemned to 
fill the bottomless tub, belongs to the native mythology. The Dan- 
aides are the springs of Argos, which, in the sunmier time, exert 
themselves in vain to satisfy the soil ; the water which gushes from 
them being dried up in the chalky earth. According to the legend 
the descendants of Lynceus and Hypermnestra ruled in Argos. 

On the other hand the legend of the migration of the PelopidsB 
from LydLa to Greece seems to have a historical foundation. Pelops, 
son of king Tantalus, who ruled the country al)out the Sipylus, came 
to Elis in Peloponnesus. His sons Atreus and Thyestes, with the 
help of Achaans from Phthiotis, made themselves masters of Tiryns 
and Mycenm, which had been founded by Perseus. Of the sons of 
Atreus, Agamemnon reigned over the whole of Argolis, while 
Menelaus became king of SpartA and Messina. ITie buildings and 
sculptures in Mycenae, which are ascribed to the A frida?, resemble 
Assyrian art, and Assyrian art could have come to Greece earliest 
by way of Lydia. 

1 CurtiuSf I., Griech. Gesch., I. 21) sqq. ; Jlht. o/ Greece, I. 41. 

2 Cf. Dunoker, Gesch. des AUh., III. (2 Auflage), 1 Kap. 4-6. Curtius, 
Griech. Gesch., I. 58; Hist, of Greece, I. 73. 

B. c. Greeks. 45 

Cadmus, the mythical founder of the Thehan state, is the peiv 
sonification of Phoenician colonization, or at least of that civilization 
which Ilellas had received from Phcenicia (p. 18). 

The national heroes of Grecian legend. 

The myth of Heracles (*HpoicA^j, Hercules), son of Zeus and Ale- 
mina, grew up out of the union of various religious, historical, and 
ethical elements. Heracles was in the beginning an actual divinity 
whom tradition, in the course of time, degraded to a demi-god. In 
him are united the Phosnician Mdkart (p. 17) and Sandon, the sun- 
god of Asia Minor, and his heroic deeds are for the most part adapta- 
tions of the deeds ascribed to these two divinities. Heracles is at 
the same time the popular symbol brought by the Phoenicians to the 
eastern Greeks, and from them to the western Greeks, of the pioneer 
activity of the ancient settlements. A portion of the mass of legends 
connected with Heracles after his transformation into a Greek is ex- 
plained by later historical relations. The Dorians adopted him as 
their tribal hero. Their kings called themselves his descendants, 
Heraolidae ; from him they derived their rights to the Peloponnesus. 
Hence his rights, in the legends, not only over MycSnce, in opposition 
to Eurystheus, but also over other parts of the peninsula (Augfas in 
Elis, Tyndartos in Sparta). The poetry of a later time, regarding 
Herades as an ethical conception, presented him as the model of 
heroism, moral force, and renunciation, especially of willing obedi- 
ence (the 12 labors at the behest of Eurystheus; the choice of Her- 

Theseus (Oijcrc^s), son of ^geus, the descendant of Cecrops, is the 
family hero of the lonians, and of the Athenians in particular. 
He cleared the road from Troezen, where, according to the legend, 
he was bom, to Athens (especially the istlmius), of robbers (PeripheteSf 
Sinnis, Sciron, Damastes or Procrustes), so that the lonians of the 
Peloponnesus and of Attica thenceforward could assemble on the 
isthmus at the sacrifices to Poseidon. Theseus put to death the 
Minotaur in Crete, and rescued the Athenian youths and maidens 
sent as a sacrifice to him. He conquered at Marathon the wild bull 
which is said to have likewise come from Crete. He repulsed the 
Amazons who made an attack upon Athens for the purpose of avenging 
the rape of Antidpe, These three myths express the historical fact 
of the liberation of Attica from the tribute which it owed to the 
Phoenicians of Crete and the smaller islands, who offered human 
sacrifices to their god Moloch. The orig^ of the story of the 
Amazons is to be found in the virgin servants of the Phoenician 
goddess Astarte, who, at the religious ceremonies, executed dances 
m armor. The legend, moreover, ascribes to Theseus the union of 
the inhabitants of Attica into one state, and the separation of the 
people into the three orders: Eupatridm (nobles), Geomori (peasants), 
and Demiurgi (artizans), whereas the arrangement of the four 
ancient classes (Phylm) : Geleontes (nobles), HoplUes (warriors), 
Argadeis (artizans), jEgicoreis (shepherds) was referred by the 
Athenians to the mythical tribal ancestor of the Ionian tribe, Ion 
(p. 43). 

46 Ancieiit History, B. C. 

The Grecian le^i^cnds adopted Mlnoa (Mfi^ws), also originally of 
PhcBnician origin, uud transformed him into a Hero of the Dorians 
who dwelt in Crete since 1000, and a wise legislator and suppressor 
of piracy. 

Concerted enterprises of the heroio time. 
Expedition of the Argonauts. The golden fleece. 

PhrixoSf son of the king of the Minyae, Athamas of lolcos, in Tliessaly, 
whom his father was about to sacriiice to Zeus in order to obtain rain, 
fled with his sister Ilelle, on the ram with the golden fleece, who was 
given them by their mother Nephele. Helle during the journey fell 
into the sea, which is now called Hellespont (" sea of lleUe "), near 
Abydos. Phrixoa reached Colchi% on the Pontus EuxlnuSf and king 
jEetes. The ram was sacrificed, the golden fleece preserved in a 
grove of the god Ares, guarded by a dragon. Jason, from lolcos, in- 
cited by his uncle Pelias, sailed in the ship Argo to Colchis at the 
head of a band of heroes consisting, according to the original myth, of 
Minyaj alone, but according to the later legends accompanied by 
Herjicles, Theseus, Castor, Pollux, Orpheus, etc. They gained pos- 
session of the fleece by the aid of the enchantress Medea, daughter 
of jEetcs. Return to lolcos. Pelias murdered at the instigation of 
Medea. According to a later continuation of the legend, flight of 
Jason and Medea to Corinth, where Jason fell in love with Glauca, 
the daughter of the king. Medea poisoned Glauca, and killed her 
own children. Medea went to Athens and became the conisort of 

This myth seems to have been originally purely symbolical. The 
golden ram, which Nephrle, that is, the " cloud," sends, is a repre- 
sentation of the fertilizing power of rain-clouds. The cloud-ram de- 
pai-ts to his home, the land of the sun-god. His fleece, a pledge of 
blessing, is brought back by Jason (the " healer," the " bruiger of 
blessings "), with the hejp of the daughter of the son of the sun, 
-5:letes, who is learned in. magic. This mytli was afterwards expanded 
and localized in a mamier which hints at the early voyages of the 
Pelasgic (p. 43) Minyae. The principal site of the wealth and 
power of the Minyfe was Orchomenos m Bceotia; but the gulf of 
Pag(is(E, on which lolcos is situated, is the scene of their early inter- 
course by sea. 

War of the Seven against Thebes. 

The story of Qiidlpus appears in its simplest form in Homer, and 
was expanded by the Attic tragic poets, ^dipus (ol^iitovs^y son of 
Jocasta, and Ldios king of Thebes, a great-grandson of Cadmus, is 
exposed, in infancy, in consequence ot an oracle which prophesied 
injury to his parents. lie was rescued and brought up by Poljjbos in 
Corinth. At Delphi he kills his father, \vithout recognizing him, 
solves the riddle of the Sphinx (What creature is there which goes 
on 4, 2, and 3 feet ? Man, in childhood, in manhood, in old age), 
becomes king of Thebes, and marries his own mother. AVhen his 
crime is made known to him, he puts out his eyes. His daughters 
Antigdne and Ismene, Quarrels of his sons Etedcles ('EtcokA^s) and 

B. c. Greeks. Al 

Polyn\c€S (TIoKvyttiais). Polynices attacks Thebes with his allies : 
Adrastus, Tydeus^ AmphiarCtuSy CapdneuSf Hippojntdon, Partherwjxens. 
The hostile brothers fall in personal contest; of the other princes all 
perish but Creon, the uncle of the brothers, who becomes king of 

War of the Epigoni. 

Ten years later, expedition of the Epigoni (sons of the Seven). 
Thebes captured and plundered. ThersandeTf son of Pdynlces, made 
king of Thebes. 

1193-1184. Trojan War. 

Priam was king of Troy^ or Ilium, in Asia Minor; his consort was 
HeciLha (HecabeJ. Of his fifty sons the following appear in the 
legend : Hector ("Ektwp), whose wife is Andromache, and Paris 
{Alexandros). The latter abducts Helena ('Ea^i^), wife of Meneldus, 
of Sparta. The noblest princes of Greece unite to bring her back. 
Agamemnon of Mycenre, brother of Menelaus, and leader of the 
Greeks; Slhenelus of Tiryns ; Nestor of Pylos ; Achilles ('Ax<AA€t;s), 
king of the M3rrmidons from Phthia in Thcssaly, son of Peleus and 
the Nereid Thetis; Patroclusj Aj'ax (Atias), and Teucer, sons of Tela- 
mon of Sallimis; the younger Ajax, son of Oileus, leader of the 
Locrians; Diomedes of Argos, son of Tydeus; Odysseus of Ithaca, 
son of Laertes; Idomeneus, of Crete, grandson of Minos, etc. 

Among the allies of the Trojans from Asia Minor are : SarpSdon 
and Glaucus, leaders of the Lycians, troops from Mysia, M(Eonia (in 
Lydia), Paphlagonia, and Phrygia, also Phracians and Pa*ones from 
the other side of the strait. 

The historical kernel of this great Grecian legend is, perhaps, the 
fact of a military expedition of Grecian tribes against the Trojans 
and the conquest of Troy; everything else in the story is mythical. 
Perchance the iEolian colonization of historic times (p. 49) and the 
ensiling contests with the native population g^ve rise to the romance 
of the Trojan war, which tradition then removed to the time before 
the Dorian migration. Tlie prehistoric existence of a powerful city 
in the neighborhood of Troy, and its name ^po/t; and "lAtof, is 

Connected with the tale of the Trojan war, are the stories of the 
return of the Grecian princes. The murder of Agamemnon by his wife 
Clytemnestra and her paramour, and the vengeance of his children 
Orestes and Electra. The ten years wandering of Odysseus and his 
many adventures {Polyphemus, Lastrygones, Circe, Calypso, the 
Plueacians, etc.). 


From the ThesBaUan and Dorian Migration to the beginning 
of the Persian "WarB. (1104 (?)-500.) 

Migration of the Thessalians from Epinis to the valley of the 
Peneus, thenceforward called Thessaly. Of the former inhabitiints, 
jEolians, part became serfs (vcy^cu), part fled the country. A por- 

48 Ancient History, b. c. 

tion of the latter conquered BcBotia. The previous mhabitants of 
BoDotia, probably Pelasgians, as for instance the Minyse in Orchome- 
nos, and the Cadmeans in Thebes, were partly subdued, partly scat- 
tered in various settlements. Their name is henceforward un- 
known to history. 

The Dorians were likewise driven away by the Thessalians. They 
had inhabited the country about the Otlu'ys and (Eta, and the small 
mountainous region where they maintained themselves after the in- 
vasion, and which was known as Doris, That portion of them which 
emigrated also took the southern way. Strengthened by ^tolian 
bands, they crossed to the Peloponnesus between Naupactus, where 
they constructed vessels, and the promontory of Rhion. This is the 

1104 (?).^ Dorian migrration, or the conquest of Pelo- 
ponnesus by the Dorians and ^tolians, according to 
the story, under tlie, leadership of the Heraclidsd {^Teme- 
mis, CresphoTvtes, Aristodemtcs, descendants of Heracles. 

The conquerors crossed the northern portion of the Peloponnesus 
without making a settlement, and turned towards the coimtries on 
the western coast. The inhabitants of these regions, the Epeiy being 
subdued, the ^/o/tatu established themselves here, and founded anew 
commonwealth, called Elis. Out of the mixture of the ^toUans and 
Epei, sprang the new tribe of the Elei. The Dorians passed through 
southern Arcadia, probably up the valley of the Alpheus, and estab- 
lished themselves in the south and east of Peloponnesus. The 
native population, consisting of Achseans and Jik)lians, were in 
part expelled, in part placed m subjection; while in 'some regions they 
gave up certain territories to the new-comers by treaty. The last 
was the case in Laconia, where the native chiefs made treaties with 
the invaders and thereby received for a time recognition of their 
princely rights and support in their suprenmcy. 

So arose in Peloponnesus, one after another, but slowly and after 
much fighting and many revolutions, the following Dorian communi- 
ties: 1. Messenia (Cresphontes) ; 2. Sparta (Procles and Eurysth^nes^ 
sons of Ai'istodemus) ; 3. Argos (^Tenienxis)jKt first the most powerful 
state, at the head of a league, to which Epidaurua and Troeziny under 
their own rulers, belonged; 4. Phlius; 5. Sicyon; 6. Corinth, these 
three containing many of the old inliabitauts, who lived among the 
new inhabitants under the same laws. Outside of Peloponnesus: 7. 
Megara; and 8. the island fflglna (Ktyiva). 

The remains of the old population, the AchaBans, who were driven 
from their homes, expelled or subjugated the jEgialian lonians, who 
inhabited the northern coast of Peloponnesus. 

The whole region was henccforwai'd called Achaia. 

1068 (?). Codrus (K6Spos), the last kinnr of Athens, fell a vol- 
untary sacrifice in battle against the Doiians. 
According to the legend, Codrus was the son of the Nestorian 
Melanthus, who had fied from Pylos to Athens. 

1 See p. 43, note 1- 

i;. c. 

Greeks. 49 

The immediate conseqaence of these migrations and conquests was 
the practice of colonization, on a great scale, which at first was car- 
ried on by the tribes which had been expelled from their homes, but 
in wluch the conquering Dorians soon took active part. 

The Pelasgic population, driven from Thessaly, settled partly on 
the peninsula Chalcidice, partly in Crete, and partly on the coast of 
Mysia\ the Minyce from lolcos, and Orchomenos occupied LenmoSy 
ImbroSf Samathrace. More important were the 

1000-900 (?) iBblian, Ionian, Dorian oolonies which 
settled along the coast of Asia Minor and its islands. 

wSSolian and Achaean colonies: Mitylene and Methymna on the 
island of Lesbos; Cyme and Smyrna on the mainland of Asia Minor 
{Smyrna afterwaurds became Ionian). 

The lonians, who were driven away by the Achseans, fled first to 
Attica, but finally founded along the coast of Lydia 12 cities with a 
common sanctuary at Panioniym on Mycfile, the most important of 
which were: MUetus, mother-city of more than 80 colonies, EphSsus, 
Phoccea (p. 26), Colophon, and occupied the islands of Samos and 

Dorian colonies, along the coast of Caria: Halicamassus and Cnv- 
dus. Dorians and Achxans founded settlements in Crete, Rhodes^ 
where they gradually drove out the Phcenicians, in Melos and In 
Thyra, whence in 631 the colony of Cyrine was sent out to the north 
coast of Africa. 

1000 (?).^ Homer and his succesBorB (Homeridse). Iliad and 

Constitution of society and government. During the heroic 
period, and at the beginning of historic times, we find everywhere a 
patriarchal monarchy, the hereditary property of families who derived 
their descent from the gods. In the nistoric times gradual formation 
in all states of a republican constitution, partly through the extinction, 
partlv through the expulsion, of the old dynasties. This republican 
constitution was at first aristocratic; later, in most states, defnocratiCf 
frequently reaching the latter state through the intervening suprem- 
acy of a Tyrant (T^povroi), a name applied to every one who attained 
supreme power in an illegal manner, and originally not conveying the 
idea of an arbitrary or cruel government. 

The democracy of antiquity was not, however, a form of govern- 
ment in which the majority of the inhabitants, but in which the major- 
ity of the citizens, took part in the conduct of the commonwealth. In 
most of the Greek states, the majority of the population consisted, 
not of citizens, but of slaves.^ Democracies m the modem sense 
were almost unknown in ancient times. 

In Doric Sparta the population consisted of three classes, strictly 
distinct from one another: 1. SpartieUce (jZwofniaToi, comprising Hfunoh 

1 llie Grecian statements concerning the epoch of Homer differ almost five 
hundred vearo from one another. 

3 Cf. Beoker, Ckaricks (trans. )i 361; and Bohoemann, Antiquities qf 
Greece, h 100 foil. 


50 Ancient History. B. c. 

L e. those havinff full rights, and viro/ictoycf i* e. those of less means, 
who could not furnish the required coutrihutiou to the Syssites) di- 
vided into three Fhyke, each composed of 10 Ote (»/3a/) ; these were 
the Dorian conquerors, who occupied the fertile portions of the La- 
conian territory, the valley of Uie Eurotas, and the lowlands extending 
to the sea; 2. LacedcBmonians or Periceci (rcp^oucoi, i. e. they who dwell 
round about), descendants of those Aclueans who had submitted to 
the conquerors by treaties. They were free, but payed dues, as trib- 
utary property-holders and small land-owners, and were without 
political rights, but were, however, bound to military service; 3. 
Helots (from clXwrcf, << prisoners " ?), serfs of the state. They were 
divided amone the Spartiatae by lot, and tilled their lands, paying to 
their lords a hxed portion of the harvest. The number of the Perked 
was almost four times that of the Spartiatas, while the number of the 
Helots was, perhaps, from 2 to 3 times as great as that of the Pe- 

820 (0* Constitution and Laws of Lycurgus. 

Lycnrgiis (AvttovpjQs), according to tradition of royal descent, and 
guardian of the youn^ king Chardaus, arranged the relation of the 
three classes, as described above, according to settled principles. His 
code of laws was for the Spartiatse alone. The form of government 
was an aristocratic republic, in spite of the two hereditary kings 
(generals, high priests, judges). Both kings must be of the Herachd 
race, one a member of the Affidce (from Agis, son of £urystheus), the 
other of the Eurypontidce (from Eurypon, grandson of Procles; see 
p. 48). The Council of Elders {y^powriay 28 Gerontes, at least 60 years 
of age, elected for life) under the two kings as presiding officers had: 
1. the previous discussion of everything tluit was to be laid before the 
popular assembly; 2. jurisdiction over capital crimes. The popular 
assembly (oA/a), consisting of all Spartiatss over thirty years of age, 
who haa not lost their pcmtical rights, had no right of initiation, and 
decided without debate. At a later period the five Bphors, i. e. in- 
spectors (for the 5 wards) who had probably existed before Lycurgus, 
acquired great power (p. 56). 

Assignment of an hereditary landed estate to every Spartan family, 
which had lost its possessions since the conquest; equal division of 
the Hdots, or slaves of the state, for the purpose of tilling these 
lands. No new division of all landed property.^ (Tradition makes 
Lycurgus divide the land into 9000 (4500 ?) lots for the Spartiatse, 
and 30,000 for the Periceci.) Establishment of social unions or com- 
pulsory clubs (aKTit^eU ), whose members ate together, even in time of 
peace : Phiditia or Syssitia. Children were brought up in common, 
and the young men of the Spartan warrior*nobks dwelt together. 
The Crypteia (Kpvwrtia^f an organized guard over the Helots by young 
Spartans. No actual hunting of the Helots.' 

776. First Olsnnpiad, that is, the first year in which 

I Gteote, Hi*t. of Greece (Boston, 1851), II. 393 foil. 
i Bohoenuuin, Antiq. of Greece^ 1. 195. 

B. c. Greeks, 51 

the name of the Olympian victor was recorded. (The first was 

Olympian games (raised to greater importance since 820, by the par- 
ticipation of Sparta ?) ; Nemean games since 573, in honor of Zens, 
Isthmean games (Poseidon, since 582), and Pythian games (ApoUo, en- 
larged after 590). Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, founded, according 
to tradition, at the command of the god, by Cretans (i. e. Dorians) 
from Cnosus, Amphictyonies, societies for common worship (per- 
formance of sacrifices), the most important of which was the IXslphic. 
734. Foundation of Syracuse ^ by the Corinthian Archias,. 
743-724. (?) First Meaaianian war. Aristodemus king of the Me&- 
senians. I>efence of Ithome. Those Messenians that did not 
emigrate became tributary. A part of the land was confis- 
cated as conquered territory. 
708. Foundation of Tarentum by the Spartan Phalanihus. 
645-628. ^ Second MesBenian war. Aristomenes, Defence of Ira 
(t!pa), for nine years. The Athenian bard TyrtaBus accom- 
panied the Spartans. After the fall of Ira the greater part 
of the Messenians fled to Sicily; Zanole, also, was occupied by 
them, but does not appear to liave received the name Mesaana 
before the fifth century.^ The remaining Messenians became 
In Athens government of the nobles (^Eupatridce) since the death 
of Codrus (1068 ?). The chief officers of state were the Archons, 
at first (1067-753) chosen for life, from the family of Codrus ex- 
clusively, afterwards (752-^3) elected for ten years, the first four 
only being of the family of Codrus, the rest tsJcen from the Eupa- 
tridfjR in general. 

From 682 on there were nine archons chosen every year, and 
serving only one year, taken from the Eitpatridce alone, and chosen 
by them alone. These were: 1. Archon Eponymus (i. e. he from 
whom the year is named), the presiding officer. 2. BasHeuSy i. e. 
king of the sacrifices, high priest. 3. PoUmarchuSf at first leader of 
the army, afterwards, when the military command was entrusted to 
Strateges by turn, only superintendent of military affairs; the other 
six were Thesmolhetee^ judges, heads of the department of justice. 
624 (621 ?). Laws of the Archon Draco. No alteration of the 
constitution, only reform of the criminal law, and the law re- 
lating to debts, introducing great severity, frequent use of 
the aeath penidty, and heavy fines. Hence later known as 
the '' Law of Draco, written with blood." 
612. Insnxreotlon of Cylon, who, with the assistance of his 
father-in-law Theag^nes, tyrant of Meg&ra, seized the Acropo- 
lis. Cylon was driven into banishment by the Archon Megacies^ 
of the family of the AlcmaeonidoR, and his followers were put to 

I Concern iog the date of the fonndation,' see Holm, (re«cft. Siciliens^ I. 
381 sqq. 

3 Accordin;; to Bunoker, Gesch. des Altherth.^ and Curtlas, I. 240. Ao- 
cordiug to the older but very doubtful assumption, 686-668. 

• Holm, Getch, SiciUenSf I. 200. 

52 Ancient History, B. c. 

death while clinging for protection to the altars. On account 
of this sacrilege the Archons for the year were banished. Re- 
ligions purification of Athens by Epimenides of Cnossus. 
Solon, of the family of the Neliose, gained great influence by 

the recapture of Salamis, which had been taken by the Megarseans, 

and through his share in the 

600-590. ^ First sacred war against Crisa and Cirrha, whose in- 
habitants had robbed the temple of Apollo in Delphi. The 
Amphyctyonies destroyed both cities after a long contest ; the 
inhabitants were enslaved and their land consecrated to the 
Pythian Apollo. 
Growing dissatisfaction in Athens with the government of the 

nobility, and internal disorders. The citizens were divided into three 

parties: 1. The great land-owners of the plain (o2 in rov irc^tov), the 

Eupatridoi. 2. The peasants of the mountainous districts ^SicUpioi). 

3. The inhabitants of the coast {irdpoXoi), a well-to-do midale class. 

594. Solon, while Archon Eponsnnus, being authorized 
by a special enactment to negotiate between the aristoc- 
racy and the people, proposed and carried out at first the 
Seisaohtheia (i. e. the removal of burdens), whereby debts 
secured by mortgage were reduced about 27^ by the intro- 
duction of a new standard of coinage ; the Attic or Eubcean 
talent 691078.87) instead of the Adbietan talent (;$1630.50) ; 
personal security for debts was abolished, and all money fines 
as yet impaid were remitted. Amnesty for all who had been 
deprived of their political rights (ftrifioi). Return of the 

The Constitution and Laws of Solon were established 
for the citizens (iroArrcu) only. Excluded from all political rights 
were: 1. The metoeci (/actockoi, foreigners not citizens, but living in 
Athens under protection of the government), who were regarded 
in law as minors, and required to be represented by a patron 
(Tpoarirrii) who was a citizen, in all legal transactions. 2. The 
slaves (SovXoi). 

The two latter classes formed the great majority of the inhabitants. 
In her most prosperous days the citizens of Athens may be estimated 
at 90,000, the nietoBci at 45,000, the slaves at 360,000. So that in 
the period of most extreme democracy the sovereign people formed 
a small minority of the population. ^ 

Division of all citizens, for purposes of military service and the 
exercise of political rights, into classes, according to income received 
from property in land, no regard being paid to movable property of 
any kind, llie unit of measure was the medimnus (52.53 liter), for 
grain and vegetables; the nietretes (39.39 liter), for wine and olive 
oil. The following four classes were formed: — 

1. Pentakosiomedimni, men whose estates brought in a minimum of 
500 medimni and metretes. 

1 According to Ourtius, ffiti. of Gretctj I. 281. The date formerly ac- 
cented was 696-586. 
^ Cf. Bohoemann, Antiq. of Grttctf I. 348, 353. 

B. c. Greeks, 53 

2. Knights (<inre?»), yield of estates 300-600 medimni. 

3. Zeugiice (i. e. they who work their land with one span of mules), 
yield of estates at least 150 medinmi. 

4. Thetes, comprising all who owned land yielding less than 150 
medimni, or possessed no land, but were either day laborers in the 
country, or artisans, sailors, tradesmen in the city. 

Taxation consisted in the duty of the citizens, as arranged in these 
four classes, to systematically supply ships, horses, and arms for mili- 
tary service. The members of the Jirst three classes served as hoplUes 
(^TAJrcu), heavy armed foot-soldiers; members of the ^rst two classes 
served also in case of need as cavalry, furnishing their own horses, 
while members of the^rs^ class* furnished ships for the fleet at their 
own eicpense, for which purpose they were enrolled in 48 naucrarisB 
the thetes were to be called upon to serve as light-armed foot, or 
upon the fleet, only to defend the country from invasion. There was 
no other regular taxation of citizeps; state officials served without 
pay, and the other expenses of the commonwealth were covered by 
the yield of the mines, which were state property, by fines, by a poll- 
tax laid on the metoeciy and by the harbor dues. When extraordinary 
taxes were necessary, they were adjusted on the basis of the classes 
described above, the fourth class, however, being exempt. 

After the time of Solon, the nine archons were taken from the first 
class; every citizen had a vote in their election. The council (/3ovA^) 
of 40O, formerly chosen from the Eupatridas alone, was henceforward 
open to all citizens of the Jirst three classes over thirty years old. The 
popular assembly (^iKK\ri<ria) consisted of all citizens over twenty years 

The Areopagus (from "Aptios vdyo^i^ Hill of Ares, or Mars)j the an- 
cient court which had jurisdiction over murder and arsoriy and a general 
supervision over the entire administration of the state, was, after this 
time, composed of archons who had retired from office. Legal mat- 
ters were adjusted bv the hdiasts (yiKuurraU so called from the halls, 
^Ata/o, where they sat), bodies having; something of the nature of both 
judge and jury, and consisting of citizens over thirty years old, chosen 
by the thesmoUietee, out of a list of 6000 citizens which was formed 
by lot. 

This timocratic constitution of Solon paved tte way from aristocracy 
to democracy. In itself it was essentially conservative, since the 
larger landed estates were nearly all in ihe hands of the nobles. 
Solon also established a code of la^^s for regulating the entire civil 
life, which was not completed until later. 

Solon left Athens for ten years. Travels in eastern Asia, Crete, 
and Egypt. New party divisions in Athens. The nobles were led 
by Lycurgus: the middle class by the Alcmseonid Megacles; the poorer 
classes by Pisistratus, who, in spite of the opposition of Solon, who 
had returned to Athens and was now an old man, constantly eained 
new supporters, and finally made himself master of the Acropolis. 

1 The hUl only was bo called by the ancients. The court was known as ^ <v 

54 Ancient History. b. c. 

560-627* PisiBtratus (llcururrparos), tyrant of Athens. 

Emigration of Athenian nobles, under Miltiades the elder, to the 
Thraciau Chersonese. Solon left Athens again and went to Asia 
Minor. Conversation with Croesus in Sanies (see p. 26). He died 
(559) at Soli, in Cyprus (?), 

Pisistratus ruled in Athens under the forms of the Solonian consti- 
tution, which he did not revoke. He managed that the people should 
always choose archons who suited him. Driven out by a coalition 
of the nobles and the moderates, 569, he returned five years later 
(554). A second time exiled in 552, he again regained his power 
after eleven years absence, and ruled without further interrup- 
tion from 541 to 527. New emigration of noble families, particu- 
larly that of the Alcmaonidce. Pisistratus conducted his government 
untU his death, with mildness and wisdom, and bequeathed it to his 

527-510. Hipplas ('Ivir^), under whom 

519. PUUcece seceded from the Boeotian League and entered into 
alliance with Athens. The Boeotians were defeated by the 
Athenians. Hippias conducted the government after the man- 
ner of his father, until his brother, Hipparckus, was murdered 
by Ilarmodius ('Ap/i^ios) and AristodUm CApurroy^irmy) in 514. 
(See Thucydides, YI. 54-59, where ne criticises the traditional 
tale of Harmodlus and Aristogiton.) Hippias took a cruel 
revenge, was driven out of the city by the exiled nobles (^Clis- 
thenes at the head of the AlcmcBonidcB) in connection with a 
Spartan army under Cleomehes* He took refuge with Darius, 
king of Persia. 

509* Beforms of Clisthenes (KXcurOivrjs:)^ son of Mega- 
oles, grandson of Clisthenes, of Sicyon. 

This was not only a change in the constitution, but a social reform 
as well. The constitution of Solon was not, however, repealed, but 
only further developed in a democratic manner, without as yet intro- 
ducing equal political rights of all citizens. The Solonian arrange- 
ment of classes for purposes of taxation remained; the archonship 
was as before restricted to the first class, and membership of the 
council to the first three classes. 

With the consent of the Delphic oracle, now indebted to the Alo- 
nueonidse, for the erection of a new temple, the four old Athenian 
tribes (fvXal), Geleontes, Hoplites, Argddeis, JEgicores (p. 45), which 
Solon hald lert in existence, were set aside, and there were substituted 
for them ten new tribes, which were political and religious unions. 
These new tribes did not form connected territorial divisiona.^ 
Each tribe consisted of ten demes, or local communities, which, how- 
ever, were not contiguous, but were scattered about the country and 
interspersed with demes belonging to other tribes. In all there were 100 
demes, later 174. This arrangement was designed to break up the 
local influence of the aristocracy, and put an end to the old patri- 
archal condition of things, whereby only nobles and large land-owners 

I Duncker, lY. 454; Sohoemann, Antiq. of Greece, I. 369. 

B. c. Greeks. 55 

could hold the position of denmrch (p^fuipxoi), the presiding officer of 
a community. 

Henceforward every two demes formed a naucrary, which was ex- 
pected to fit out and man a trireme (a vessel with three banks of 
oars) ; whereas the old division of Attica, made in 682, into 48 nau- 
crarieSf had been based on the old poUHoM^igious division into tribes 
and phrairies. These phratries {^poprpiait 12), the subdivisions of the qld 
tribes (^vW), were untouched by the reform of Clisthenes, bat they 
were reduced to the condition of religious coroorations for keeping 
lists of births, marriages, and deaths^ bat wiuiout political impor- 

The council (BovX^) was increased from 400 to 500 members, fift^ 
for each tribe; and each of these sets of fifty presided in the council 
for the tenth part of a year (prytany^ trpwray^ia); the members of 
these presiding committees of fifty were called prytanies. Instead of 
four popular assemblies in a year, as formerly, ten were held hence- 

507. The Athenian nobility, headed by Isag^^ras, with the help of 
a Spartan army under Cleomenes, brought about a short re- 
action. Clisthenes fled; the Acropolis was delivered to the 
Spcui:ans by a treacherous archon. A revolt of the Athenian 
populace compelled Cleomenes to make a disgraceful capit- 
ulation : withdrawal of the Spartans without arms, and sur- 
render of the leaders of the aristocracy. The latter were put 
to death, and Clisthenes was recalled. 
506. An expedition of the Spartans against Athens under their kings, 
Cleomenes and Demeratus, at the head of their Peloponnesian 
allies, was broken up by the sudden withdrawal of the Corin- 
thians and the lack of harmony between the Spartan kings. 
The allies of the Spartans, the Bceotians and the Chalcidians 
from Euboea, were defeated by the Athenians. The latter con- 
quered a part of Euboea, and apportioned 4000 peasant holdings 
among Attic farmers, who retained their Athenian citizenship. 
The Athenian democracy derived an accession of strength from a 
reduction in the powers of the archons. The place of holding the 
popular assembly was changed from the market-place (pryopd^f where, 
according to a custom sanctified by its antiquity, the first archon 
presided, to the rocky hill of the rnyx ; and the duty of presiding 
m the popular assembly and in the council was fixed upon an offi- 
cer (ArMrT^Tijf), who was chosen by lot from the prytany^ tor the time 
being, and who was changed every day. This officer also held the 
kevs of the Acropolis and of the archives. It is uncertain how far 
ClisthSnes had introduced the use of the lot, in selecting state offi- 
cials (of course, only from the numbers of qualified candidates). 
£lection of ten Strategi, one from each tribe, each of whom had by 
turns the chief command of the army, which formerly belonged to the 
archon polemarchus. The right of appeal from the decision of the 
thesmothetse to the heliasts, which had been introduced before Solon 
for certain cases, was now extended to all cases. Establishment of 
the ostraciem (htrTpoKurfUs, used until 417 J, i. e. the power of the 
sovereign popular assembly to decree, by means of a secret balloti 

56 Ancient History, b. c. 

with bits of pottei^ (Arrpwea), the banishment of any citizen who en- 
dangered the pubbc liberty, without process of law.^ 

In Peloponnesus, during this period of internal development at 
Athens, Sparta had become the first power. Soon after the first 
Messenian war, an essential increase in the powers of the Ephors 
had taken place (under kin? Theopompus). About 560, another re- 
form had b«en accomplished by the Geront ChUon, with the aid and 
religious consecration of Epvmenides of Cnossus, which completed the 
aristocratic form of government at Sparta, and gave increased strength 
to the commonwealth. The Ephors received an extraordinary dis- 
ciplinary power over every individual, not excepting even the kings. 
The power of the latter g^radually dwindled to a shadow. After the 
yictoiy at Tkyrea (549\ the power of Argos, which in the seventh 
century had again attained, under King Phedon, a transient increase, 
was broken, and the Argive league was dissolved. The Spartan 
state, which was everywhere the opponent of tyraimy and the pro- 
tector of republican-aristocratic governments, became the leader of 
a league of the Peloponnesian states, and claimed the Hegemony over 
all the Hellenic cantons. 


From the beginning of the Persian ^rars to the loss of inde- 
pendence by the Battle of Chaeronea. 500-338. 

500-449. Persian wars. 

500-404. Revolt of the Ionian Greeks against the Persians (p. 28). 
The assistance rendered them by Athens and Eretria was the 
Inunediate cause of the attempt of the Persians to subjugate 
European Greece. 

493-479. Attack of the Persians upon the Greeks. 

493 (492 ?). First expedition of the Persians against Greece, 
under Mardonius. 

The land force subdued the coast of Thrace; the fleet conquered 
the island of Thasos. Alexander, king of Macedonia, submitted volun- 
tarily. The Persian army, surprised by a Thracian tribe, suffered 
great loss; the fleet was for the most part destroyed by a storm oif 
the promontory of Athos, Mardonius thereupon decided to return. 

Construction of citadels on the Thracian coast to serve as points 
of support in future campaigns : Byzantium, Sestos, Abdira, received 
Persian garrisons. 

491. The Persian heralds, who required sig^ns of submission (water 
and earth), were sacrilegiously murdered at Sparta and Athens. 
The Cyclades and jEgina promised submission to Persia. The 
Athenians received from the Spartans ^ginetan hostages. 

490. Second expedition of the Persians against Greece un- 

1 The ostracism was in no sense a sentence or a juridical decision, but a 
purely political act of the highest power in the state. 

B. c Greeks. 57 

der Artaphemes (the younfr nephew of Darius) and an 
older general, the Mede Datis. 

A fleet of 600 triremes and the same number of transports, with 
100,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry on board, crossed the ^gean sea. 
After destroying the city of Naxos, the Persians landed in Eubaa, 
The city of Eretria was stormed, and taken by treachery ; those of 
the inhabitants who were not put to death were sent as prisoners to 
the great king at Susa. By the advice of Hippias (p. 54) the Per- 
sians lauded on the east coast of Attica, and encamped in the vicinity 
of Marathon. 

At Athens the entire military power of the city (9-10,000 Hop- 
lites)^ was called to arms under the ten Strategi of the ten tribeis, 
among whom were Arisddes, Themistdcles, and Bfiltiades (the 
younger), who had been recalled from the Chersonese. The Athenians 
crossed the Brilessus and advanced to meet the Persians; they en- 
camped in face of the enemy for nine days in a position strengthened 
by entrenchments, and whence they covered the road to Athens. Re- 
inforced by 1000 Platffians, they attacked the Persians without wait- 
ing for the arrival of the assistance which had been sought from 
Sparta. It is probable that the Persians had at this time embarked a 
portion of theur army, especially the cavalry, in order to attempt a 
second landing in the immediate neighborhood of Athens. After 
hard fighting the Athenians defeated the enemy m the 

490. 12 September. Battle of Marathon, 
under die leadership of Miltiades. 

The plan of the Persians to surprise Athens from the sea was 
prevented by a forced march of the army back to the city. The Per- 
sian fleet returned to Asia Minor. Hippias died in Lcmnos. 
489. Ill-considered and unsuccessful attack of Miltifides, who had 
been clothed with unrestricted power as military commander, 
upon Paros, Miltifides, on his return to Athens wounded, was 
brought to trial at the complaint of Xanthippits, and con- 
demned to pay the costs of the expedition, amounting to fifty 
talents, which sum was paid by his son Cimony after we death 
of his father. 

Aristidea and Themiatoclea were now the leading statesmen at 
Athens. The latter devoted special attention to increase and im- 
proTement of the fleet, the necessity of which was proved to the 
Athenians by an unsuccessful war with jEginOf which occurred at 
this time, and for which they were obliged to hire ships from the 
Corinthians.^ On the motion of Themistocles, the income from the 
silver works at Laurium were spent upon the fleet, and 20 triremes 
were built every year. 

483. As the growing rivalry between Aristldes and Themistocles 
endangered the commonweal, at the suggestion of the council 
the assembly decided between the two men by the ostracism 
(p. 55). Anstides was condemned to ten years' exile from 
Athens by more than 6000 votes. 

1 Dunoker, Geach. cfAlterthum, IV. 673. CurUua, Hx8t. of Greece, II. 246. 
a Curtias, Hist, of Greece, II. 262. 

58 Ancient History. b. o. 

Themistdcles tirging the fortification of Pineos, a strong wall was 
built, the foundations of which are yet viiiible, which also enclosed 
the small harbors of Munychia and Zea on the southeast of Pineus. 
Radical reform of the naval department. The naucraries (p. 55), 
which had not been able to furnish all the ships needed by the state, 
since the year 500 b. c, were dissolved, and their place supplied by 
a new arrangement known as the trierarchies. The building of ships 
and the supply of the more essential portions of their equipment were 
undertaken by the state; the completion of the equipment, the repairs, 
and the supplies of the crew, during service, of one ship was assigned 
as a service due the state (Xtirovpyta) to one well-to-do citizen, who 
in return was appointed trierarch, or commander-in-chief of the 
ship. Whereas m the naucraries the expenses of the ships had 
fallen exclusively upon the PerUakosiomedimini (i. e. the large land- 
owners, s. 53), and all citizens, whether land-owners or not, whose 
property exceeded a certain standard could be called upon for this 
purpose, and were entitled to the honor of the trierarchy.^ 

481-480. Third expedition of the Persians against Greece 
under Xerxes. 

This expedition, planned by Darius, was carried out by his son 
Xerxes, after extensive preparations. Pisistratiis, son of Hippias, 
and Demar&tus, the deposed idng of Sparta, accompanied Xerxes on 
the expedition. 

Construction of a canal at Acanthus by the force on the fleet 
and the subject Thracians, to avoid the storms about Mt. Athos. 
Bridge over the Hellespont, between Sestos and Ahydos, built by 
Phoenician and Egyptian laborers. Erection of large magazineB in 
Asia Minor and on the coast of Thracia. 

481. The troops from the eastern and southern pa^ of the empire 
assembled at Critalla in CappodoctOy whence they were con- 
ducted to Sardes by the king in person. 
480. In the spring departure from Sardes (about 900,000 men). 
March through Mysia. Passage of the Hellespont, lasting 
seven days. March through Thrace and Macedonia, Passage 
of the fleet (more than 1300 triremes, among which were over 
400 Grecian ships from Asia Minor) through the canal at 
After the Greeks had given up the plan of defending the pass of 
Tempe, the Persian army traversed Thessaly without opposition. Not 
only the Tj^esscdians, but also the Bceotian cities, with the exception of 
PlcUceas and Thespioe, sent the king symbols of submission. 

480. July* Battle of the Greeks under Leonidas, at Ther- 
xnopylsB (i. e. warm gate, a pass at the foot of Calli- 
drdmus, near hot springs) against the army of Xerxes. 

The Spartan king Leonldas, defended the pass of Thermopylae, 
with about 6000 Hoplites, among whom were 300 5/?aHiate, and 
1000 Lacediemonian Periocciy against the overwhelming force of the 

1 Boeckh, Public Economy of the Athenians (Lamb's trans.), 359, 695-745. 

B. c. Greeks. 59 

Persians, while 1000 Pkocians guarded the footpath over (Eta. The 
Persians, guided over this path hy the traitor EphiaUes, drove back 
the Phocians and attacked the Grecian army in the reai*. Leonidas * 
ordered the PericBci and the troops of the allies to retire, and died 
a heroic death with his 300 Spartiatse and 700 Thespians, who re- 
fused to leave him. The Thebans, who had fought under Leonidas 
against their will, laid down their arms; part of them were cut down: 
part branded, at the king's command, and sent back to Thebes. At 
the same time 

480* Indeoisive searfight at Artexnisium, 

a promontory and temple at the northern point of Eubcea, 
During the first day about 280 Grecian ships, under conduct of the 
Spartan Euryhiades, fought against the Persian fleet, under Ackce- 
menes, which was weakened through losses by storms, and the dis- 
patch of 200 ships around the southern end of EubcBa. Night put an 
end to the indecisive battle. Loss of the 200 Persian smps which 
were sent around Euboea. 

On the second day the Grecian fleet, reinforced by 53 triremes, 
had a victorious contest with Cilician ships. 

On the third day, also, the battle remained undecided, although 
the Persians attacked with their whole fleet. 

On receipt of the news of the capture of the pass of Thermopyke, 
the Grecian fleet hastened to the Gulf of Saldmis. The Pelopon- 
nesian armv, having established itself on the isthmus, began the con- 
struction of a wall across the isthmus, instead of coming to the as- 
sistance of the Athenians. 

Xerxes traversed central Greece, without meeting with resistance. 
Locrians and Dorians submitted. He ravaged the Land of the Pho- 
cians, the detachment sent to Delphi was, however, driven back, with 
the help of a thunderstorm. Bceotia was treated as a friendly coun- 
try. ThespicB and Platcece alone were destroyed. 

The Atnenians abandoned their city, leaving only a garrison in the 
Acropolis. The fortifications of the Pirseus being incomplete, the 
fleet conveyed the old men, women, and children, with all personal 
effects, to Salamis, JEgina, and Argolis, in which latter place the 
Athenian children were provided with schooling at the expense of 
the inhabitants. Return of the exiles permitted. Xerxes entered 
the city, the Acropolis was taken by storm, the temples thereupon 
and the city burned to the ground. 

480* 20 Sept Naval battle of Salamis. 

The Grecian fleet, now united and strongly reinforced (378 tri- 
remes, 7 fifty-oared vessels), was under the command of the Spartan 
Bmryblades. The Grecians, being through the contrivance of the 
strategus ThemistiHes^ surrounded by the enemy and forced to fight, 
WQU a brilliant victory over the Persian fleet, which still numbered 
750 (?) vessels. The island of Psytialea, which the Persians had oc- 
cupied, was recaptured by ArisVides, who had hastened from ^gina to 
take part in the combat. The Greeks lost 40, the Persians 200, ships. 
Tlie rersian fleet anchored in the bay of PhdLtron. Retr^aty not 

60 Ancient History. B. C. 

flight, of Xerxes. Mardonius was left in Thessaly with the best part 

of the army (260,000 men). 

480. Nov. Xerxes, after suffering great loss through drought and 

lack of provisions, reached the Hellespont, where he found 

the fleet, which transported the army, the bridge having 

been carried away by storms. 

The Grecian fleet, instead of pursuing the Persians, as Themis- 

tocles wished, laid unsuccessful siege to the city of Andros. Tlie 

Athenians returned to their city, and at onoe beg^ its reconstruction. 

479. Fourth expedition of the Persians against Greece. 

After Mardonius had in vain offered the Athenians, through 
Alexander of Macedonia, a separate peace with recog^tion of their 
independence, lie entered Attica and advanced on Athens, strength- 
ened by a reinforcement under Artabdzus, and by contingents from 
his allies in northern Greece, Thessalians, Boeotians, a part of the 
Phocians, and the Argives, The Athenians, being a secona time faith- 
lessly left in the lurch by the Spartans, retired again to Salamis. 
Whatever had been rebuilt in the city, the Persians destroyed. 
Finally the whole Peloponnesian force of 30,000 hoplites and twice 
as many light-armed troops having crossed the isthmus, Mardonius 
retired, and took up a favorable position in Bcsotia on the Asopus. 
More than 10,000 AthenianSj Platceans, and Thespians joined the Hel- 
lenic army. FansamaB was the leacler of the Spartans and of the 
whole force. He commanded the most imposing army that Hellas 
had ever seen. The Hellenes, however, had no cavalry. 

479. Sept. Battle of PlatsBSB. 

After long delay and much marching back and forth, Pauaanias, 
who had twice entrusted the most dangerous positions to the Athe- 
nians under the command of Aristides, decided to retreat without 
offering battle; being, however, attacked by Mardonius and com- 
pelled to defend himself, he fought bravely at the head of the Pelo- 
Sonnesians, and, being well supported by the Athenians, gained a 
ecisive victory. Mardonius felL Rout of the Persians; their 
camp captured by the Greeks. 

Hhe Grecian army advanced before Thebes; the leaders of the Per- 
sian party were given up, and executed on the isthmus. 

At the beginning of the campaign against Mardonius a Grecian 
fleet under the Spartan langt LeotychXdaSf — Xanthippus commanding 
the Athenians under him, — had been dispatched to patrol the ^gean 
Sea. At the call of the Samians the fleet sailed for Asia Minor, and 
took the offensive against the Persians. 

479-449. Offensive war of the Greciajis against the Persians. 
The Persian admiral, Mardontes, distrusting the Greeks of 
Asia Minor, who were in liis fleet, did not venture to accept 
the naval battle offered him near Sanios. He beached liis 
fleet at the promontoiy of Mycale, opposite Samos, and en- 
trenched himself. The Grecian marines landed, and utterly 
defeated the Persians in the 

B. c. Greeks. 61 

479. Battle of Mycale 

(on the day of the battle of Platsese ?), captured the camp and 
burned the Persian ships. Several of the island cities, par- 
ticularly SamoSy Lesbos, and Chios, and afterwards the Grecian 
coast towns of Asia Minor, joined the Hellenic league. The 
Peloponnesians returned home; ihe Athenians and lonians con- 
quered Sestos in the Thracian Chersonese. 
Rebuilding and enlargement of Athens, which, in spite of the ob- 
jection of the Peloponnesians, was surrounded with strong walls. 
(Stratagem of Themistocles.) ' Completion of the fortification of 
Piraeus, where a large city grew up. 

478 (?). Reform of Aris^es, from which dates the real supremacy 
of the democracy in Athens. The state offices w^ere opened 
to all four classes alike (p. 53). 
Under the command of Pausanicis, the united fleet of Peloponne- 
sians, Athenians, and Ionic Greeks of Asia Minor conquered Byzan- 
tium, and acquired a rich booty. The overbearing demeanor of 
Pausanias toward the other members of the lea^e, and the winning 
manner of the Athenian leaders, A ristuies and Cvmon, brought i about 
that after the recall of Pausanias by the Ephors 

476 (?). The Hegemony (chief conduct of the war) Was 
transferred from Sparta to Athens, and a Hellenic oon- 
federaoy (symmachy) was formed, the political head of 
which was Athens, and whose religious centre was the 
temple of Apollo in Delos, where the treasury of the 
league was also established. The smaller states contrib- 
ute money (mli/, instead of furnishing contingents of ships. 

Rivalry between Themistdcles and Cimon, The supporters of the 
latter procured the ostracism of Themistocles. He retired to Argos. 
While there suspicion attached to him of being implicated in the 
treasonable intrigues of Pausanias, The latter, threatened with un- 
prisonment by the Ephors, took refuge in the temple of Athena at 
Sparta, and there died of starvation (467?). Themistocles, driven 
from Argos, went to Corcyra, thence to Epirus, and finally to Susa, 
where he offered the Persian monarch his services against his native 
land. Artaxerxes /. (p. 28) gave him a princely domain in Asia 
Minor, where he died (460). 

After the retirement of Aristides from political life, and his death, 
which occurred soon after (467 ?), Cimon became the leader of the 
Athenian commonwealth. He began the construction of the two long 
walls (rh, ffKtXrf), one of which connected the city with Pirseus, and the 
other with Phaleron.* 

Cimon, the victorious leader of the fleet of the league, captured 
those places on the Thracian coast which were still occupied by the 
Persians (Evon, 469) ; chastised the pirates of Scyra, and carried the 
bones of Theseus to Athens; captured NaxoSf which had revolted 

1 Oncken {Aihen u. Bellas, I. 72) holds that the walls were begun during 
the banishment of Cimon; so also Ad. Schmidt, Das perikleischt Zeitalter, 
I. 57, who, however, places the banishment of Cimon in 461. 

62 Ancient History* b. o* 

from the leagae, and now lost its independence, as punishment (467) ; 
defeated the fleet and army of the Persians in the 

465. Battle of the Eoirymedon, 

in Pamphylia. Cimon conquered the Chersonese and punished 
the island of ThasoSj which had seceded from the confederacy. 
464. Earthquakes in Sparta; insurrection of the Laconian helots, 
a portion of whom joined the Messenian helots and occupied 

464-456. Third Messenian war, 

in which the Spartans were forced to implore the help of 

Athens, which was furnished at the instance of Cimon, but was 

afterwards sent hack by the suspicious Spartans (461V The 

Athenians, offended, allied themselves with the Argtves, the 

principal enemies of the Spartans in the Peloponnesus. 

In Athens, rivalry between Cimorif head of the aristocratic party, 

and PerideSf the son of XanthippuSj leader of the democracy. The 

latter party succeeded in establishing the payment of citizens serving 

in the army, or as judges, and the bestowal of alms of the state upon 

the poor at festivals out of the public treasury. The beginning of 

the decline of the Athenian democracy. 

The Athenians sent aid to the Egyptian rebel Inliros (p. 28^ against 
the Persians. The expedition came to an unfortunate end^ tne Athe- 
nian army being surrounded on one of the islands of the Nile, and 
compelled to surrender. 

460. The law of Epkialtes took from the court of Areopagus the cen- 
sorship over the state, which had been intrusted to it by Solon 
(p. 53}, and limited its sphere of action to its judicial powers. 
459. After this democratic victory Cimon was banished from Athens 
by ostracism. 
About this time (between 460 and 454), the treasury of the con- 
federaoy was transferred from Delos to the Acropolis of Athens. 
The contributions of the mcml)er8 of the league thereby acquired the 
character of a tribute paid to the Athenians. The confederates be- 
came for the most part subjects of Athens, which became the capital 
of a great coast and island empire.^ 

459. Mee&ra threatened by Corinth, ^gina and Epidaurus placed 
imder the protection of the Athenians, who connected Meg&ra 
with its port, Niscsa, by long walls. 
458. The Athenians, after suffering a defeat in Ar&;51is, gained two 
battles at sea over the allied Corinthians, Epidaurians, and 
^ginetans ; blockaded JEgina, and energetically defended Meg- 
fira. This great development of power, on the part of Athens, 
caused a 

457-451. War of the Spartans cuid Bceotians against 

A Spartan army under Nicomedes, the guardian of the young king, 
Plistoanax, had been sent to Central Greece to protect the Dorian 

1 OurtiUB, nut. of Greece, II. 378. 

B. o. Greeks. 63 

tetrapolis against the attacks of the Fhociaiis, who were compelled 
to give up their conquests. The Spartan ai*mv, cut off from a i*etuni 
over the isthmus hy the Athenians, retired to BcBotia, where it assisted 
the Bceotiaus against Athens. 

457. Battle of Tanagra, a Spartan victory, which they neglected 
to utilize. They concluded an armistice with Athens and re- 
turned to Sparta. 
Very soon the Athenians again invaded Bceotia, defeated the 
Thebans at (Enophyta (436), and replaced the aristocratic govern- 
ments in most cities by democratic, which were friendlv towards 
Athens. The Phocians and Opuntiau Locrians joined Athens. 
iEigina was forced to surrender to the Athenians after a long siege, 
eave up its ships of war, and became tributary (456). The Athenians 
laid waste the coasts of Laconia, and conveyed the Messenians, whom 
the Spartans had granted a free departure from Ithome, to Naupactus 
(p. ^), where they formed a settlement. Reconciliation between 
Pericles and Cimon; the latter recalled after an exile of nearly five 
years (454). The influence of Cimon brought about an 
451 (?). Armistice between Athens and Sparta for five years, and 
a new naval expedition against the Persians. Cimon conducted 
200 ships to Cyprus. He died during 4he siege of Citium. 
After his death his fleet gained a bruliant victory over the 
Persian (i. e. Phcenician, Cmcian) fleet, and the hostile troops 
on the land in the double 

449. Battle of Salamis (laXafiU) in Cyprus. 

New party struggles in the Bceotian cities. The aristocrats, who 
had been driven out by the Athenians, returned; the Athenians, cusdled 
to the assistance of the democrats, were defeated at Coronea (447). 
The old aristocratic constitutions were restored, not only in Bceotia 
but also in Locrig, PhociSf and Megdra, which became free from 
the supremacy of Athens. After the expiration of the five years' 
amustice the Spartans sent an army under their young king, Plis- 
tuanax, to Attica, in order to assist the Euboeans in a revolt against 
the Athenians. Pericles bribed the advisers of the voung king 
and secured the withdrawal of the army; then hastemng back to 
Euboea with an Athenian army, he subdued the island anew (446). 
Second assignment of Eubcean lands to Athenian citizens. 

445. Thirty years' peace between Athena and Sparta. Bj 
this peace, or more properly armistice, the Peloponneaiaa 
and Athenian leagues acknowledged themselves to be two 
distinct and independent confederacies. 
About this time, or at least after the death of Cimon, negotiations 
for peace were opened between Athens and Persia, and an Athenian 
embassy under Callias was sent to Susa. No formal peace, however, 
was concluded, but peaceable intercourse under a tacit recognition of 
existing political relations gradually took the place of a state of war. 
The Athenians gave up Cyprus and sent the Egyptian rebels no 
further aid. They continued to control the JEgean Sea, and the 
Grecian coast towns of Asia Minor were mostly their allies or sub- 
jects, — in any case, practically free from the Persian sceptre. The 

64 ' Ancient History, B. c 

so-called peace of Cimon, wherein the king of Persia is said to have 

formally acknowledged the independence of the Greeks of Asia 

Minor, and promised to send no more ships of war into the ^gean, 

would seem to be the invention of a later time.^ 

444. At Athens Thucydldcs (the son of MelasiaSf not the historian 

of the same name), became the leader of the aristocratic 

party. His party attempted to secure the ostracism of Perv- 

clesj but when the votes were counted it was found that 

Thucydldes was banished. 

444-429. Athens under the admiuistration of Pericles, 
who, although never archon, conducted the government of the 
cities by his influence in the assembly, and in his official capac- 
i^ as strategtut, as superintendent of the finances {Tamias or 
Epimeletes), and as superintendent of public buildings and 
other pubuc works. 
440-439. Revolt and subjugation of Samos, 

443. Foundation of Thurii in Southern Italy on the ruins of Sybaris. 
437. Foundation of Amphipdlis on the Strymon. Completion of the 
fortifications of Athens by the construction of a third long wall, 
parallel with, the first leading to the Pineus (p. 61). Mag- 
nificent buildings, especially on the Acropolis: the HaU of the 
Caryatides in the Erechtheion, the Propylcea, the Parthenony or 
Hecatompedon, the bronze statue of AUiena Promachos, a co- 
lossal figure over 50 feet high. 
By the Age of Pericles is commonly understood the whole time 
of his political activity (465-429), or even the entire period from the 
Persian expeditions to the Peloponnesian war. This was the most 
brilliant epoch in the history of Athens, not only in its political 
power, its trade and commerce, but in art and literature. The tragic 
dramatists: .Sschylua, 525-^156; Sophocles, 496-405; Euripides, 
480-406 ; later the comic dramatist, Aristophanes 456 (?)-380 ? 
The historians: Herodotos of Halicarnassus, 484r424? ; Thncy- 
dides, 471-396 ? The sculptor : Phidias ; the architects Ictinus, 
CallicrateSy and ACnesicles ; the painter Polygnotus. The phil- 
osophers, Socrates, 469-399, Zeno of £lea, Anazagoras, Prota- 
goras. Aspasia of Miletus. 

431-404. PELOPOlTNESIAir T77AR. 

Causes: Envy of the Dorian confederacy at the power of Athens, 
the ambition of the Athenians, and the discontent of those of their 
allies who had been reduced to subjects. 

Immediate causes : 1. The interference of Athens in the war 
between Corcyra and Corinth (435-432), which had broken out con- 
cerning Epidamnus (afterwards Dyrrhachium) in lUyria, a colony of 
Corcyra. The democrats of EpidammiSy liard pressed by the exiled 
nobles in alliance with lllyrian barbarians, implored aid from their 

1 Cf. Cortiiis, Hist, of Greece, II. 456 (after Dahlmann and Kruffer). 
Other writers consider that a treaty wa« concluded. Cf. Hiecke, Da Face 
Cimonicaj 1863. E. Miiller, Uher den cimon Frieden, 1866-1869. Ad. 
Sohmidt, Dot pertkleixJie Zeitalter, 

B. c. Crreeks, 65 

mother city Corcyra in rain, but obtained help from Corinth, the 
mother city of Corcyra. Enraged at this, the Corcyrseans took sides 
with the aristocracy of Epidamnns, defeated the Corinthians at 
Actium (436), and captured Epidamnus. Corinth and Corcyra vied 
with one another for help from Athens. The Athenians decided in 
favor of Corcyra, and took part at first with 10, afterwards with 30, 
ships in the battle of Syh^a (432), between the Corinthians and Cor- 
cyrseans, wherein the Corinthians, at first victorious, afterwards retired 
before the Athenians. 2. The inhabitants of PotidcBa, a Corinthian 
colony on the peninsula of Chalcidice, revolted from the Athenian 
league (432), and received support from Corinth. The Corinthians 
were, however, defeated by the Athenians at Olynthus, and Potideea 
was surrounded and besieged. 

The Corinthians, supported by the Megareans, who (since 432 ?) 
had been excluded from all Attic harbors and markets, and by the 
^ginetans, entered a complaint against the Athenians at Sparta. 
The popular assembly at Sparta having voted that the Athenians had 
broken the treaty, the Peloponnesian Congress resolved on preparation 
for war. 

Bffilitary poorer of both parties: Achaia and Argos remained 
neutral at first. The FelopoimesiaiiB were joined by the Megareans, 
Boeotians, Opuntian Locrians, Phocians. Independent allies of the 
Athenians: PlatcetB, Corcyra, Zacynthus, Chios, Lesbos, Thessalians, 
AcamarUans, The Atheuian league, including almost all the islands 
and coasts of the archipelago and the regions beyond, had been 
transformed, by naval stations and garrisons, into an extensive em- 

431. The war ^ began with the surprise of Platiese by the Thebans. 
The gates were opened by treachery; but the Thebans were 
driven out of the city ; many were captured or cruelly slaugh- 
431--425. Five invasions of Attica* by the Peloponnesians, 4 un- 
der the Spartan king ArchidOmas, the 5th under Agis, While 
the Athenian fleet laid waste the coasts of Peloponnesus, the 
inhabitants of Attica took refuge in Athens, Piraeus, or en- 
camped between the long walls. The JEginetans were en- 
tirely driven away from their island by the Athenians, and their 
land divided among Athenian citizens. The country around 
MegOra was harried by an Athenian army. 
430. A pestilence resembling the plague broke out at Athens, of 

429. Pericles died. 

In the spring of this year capture of Potidcea, Cleon ^ came for- 
ward as the leader of the democratic party; the head of the aris- 
tocratic party was Nioias. 

1 This first period of the Peloponnesian war, down to the pence of Nicin» 
(421), commonly known as the Archidamian war, is called by Thucydldes (V. 

25) 6 i«it.atT7\K iroAc/uiOf . 

2 Not a tanner, but nn owner of mnnnfnrtorie?!, who carried on his business 
by means of slaves. Curliup, //wi. of Greece,, III. 61. 


C6 Ancient History. B. c. 

428. Reyolt of Mi/tUene in Lesbos (Methymna remained faithful to 
the Athenians). Before the arrival of the help promised by 

427. the Peloponnesians, MytUene was compelled to surrender by 
the Athenians under Paches, Tlie Athenian assembly decreed 
that aU citizens of MytUene should be put to death, a sentence 
which on the following day was restricted to the aristocrats. 
More than a thousand were slain, the city was razed, and the 
land on the island, with the exception of Uie territory of Meth- 
ymnOf divided among Athenian citizens. 

427. Platceas forced to surrender. The survivors of its brave defenders, 
225 in number, were executed by the Spartans. Bloody party 
contests in CorcyrOy where victory at last remained with the 
democrats. Successful expedition of the Athenians under De- 
mosthenes to assist the Acamanians against the Ambraciots, 
who received help from the Peloponnesians. 

425. Demosthenes landed in Messenia and fortified the ruined fortress 
of Pylos. The Spartans under Brastdcts occupied the island of 
Sphacteria, opposite Pylos. The Athenian fleet under Niclas 
cut off their retreat. Spartan envoys in Athens offered peace, 
but their proposals were rejected at the instigation of Cleon, 
who, being appointed by the people strategus m place of Niclas, 
took Sphacteria by storm, and brought 292 of the enemy, among 
whom were 120 SpartiatfE, with him to Athens. The Athenians 
threatened to put the prisoners to death whenever the Pelo- 
ponnesians should invade Attica again. 

424. The island of Cythera occupied by the Athenians. From 
Cythera and from Pylos, to which latter place the Athenians 
conveyed Messenicms from Naupactus, the Laconian territory 
was harassed incessantly. The Athenians invaded Boeotia, but 
were defeated by the Bceotians at Delium (SocrSies, AlcUnddes). 
Expedition of the Spartans under Brasidas by land to Mace- 
donia and Thrace, witfi the design of putting an end to the su- 
premacy of the Athenians there. Revolt of several towns from 
Athens; Brasldas captured Amphipdlis, on account of which the 
Athenian general ITmcydTdes (the historian), who lay with a 
squadron at Thasos, was banished. The Athenians sent Cleon 
to Thrace. Cleon was defeated in the 

422. Battle of AmphipoliB 

by Brasldas, and fell during the flight. Brasldas died of his 

421. Peace of Niclas, 

concluded for fifty years. Both sides restored conquests and pris- 
oners, a condition which was, however, but imperfectly executed. Al- 
though Sparta even entered into alliance with Athens to force this 
peace upon their confederates, the war broke out again in three years, 
when Alcibiades persuaded the Athenians to join the league which 
Argos had formed with several Peloponnesian states, in order to op- 
pose the oppressive ascendancy of Sparta. The united Ar gives and 
Athenians were defeated in the 

B. 0. Greeks. 67 

41& Battle of Mantinea. 

By this victory the Spartans regained their supremacy in Pelo- 
416. The Athenians captured Melos and put all the citizens to death. 

415-413. Expedition of the Athenians against Syracuse, 

Suggested by the request of Egesta for help against Selinus and 
Syracuse (HermocrStes), which was granted by the advice of Aid- 
biddes, A fleet of 134 triremes, carrying 36,000 men inclusive of 
sailors, among which number were 5100 hopUtes,^ sailed for Sicily 
under AldbiddeSy Nictas, and Lamdchus, After the occupation of 
Naxos and Catana, Alcibifides was recalled to answer to a charge of 
participation in a sacrilege (mutilation of the Hermm, ridiculing the 
Eleusinian mysteries). He went to Argos, was condemned to death 
in his absence, and his property was confiscated. Seeking revenge on 
his enemies, he forthwith went over to the side of Sparta.* 
414. Nicias gained a victory before Syracuse and besieged the city 
with some success. Death of Lamdchus. At the advice of 
Alcibi&des, the Spartans sent a small fleet under Gylippus to 
the assistance of Syracuse. The Athenians attacked the city 
413. by storm, and were repulsed. They suffered from sickness and 
want. Reinforced by 73 triremes and 5000 hoplites under 
Demosthenes, they were nevertheless defeated in two naval bat- 
tles in the harbor of Syracuse; their fleet was surrounded; the 
413. remnants of their army on the retreat by land (on the Assma- 
Sept. rus) were in part cut to pieces, in part captured. Nicias and 
Demosthenes were executed in Syracuse; 7000 prisoners were 
sent to the quarries (Karofiiai). 
413. By the advice of Aldbiddes the Spartans occupied and forti- 
March, ned the village of Decdea in Attica. The last nine years of 
the Feloponnesian war are therefore kno%vu as the 

413-404. Decelean war. 

Hie Spartans made forays from Decelea into all parts of 

Distress of the Athenians, flight of slaves, financial difficulties of 
the eovemment. The influence of the aristocratic party revived. 
Establishment of a new board of ten councillors (;wp6^ov\.oi),^ ^g^~ 
lation of the finances. Renewed preparations for war. Alcibifides 
induced Chios, Erythrce, Clazomence, and Miletus to revolt. He was in- 
strumental in forming an alli^ice between the Spartans, who declared 
their willingness to abandon to the Persian king all Greek cities for- 
merly subject to him, and the Persian satrap, Tissaphemes, who paid 
a subsidy to the Spartans. A new Athenian fleet appeared off the 
coast of Asia Minor and defeated 
412. the Peloponnesian fleet near Miletus, but was prevented from 

taking the city by a squadron from Syracuse. The Athenian 

fleet, increased to 104 ships, anchored off Samos, AlcibiSdes, 

1 Cortius, Hist, of Greece^ III. 357. 

^ Their functions are a matter of dispute. Cf. Orote, History of Greece, 
Vll. 362. 

68 Ancient History. b. c, 

being suspected and maligned by the Spartans, went to Tissa^ 
phernes, over whom he soon exercised great influence. At the 
same time he intrigued with the oligarchs in the Athenian 
army, whom, however, he only kept in suspense and finally 
deceived. In tbe mean time 

411. tlie oligarchs overthrew the democratic constitution at 
March. Athens by a coup d^etaL A new oligarchical council of 400 
citizens was established ; the popidar assembly was limited to 
6000 members; the payment of all state salaries, with the ex- 
ception of the pay of citizens serving in the army, was al)ol- 
Lshed. The oligarchy entered upon negotiations for peace 
with Sparta, and endeavored to break up the new order of 
things by executions and banishments. Their rule, however, 
was of short duration. The army before Samos refused to rec- 
ognize the alteration of the constitution; elected new leaders 
{ThrasyhuLus) and recalled Alcibiades, who assumed com- 
mand, but refused to lead the fleet against the oligarchs in 
Athens, and insisted that it should remain in the face of the 
enemy. At Athens the oligarchical ride of the new council of 
400 was broken after it had lasted four months without direct 
interference on the part of the army; the old council of 500 
was reestablished; the popular avssembly remained lunited to 
5000 members (until 410?). The abolition of salaries was 
not repealed. 
The Spartans broke off all connection with Tissaphernes, and en- 
tered into alliance with PhamabdzuSy satrap of Bithynia. 

The Athenians under Thrasyhulus defecated the Peloponnesian fleet 
under Mindarus and Pkamabdzus in the 

411. Sea-fight at the promontory of Cynossema, near Abydos. 
July. Three montlis later Alcibiades defeated the Peloponnesians 

in a 
411. Second sea-fight at Abydos. 

Alcibiades, taken prisoner by Tissaphernes, soon escaped, as- 
sumed command of tlie Athenian fleet again, and anniliilated 
the Peloponnesian fleet in the 

410. Battle of Cyzicus, 

Feb. where he also gained a brilliant victory over the enemy after 
he liad escaped to the land. Having subdued the coasts of the 
409. Hellespont and Propontis, and captured Byzantium^ 

408. Alcibiades returned to Athens in triumph. 

June. The sentence of Alcibiddes was repealed, and he was ap- 

Sdntcd commander by land and sea, with unlimited power, 
e guarded with the army the festal procession to Eleusis, 
which had been for a long time discontinued. Alcibi&des con- 
ducted the Athenian fleet to Asia Minor. The Spartan, Ly- 
sander, liad in the mean time assumed the command here, and 
the brother of the future king of Persia, Artaxerx&t II., the 
younger Cyrus (son of Darius 1L\ a friend of the Spartans, had 
become satrap of Asia Minor. While Alcibi&des was engaged 
on a foraging expedition in the country around Phocasa^ the 

B. C. Greeh. 69 

Atheiiian fleet was involved by the junior commanders in an 
engagement, and defeated by Lysauder in the 

407. Battle of Notinxn, in the gulf of Ephesus. 

On account of tliis misfortune, Alcibiildes was deposed from 
his command. He retired to the Hellespont, and died in 404. 
The new Spartan admiral Callicratldes, surromided the Athenian 
fleet mider Conon at Mytilene* The Athenians with the greatest ex- 
ertions fitted out a new fleet, which hastened to the aid of Conon. 
The united Athenian fleet completely defeated the Peloponnesians in 
the great 

406. Battle of Arginuaae, 

Sept. (oi ' Kpyivovtraiy small islands off the coast of Asia Minor, east 
of Lesbos V Six of the victorious generals were sentenced to 
death in Athens for having abandoned shipwrecked troops in a 
storm and not buried the bodies, and were actually executed. 

Lysander, again appointed admiral by the Spartans, defeated and 
annihilated the Athenian fleet in the 

405. Battle of 2Bgoapotaini (Ait^s vora/jLoiy goat river), opposite 
Aug. ? LampslU^us. Conon escaped with eight ships. Slaughter of 
3000 Athenian prisoners. Lysander, having first completely 
destroyed the Athenian power on the coasts and islands, and 
everywhere established oligarchical constitutions, appeared with 
the Feloponnesian fleet before Firsens, while the Peloponnesian 
army enclosed Athens on the land side. Starvation caused 

404. Surrender of Athens and end of the wax. 

April, The walls of Pineus, and the long walls between the city 
and the harbors, were torn down. All ships of war but twelve 
were delivered to the enemy. The democracy was overthrown, 
and the government entrusted to thirty men of the oligarchical 

404-371. Second Hegemony of the Spartaifs. 

404-403. Government of the so-called Thirty Tyrants, of whom 

the best known is Critias, at Athens. 
The Thirty, instead of forming a new constitution, endeavored to 
secure the permanent control of the state, and to strengthen their 
power by receiving a Spartan garrison in the Acropolis, and by numer- 
ous executions. At last, one of the Thirty, Theramenes, was put to 
death at the instance of Critias. Thrasybulus assembled the demo- 
cratic fyg^tives in Phyle, defeated the troops of the Thirty, and seized 
Firseus ; Critias was slain. Ten more moderate oligarchs took the 
place of the Thirty. Through the mediation of Pausantas, king of 
Sparta, an understanding was reached between Thrasybulus and the 
oligarchs in Athens. The remainder of the Thirty were put to death. 
Greneral amnesty. Reestablishment of a moderate democracy, llie 
government was rearranged by the revision of the laws made by 
Euclides (403). 

401-400. Retreat of the 10,000 under Xenophon (p. 29). 
399. Socrates (4G9-399) executed in Athens by poison. His 

schokr, Plato (427-348). 

70 Ancient History, b. c. 

399-394. War between the Spartans and Persians. The 
Persian satrap, TissaphemeSf attempted to punish the Greek 
cities of Asia Minor for their share in the expedition of the 
younger Cyrus. The Spartans came to the aid of the cities, 
at first under Tkibron, then under DercyUXdas^ finally under 
AgesiUtus. The latter forced his way into Asia and defeated 
Tissaphemes, who was executed by command of his successor, 
TUhraustes. Persian gold produced the 

395-387. Goxlnthlan vtslx against Sparta, whose harmosts (oMMorai, 
goTemors) had made themselves universally hated. CcMdition 
of Thebes, Corinth^ and Argos, joined by Athens. The S|iartan 

395. Lsrsander fell at HaliatUB in Bceotia, in battle with the allies. 
The Lacedffimonian fleet was defeated in the 

394. Battle of Cindufl by the Athenian Cotwn and the Persian 
satrap Phamabazus, The Spartan harmosts were driven from 
the Grecian cities of Asia Minor. AgesUdus was recalled, 
traversed Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly, and defeated the 
allies in the 

394. Battle of Coronea in western BoBotia. Conon and the Per- 
sian satrap Phamabdzus plundered the coasts of Laconia. Conon 
rebuilt the (2) long walls with Persian money. After some 
years of fighting, in which Iphicrdtes and Chabrias were the 
Athenian leaders, the 

387. Peace of Antalcidaa wbs concluded between the Grecian states 
and the Persians. It took its name from the Spartan admiral 
who was sent as envoy to Suaa. The Grecian cities of Asia 
Minor and the blands of ClazoTnence and Cyprus were abandoned 
to the Persians. The Athenians retained control of Lewnos, 
Imbros, and Scyros only ; all other states and islands were to be 
independent under Spartan and Persian guaranty. 

379-362. War between Thebes and Sparta, caused by the 
occupation of the Cadmea in Thebos (383) by the Spartan 
Phoebidas, who was urged to take this step by the aristocratic 
party in Thebes, as he was conducting an army through Boeotia 
against Olynthus, 
The Theban democrats had taken refuge in Athens, whence imder 
Pelopldas thev liberated Thebes in 379 and compelled the Spartans 
to withdraw from the Cadmea. Cleombrdtus and Agesildus were dis- 
patched to Bceotia, but met with little success. The Spartans at- 
tempted to surprise Pirseus. This induced the Athenians to enter 
into open alliance with Thebes. They founded a new conf ecleracy 
(symmachy), embracing seventy communities, under more just coih 
ditions than those of the first league (378). The Spartans were re- 
peatedly defeated at sea by the Athenians Chabrias, Phocion, and 
Timotheus* Peace between Sparta and Athens. Cleombrdtus invaded 
Boeotia anew, but in the 

371. Battle of Leuctra, he was defeated by Bpaminondas, and 
fell on the field. 

371-362. Hegemony of the Thebana. 

B. G. Greeks. 71 

370. First invasion of Peloponnesus by the Thebans, nnder Epam- 
inondas and PeloMcu in order to protect the Arcadians, 
who had revolted from Sparta. Megalopolis founded. An 
attack by the Thebans on SparCa proved unsuccessful, but 
they ravaged Laoonia and pwxdaimed the independence of the 
MesseMons, Foundation of Messene, The Athenians came to 
the aid of the Spartans. Retreat of the Thebans. 
369. Second Theban inyasion of Peloponnesus. 
367. Third invasion. Sicyon revolted from Sparta. The third in- 
vasion produced a momentary alliance of Achaia and Thebes. 
The Corinthians and Phliasians concluded peace with Thebes. 
In the north the Thebans sent several expeditions against the 
tyrant Alexander of Pherce for the liberation of the Thessalians. 
On the second expedition Pdoptdas was captured, but soon set 
free by Epaminondas ; on a new expedition he fell as victor at 
364. Cynocephdke (^Kwhs Kc^oXal). 

Fourth expedition of the Thebans against Peloponnesus. Epam- 
inondas fell in the 

362. Battle of Mantlnea as viotor against the Spartans and their 
allies (among others 6000 Athenians). 
Creneral peace between the Grecian states, which the Spartans 
alone refused to accept, not being willing to acknowledge the inde- 
pendence of Messenia. Agesildus went to Egypt to the assistance of 
the rebels under Tachos, whose fleet was conmumded by the Athe- 
nian Chabrias. AgesiUUis died on the voyage homo (358). 

Rise of the Macedonicui power. 

359-336. Philip (^Utmros), son of Amyntas, had passed three years 
(368-365) in Thebes as a hostage, and had there learned to 
appreciate Grecian culture and military science through intercourse 
with Epaminondas and other men of note. After the death of his 
brother, Perdiccas, he succeeded him as king of the Macedonians at 
the age of twenty-three. Gifted with courage and a clear political 
insight, he strengthened the royal power in a country torn by party 
strife, defended the borders against the restless Pceonian and tllyrian 
tribes, and established a standing army {Phalanx), After he had 
given his own state a firm orgamzation, he turned his attention to 
extending his power along the Thracian coast, and by cunning trick- 
ery encroached on the Athenian territory. He captured Amphipolis 
(357), Pydna, PoHdcea, gained possession of the Thracian mines, con- 
cluded an alliance with Olynthus against the Athenians, and founded 

357-355. Social war of the Athenian league against Athens. 
Since 378 Athens had regained much of her former influence. 
It was speedily lost. Chios^ Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium 
revolted. Chabrias perished in the harbor of Chios. Iphicrites 
and Timotheus, leaders of the Athenians. The latter were 
forced to acknowledge the independence of their former allies. 

355'346« Second Holy "War against the Phociaus, who 

1 Outiiu, HiU, of Greece, Y . 6a 

72 Ancient History: B. c. 

had been condemned by the Amphictyonic council to pay an 
enormous fine for having used the holy land of Cirrfaa (p. 52), 
which was consecrated to the Delphian Apollo. The Thebans 
managed to have the collection of the fine entrusted to them- 
The Phocians plundered the temple of Delphi and were thereby 
enabled to maintain by means of mercenary troops a long ana 
dubious war against Thehans, Locrians, and Tkessalians. Leaders of 
the Phocians, FhU&mdus (f 354), OnomarchuSf his brother Phayllus, 
and son PhcUfecus. After a long contest Onomarchus fell (352) 
in battle against Philip of Macedonia, whose entrance into central 
Greece was prevented by an Athenian army at Thermopylae. At a 
later period Philip was called upon by the Thebans for assistance 
ag^nst the victorious Phalcecus, The Phocians forced by Philip, who 
had subdued the Thessaliaus and secured ThermopvlsD, to lay down 
their arms; their cities were deprived of their walls by a decree of 
the Amphictyonic council; the inhabitants were separated into vil- 
lages, and made tributary to the Delphian god. Philip was elected 
to the Amphictyonic council in place of the Phocians. 

Philip, whose power had steadily increased, had been at war with 
Athens since his occupation of Amphipolis. In Athens Demote 
thenes (383-322), since 351, when he delivered his first Philippic, 
was the soul of an organization of a national opposition to the threat- 
ening power of Macedonia.^ 

Olynthua, having revolted from Philip and made peace with 
Athens, was hard pressed by the king, and begged aid from Athens. 
The three Olynthiac orations of Demosthenes. Before the arrival 
of the Athenian assistance Philip captured Olynthus by treachery 
and destroyed the city (348), as well as a large number of smaller 
places in Chalcidicc, and sold the inhabitants as slaves. 

The opponents of Demosthenes, Eubulus and .Slschines (^Alaxit^s). 
Formation of a Macedonian party in Athens. Negotiations with 
Philip, which, in spite of the opposition of Demosthenes, led to the 
shameful peace of Philocrates (346), which left all conquests in the 
hands of the king. A complaint being entered at Athens by Hy- 
perides against Philocrates, he went into exile. Demosthenes lodged 
a complaint against ^schines, who was declared not guilty (343). 

Philip endeavored to extend his power to the Propontis and the 
Pontus Euxinus, and founded numerous colonies in Thrace (Philips 
popolis). The national party at Athens succeeded in forming a 
league of Hellenic states (among others Megara, Achata^ Corinth)^ 
under the lead of Athens against Philip. The king besieged 
Perintk and Byzantium in vain. The Athenians declared war against 
him, sent a fleet and an army to Byzantium, and forced him to raise 
the siege. Athens derived her supply of grain from the countries on 
the Black Sea; hence her sensitiveness in regard to Byzantium, which 
was the key to the Kuxine. 

33a-33a Third Holy "War (against Amphissa). At the insti- 
gation of Philip (^^achXnes) the Amphictyonic council had 
decreed the punishment of the Locrians of Amphissa for hav- 
1 A. Sohaefer, Dtmodhtnu «. Mtne ZeiL 

B. c. Greeks. 73 

ing occupied some ground which was consecrated to Apollo. 
Philip, entrusted with the execution of the sentence by the 
AmphictyonSi seized Elaiea, which commanded the entrance 
to BcBotia. Great dismay in Greece. The Athenians fitted 
out a fleet and an army at the instance of Demosthenes, who 
went in person to Thebes and induced the Thebaus to form an 
alliance with Athens. The allied Thebans and Athenians were 
defeated in the 

338. Battle of ChsBronea (Xaipco^cm) by Philip, whose son 
Aug. Alexander decided the battle by annihilating the Holy 

Band of the Thebans. Philip punished the Thebans severely and 
placed a garrison in the Cadmea; to the Athenians he granted 
a favorable peace. Peace of Demades. He advanced into 
Peloponnesus, took a large pai't of her territory from Sparta, 
and divided it among the Messenians, Argives, and Arcadians. 

Macedoniaji Hegemony. At a national assembly at Corinth, 
where the Spartans only did not appear, Philip caused himself 
to be chosen leader (with dictatorial power) of the Grecian 
forces against the Persians (oTpariry^s hvroKp^rwp tQv 'EAA^ywv^. 
In other respects the Grecian cantons were to retain their 
autonomv; a congress (avviZptov) at Corinth should adjust 
their differences. 


GhraBco-Macedonian or Hellenistio Epoch do'wn to the Sub- 
jugation of Oreece by the Romans (338-146). 

After the murder of Philip, who was on the point of beginning 
the war against Persia, by Pausanias (336), the Macedonian throne 
was occupied by his son, who had been educated by Aristotle 
{' Apt<rror4\ris, 384-322), and was now 20 years old. 

336-323. Alexander the Great ('AXefavSpo?).* 

He forced the Greeks to transfer to him the Hegemony and the 
command against the Persians, quickly reduced the revolted Thracians 
(Triballians)f Getce and lUyrians in the north,' appeared on the news of 
a Grecian uprising (of the Athenians and Thebans) for the second time 
in Greece, defeated the Thebans, destroyed Thebes with the exception 
of the house of the poet Pindar (522-442 ?), and sold the inhabitants 
as slaves. The terrified Athenians submitted and were pardoned. 
Antipdter left as vicegerent in Macedonia. In 330 revolt of the 
Spartans put down by Antip&ter in the bloody battle of MegalopSLiSy 
where 5000 Spartans, under their king Agis IL, met a heroic death. 

334. Expedition of Alexander against Persia,^ 

Spring. which was not merely a war of conquest, but also a scien- 


1 Droysen, Geichichle Alexander* des Grossen {Geschichte des Helltnismug^ 
2 Aiifl., I877t Til. I. with 5 maps by R. Kiepert). Hertsbers, Die Atiatischen 
Ftldzuge Alexanders d. Gr.^ with a map by H. Kiepert. 

2 Foir the route, see Kiepert, Atlas AintiquuSf Tab. II. 

74 Ancient History • b. c. 

tific expedition, and a journey of discovery. Alexander crossed 
the Hellespont at Ahydos with 30,000 infantry and 5000 cav- 
alry (generals: Perdiccas, Clitus, Parmetiioj HephccstiOf Craterus, 
PtolemcBUSy Antigonus), defeated the Persian satraps and Memi- 
nofiy leader of the Grecian mercenaries of Darius, completely 
in the 

334. Battle of the Granicus (a rivulet in Troas), 

Rescue of Alexander by Clitus, Advancing through Mysia and 
Lydia, Alexander proclaimed the freedom of the Grecian cities and 
islands from Persian rule, conquered Miletus and HalicamassuSy and 
traversed Caria and Lycia. Prevented from advancing further by 
the steep mountains, he went northward through the laud of the Pisi- 
dians to Pkrygia by way of Cdoence, Gordium (the Gordian knot), and 
through Cappadocia to Cilicia (bath in the Cydnus). At Tarsus he 
was taken ill, but speedily recovering (potion of the physician Philip- 
pus) he passed through the Syrian Gates to Myriandrus on the coast 
m Syria. Meantime the Persian king, Darius III, (p. 29) had ap- 
proached from the Euphrates with a large army and got to the rear 
of the Macedonians. On hearing this, Alexander turned back from 
Syria and gained a brilliant victory over the Persians in the 

333. Battle of Ibsub, in Cilicia, 

Nov. An immense number of Persians fell; the rest were captured 
or scattered. Darius escaped, but his mother, his wives, and 
daughters fell into the hands of tlie victor. 
In order to completely destroy the Persian power at sea, Alexander 
conquered Syria, Phoenicia, where he besieged Tyre for seven months, 
and Palestine, advanced into Egypt without opposition, and went 
from Pelusium to Memphis, Founclation of Alexandria on a well- 
chosen site. Expedition across the Libyan desert to the oracle of 
Zexts Amman in the oasis of Sivah. Leaving Egypt, Alexander passed 
through Palestine and Syria by way of Damascus, crossed the Eu- 
phrates at Thapsacus, traversed Mesopotamia, crossed the Tigris, and 
defeated the Persian army, which outnumbered his own 20 times, in 

331. Battle of Oaugamela or Arbela (rh, "Ap&tXa), 
Oct. not far from the ruins of Nineveh. While Darius fled north- 
ward, Alexander crossed the Tigris a second time, entered 
Babylon without resistance, traversed Babylonia, crossed the 
Tigris a third time, captured the capital of Persia, Susa in 
Susiana, and traversed Persis, Capture of Pasargddas and 
Jn the spring of 330 Alexander set out in pursuit of Darius. 
Crossing Media to Ecbatana in the north, he hastened through the 
Caspian gates to Parthia, Tliere, in the neighborhood of Heca- 
tompylos, Darius Codomannus was murdered (330) by the satrap 
Bessus, who fled to Bactria and assumed the royal title. After an 
expedition northward to Hyrcania against the Grecian mercenaries, 
Alexander traversed Parthia toward the east, turned southward, for 
the purpose of punishing an ins\irrection of satraps, and crossed 
Aria and Drangiana. In Prophthasia discovery of the conspiracy of 

B. C. Greeks* 75 

Philotas, who was condemned by the army and executed; his father, 
Parmenio, was put to death in Ecbaiana (330) at Alexander's com- 

Alexander now crossed Arachosia in a northeasterly direction, 
crossed the Paropanisus (p. 24), or Indian CaucasuSy in the spring 
of 329 (foundation of a u&yr Alexandria), advanced into Bactria, pur- 
sued Bessus, who had retreated beyond the Oxus, but was delivered 
to Alexander, and ultimately crucib^ed. Alexander went northward 
as far as the Jaxartes (the modem Sir Darja), where he founded 
Alexandria Eschdta; after some short expeditions against the nomades 
(Scythians) on the other side of the Jaxartes, he remained for some 
time in Sogdiana (murder of Clitus in 328 in Maracanda, now 
Samarcand), after which he went to Bactria. Marriage with Rox- 
ana, daughter of a Bactrian prince. Alexander began at this time 
to adopt oriental clothing and customs. 

327. Expedition of Alexander to India. 

Having once more crossed the Paropanisus, Alexander, after sharp 
fightinfi^ with the mountain tribes, reached the Indus, crossed it, and 
entered the Punjab (countiy of five rivers). In alliance with the 
Indian prince Taxiles, at the 

326. Battle of the Hydaspes ( Vitasta, now Djelam) 

he defeated Porus, and took him prisoner, treated him, how- 
ever, with magnanimity, and replaced him on his throne as a 
dependent prince. 
Foundation of Niccea and BucepMla, Alexander went eastward 
as far as the Hyphasis (Vipfi^a, now Vjasa, or Bejds), when the 
Macedonian soldiers refused to go farther, and compelled him to re- 
turn to the Hydaspes, Construction of a fleet of some 2000 (?) 
ships, which conveyed a portion of the army down the Hydaspes to 
the Acesmes (now Tshinah), while the remaining part (with 200 ele- 
phants) marched along the shore. Contest with the Malli, Alex- 
ander's rash bravery and severe wound. After his recovery the fleet 
and army proceeded, and finally reached the junction of the united 
Punjab rivers with the Indus. In 325 army and fleet went down 
the Indus, CratSrus returned to Persis with a part of the army by 
the short route to the west. Alexander continued with the fleet and 
land force to the delta of the Indus, where the fleet under Nearchus 
entered the Indian Ocean. Ebb and flaw of the tide. Nearchus 
coasted to the west, and discovered the entrance to the Persian Gulf, 
while Alexander conducted the rest of the army through the desert 
of Gedrosia (Beluckistan). After terrible sufferinff and severe loss 
he arrived in Carmenia, met Craterus, and later JNearchus on the 
coast. The latter was dispatched to discover the mouths of the Tigris 
and Euphrates. 

324. Ketum of Alexander to Persis ; arraignment and punishment 
Jan. of the avaricious and cruel governors who had eiven up the 
king and his army for lost. Arrival in Susa. Here Alexan- 
der disclosed his great plan of Hellenizing the East, uniting 
the victor and the vanquished into one great nation and found- 
ing a great Maoedonian-Persian universal empire on a 

76 Ancient History. B. c. 

basis of equality of the (Trseco-Macedonian and the Oriental po- 
pulation. Marriafi^e of Alexander with the eldest daughter of 
Danus III. and the vounjjcst sister of Artaxcrxes III., while 
Heplu^^tion took to wife the younj^cst daughter of Darius III. 
Kiglity Macedonian officers nuuried Porsiau hidies of good 
family, and in cousociucuce of rewards offered by the king, 
10,000 Macedonians took Persian wives. Great phins for open- 
insT commercial rehitious with otlier nations and for the con- 
struction of roads on a large scale. Alexander, as successor 
of the Great King, required to Ikj worshipped as a divinity. 
324. A mutiny of the Macedonian army at Opia on the 2'igris was 
July, quelled by Alexander's courage and wisdom. Tlie vetenins 
were disbanded after receiving great rewards and sent to 
Macedonia under Crattrus, while Antipater was to bring new 
troops thence. Death of HephfP^tion. Alexander undertook 
the exploration of the Euphrates. 

323. Death of Alexander the Great, 

June, at Babylon, which he had destined for the capital of the new 

323-276. Wars of the Diadochi (successors of Alex- 

These long and complicated contests, which broke out immediately 
after the death of Alexander, destroyed the newly founded universal 
empire, but carried on successfully in another way the work which 
Alexander liad begun of Hellenizing the east, and spreading Grecian 
language and culture. (Ili'llermtic language, ^ koiv^ itdxtKros), so that 
the new Persian empire which afterwards grew up on this ground 
was very different from the old Persian monarchy, and a worthy 
rival of its great opponent, the empire of Rome. 

Ferdiccaa became regent in Asia for Alexander's half brother 
Philip Arrhidiem and his posthumous son by Roxana, Alexander. An- 
tipater and CrateruB shared the regency of the west. The other 
generals received lieutenancies : Ftolemseua, Kgypt ; Antigonus, 
Pamphyliay Phrygia and Lycla; Eumenes, Alexander's secretary, Pa- 
phlygonia and Cappadocia, which however he had first to subdue; 
CasBander, Caria; Leonnatua, Phrygia on the Hellespont. The plan 
of Perdiccas, who married Alexander's sister, to make himself king, 
caused a league of the other generals against him. Perdiccas was 
murdered by his own troops wliile on an expedition against Ptolemseus 
(321). The new regent, Antipater, made a new assignment of the 
Leutenancies, wherein Seleucus obtamed the sati'apy of Babylon. 
After the death of Antipater (319) a war followed between liis son 
Cassander, and the aged Pohisperchon over the regency. Antigdwis^ 
in league with Cassander, was victorious in Asia over Eumenes, who 
was betrayed by his own soldiers and whom he executed, while Cas- 
sander was victorious in Kurope (31G). Lysimachus made himself 
master of the lieutenancy of Thrace. 

Antigonus wishing to bring the whole empire under his sceptre, a 

1 Droysen, Geschichte dea //ellenisnius, 2 lui. Pi. 2 u. 3, 1877, 78. 

B. C. Greeks, 77 

315-301. war broke out between Antigonus and the other 

in the conrse of which Antdgonus and his son Demetrius 
Poliorcetes (jloXiopfctrrhi) assumed the royal title (30G). 
Their example was followed by Seleucus, Lysimachus, Cassander, 
During this period, a time abounding in horrors, every member 
of the royal family of Alexander perished, mostly by murder. 
His ambitious and cruel mother Olympias was condemned to 
death at the instance of Cassander, and stoned by the relatives 
of her own victims. 
After a long contest attended with varying success, the war against 
Antigonus was ended by the 
301. Battle of Ipsoa ("li^oj in Phrygia). 

Antigonus fell, his son Demetrius fled and led for many years 
an adventurous life as a pirate. 
In Europe the war still lasted. After the death of Cassander (296), 
his two sons quarreled about the succession. Demetrius took the 
opportunity to seize the supreme power in Macedonia and Greece. 
He lost his power indeed through arrogance and desire for conquest 
after a reign of seven years, but liis son Antigonns Oonatas after a 
changeful career gained permanent possession of Macedonia (278). 

Tlius after many divisions and the formation of many sovereignties 
of but short duration, there grew up out of the Macedonian-Persian 
universal empire, five monarchies, of decidedly ^e/Zenisiic character, 
in which Gkeek was the language of the court and the government, 
of inscriptions and coinage, and of tlie educated classes, and in some 
of which Grecian art, literature and learning reached a high develop- 
ment. Nevertheless, these five monarchies, from their formation to 
their fall, bore the imprint of the deepest moral decay. These five 
states, to which we must add the republic of Rhodes and the Grecian 
Cantons, were : 

1. Eg3rpt under the Ptolemies or La^dse with its capital 

at Alexandria. 

Ptotemceus I. (323-2&5), called Sotery i. e. saviour, because he sent 
aid to the Rhodians, or Lagi, i. e. son of Lagus, founder of the king- 
dom. Ptolemaus II. (285-247) called PhUadelphus from being the 
husband of his sister Arsinde; foundation of the museum with the Alex- 
andrine library. Ptolemasus III. (247-221), called Euergetesj i. e. 
benefactor, by the priests, temporary conquest of Caria, Lycia, Cilicia, 
Cyprus. Pioleimvus IV., Ph'dopater (221-205), decline of tlie power 
of the monarchy. Ptolemrvus F., Epipkdties (205-181); Egypt be- 
comes dependent on the Romans. 

2. Syria, under the Seleuoidee. Capital at first Seleucia, 

on the Tigris, afterwards Antioohia on the Orontes. 

Seleucus L Nicator (312-280), founder of the kingdom. Antidchus 
L Soter (280-262). AnHdrhus IT. Theos (262-247). Seleucus II. 
(247-227). Sdeucus III. (227-224). Antidchus III. the Great (224r- 
187). Defeated at Magnesia (190) by the Romans, Antidchus was 

78 AncietU History, B. c. 

compelled to accept a peace, which struck the kingdom of the Seleu- 

cidffi from the roll of the great powers. 

The following states separated themselves from the Syrian realm of 

the Seleucidie, and did not belong to the llellcnistie system of states. 

278. a. Tlie confederacy of the Galatians (p. 35) in Asia Minor, 
between Bithynia, Phrygia, Lycaonia and Cappadocia, founded 
by Gallic tribes, who, during the wars of the Diodochi, had 
ravaged Macedonia and Greece, crossed tlie Hellespont and 
in 278 settled in Asia Minor. They consisted of the three 
tribes of Trocmif Tectasages and Tolistohoii (each under four 
Tetrarchs) with the three capitals Tavia^ Ancyra and Pessinun. 
In the first century before Christ, Deiotarta became king of 
all Galatia, which Augustus made a Roman province. 

250. b. The Farthians (p. 29) who under the Arsacidas (250 
B. C. to 226 A. D.) conquered all lauds between tlie Euphrates 
and the Indus, and formed a dam, in the cast, first against the 
Hellenistic and afterwards against the Roman power. 

167. c. The Je'ws under the Maccabees (p. 11). 

The two following countries were never dependent on the empire 

of the Seleucidae. 

a. Pontus, which had, it is true, submitted to Alexander the Great, 
but was recognized as independent under its own kings of Persian 
descent (of the Achsemenid^ it was claimed, p. 25), by the victors 
at Ipsus (p. 77). The last kings were Mithridates Vl. the Great, 
and his son Phamaces (see Roman History, Fourth Period, p. 129). 

b. Armenia, although kings of Armenia fii*st appear after the 
battle of Magnesia^ (190). 

3. The kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalidse, Ca})i- 

tal, Pergamus in Mysia. 

Founded by Philetcerus (283-263) who had been appointed gov- 
ernor by Lysimachus. Eumenes L (263-1141). Attdlus /. (241-197). 
Eummes Ii. (197-159), founder of the library of Pergamus. Atta- 
ins IL (15^138). Ait(xl\i;s III, (138-133), who bequeathed the 
kingdom to the Romans. 

4. Bithynia. Capital, Nicomedia. 

Founded by Nicomedes /. (277-250 ?). Zeilas (250-228?). Pro- 
sias I. (228-183), with whom Hannibal took refuge. Prusias IL 
(183-149). Nicomedes II. (149-91). Nicanitdes III. (91-75), who 
bequeathed the kingdom to the Romans. 

5. Macedonia under the descendants of Demetrius Poli- 

orcetes. Capital, Pella. 

Antigonus Gonatas (278-239). Deinetrius II. (239-229). Antigonus 
Doson (229-221). Philip V, (III), (221-179) defeated by the 
Romans at Cynoscephdlrt (107). Perseus (179-168). After the battle 
of Pydna (108) Macedonia became a dependency of Rome, in 146 
it was made a Iloman province (p. 122). 

6. The island of Rhodes (TJSoc;), 

since the battle of Ipsus (301) au independent state ; since the sec- 

B. c. Greeks, 79 

ond century (b. c.,) dependent ally of the Romans ; made a proyince 
by the Emperor Vespasian, 71 a. d. 

7. The Qreek cantons, 

imder the lead of Athens, made a futile attempt, immediately after 
the death of Alexander the Great, to throw off the Macedonian yoke. 
From the city of Lamia in Thessaly, in the neighborhood of which 
the war was principaUy waged, it was known as the 

323-322. Lamian War. 

The Greeks were at first successful under LeosthSnes, and defeated 
Leonndtus, but were defeated by ArUipater and Craterus at Crannon, 
south of the Feneus. The cantons submitted one after another. 
The Athenians were compelled to receive a Macedonian garrison in 
Munychia and to give up their democratic constitution. (JPhodUm 
and DemddeSy the political leaders). Citizenship was regidated by a 
property census. Demosthenes fled and took poison on the island of 
Calauria (Argolis). During the war between Cwtsander and Polys- 
perchon (p. 76) the democratic party regained its supremacy in Athens, 
and Fhocion was executed ; later, however, Demetrius of Phaleron, 
the political companion of Fhocion, became under Macedonian su- 
premacy, the ruler of the Athenian conmionwealth (317-307). In 
the course of the wars of the Diadochi Demetrlua Folioroetes 
gained possession of Athens several times and made the Acropolis 
itie scene of the greatest debauchery (307-295). The last attempt to 
tlirow off the Macedonian yoke and regain its old importance in 
Greece was made by Athens under Gtaucon and ChremonUes in 
263 B. c. but it was defeated after a three years' war and continued 
to be tributary to the Macedonians. Thenceforward Athens had no 
political influence in Greece ; it retained, however, its autonomy as 
regarded its municipal administration, and continued to be the seat of 
culture and learning. 

Thessaly, during this period, was a Macedonian province ; Epirua 
was for a time a separate state, afterwards it was allied with Mace- 
donia. Most of the cantons of central Greece and Peloponnesus became 
allies, more or less dependent, of the Macedonian sovereigns. Tlie 
complete subjugation of Greece by Macedonia was prevented by the 

280. ^toliau Lea.gue founded about 280, and the AchaBan 
League which was renewed at the same time. 

The latter grew to considerable power and acquired the hegemony 
in Feloponnesus after it was joined by Sicyon (251) which was 
freed from its tyrants by ArOtuSy and by Corinth (243), which ArSL- 
tus had freed from the Macedonian garrison. 

Jealous of this hegemony the ^tolian League and Sparta, which 
had completely lost her ancient simplicity of life, and was in the 
hands or a wealthy oligarchy, joined forces against the Achsean 
League. The young king Agis IV. paid with his life for his attempt 
to induce a reform of the Spartan state (241 ?). A similar at- 
tempt mafle by King Cleomvnes III. had better success, though for a 
time only : he caused tlie epliors to be surprised and put to deaths 

80 Ancient History, n. c. 

banished eighty oligarchs, and established a reformed constitution. 
Cleomenes conquered Argm and Mantiwa, and waged successful war 
against the Achtean League. A ratus sought aid against Sparta from 
the Macedonian king Antigdnus Doson^ and delivered the Acropolis 
of Corinth into his hands. 

Tlie Spartans were defeated in the 

221. Battle of Sellasia (in Laconia). 

Cleomenes escaped by flight and died in Egypt (220). The 
Macedonians entered Sparto, restored the oligarchy and forced upon 
the Spartans an allLance with the Acluean League, now under Mace- 
donian Supremacy. The latter was immediately afterwards in- 
volved in a war with the iEtolian League, during which the Spartans 
took sides against the Achseans, and Pclopoimesus was horribly rav- 
aged (220-217). 

About this time the JEtolian League formed an alliance with the 
Romans against Philip V. {TIT-), of Macedonia, who was allied with 
Hannibal. (^First Macedonian war, see Roman history, third Period, 
p. 116). 

PhilopCBmen, who has been called " the last of the Greeks,'' be- 
came Strategus of the Achiean League in 207, and defeated the 
Spartaus«under their tyrant, MachanXdas, in the 

206. Battle of Mantinea, and slew the tyrant. In the second 
Macedonian war (see Roman history, p. 118). the Achcean 
League likewise joined the Romans against Philip V. (^TIL), 
who, after the battle of Ci/nosrephahe (197), was forced to 
abandon the hegemony of Greece. The Romans proclaimed 
the freedom of all the Grecian cantons, but they g^ve support 
everywhere to that party which devoted itself to the advance- 
ment of Roman interests, and caused themselves to be fre- 
quently appealed to as arbitrators. 
After the death of a second Tyrant of Sparta, the cruel Nabist 
PhUopcemen humbled the Spartans again, and forced them to reenter 
the Achsean League, but was soon after taken prisoner and put to 
death in a war against the Messinians, who had revolted at the in- 
stance of Deinocrdtett (183). After the death of Philopcemen, decline 
of the power of the Achccan League, which made a final exertion in 
the so-called Achaean war against the Romans, which ended with 
Defeat of the Greeks at Leucopetra, on the isthmus, and the 

146. Capture and destruction of C!orinth. 

The Corinthians were sold as slaves; a part of their land was 
given to Siajon ; the rest became tlie property of the Roman 
state. The remaining Greek cantons were treated with kind- 
ness, and for the most part retained tlieir own administration 
and jurisdiction, but were subject to the Roman governor of 
Macedonia. It was not until later (27) that Peloponnesus and 
Central Greece seem to have become a Roman province 
under the name of Achaia. 

B. c. Roman History. 81 



(See Kiepert, Atlas Antiguua, Tab. VII., VIIL, and IX.) 

Italia was first used as the general name of the larger part of 
the peniiisiila, which is traversed by the Apennines and extended to 
the Macro and Rubicon, since the middle oi the third century before 
Christ; as applied to the whole peninsula, as far as the Alps, Italia was 
first employed in scientific uscige by Polybius (about 150) ; it was not 
used officially and in a political sense, until after the time of Au- 
gustus. It was dividea into Upper Italy, Central Italy, and 
laow^er Italy. 

I. Upper Italy, traversed by the Padus (Po), and the 
Aihesis or Atagis (Adige, Etsch), and containing the lakes, Lacus Ver- 
bdnus (LAgo Magg^ore), Lacus Larius (L. di Como), and Lacus Bend- 
cus (L. di Garda), comprised the following three districts which, be/ore 
Augustus, were not reckoned a part of political Italy: 1. laiguria, 
VerceUoe (Vercelli), Taurasia, later Augusta 7'aurinorum (Torino, 
Turin), Genoa (Genova); 2. Gallia Cisalpina, also called togata, 
in distinction from transalpine Gaul, which was known as Gallia bra- 
cata, divided by the Padus (Po) into: a. Gallia transpadana, Co- 
mum (Como) ; Medioldnum (Milano, Milan) ; TicVnum (Pavia), on the 
Tic^uSf a branch of the Po; Cremona^ on the Po; Mantua, on the 
Mincius, a branch of the Po, near which was the village of Andes, 
the birthplace of Virgil; Verona, on the A thesis, b. Gallia oispa- 
dana: Placentia ^Piacenza), at the jimction of the Trebia and the 
Padus, Alutina, (Modena), Parma, Bononia (Bologna), Ravenna, in 
ancient times a seaport. 3. Venetia: Patavium (Padua), birthplace 
of Livius, Aquiltia. 

II. Central Italy, lying between the little rivers Macra and 
Rubicon in the N., Sildrus and Frento in the S., was usually divided 
into six districts: Etniria, Latium, Campania, on the Mare Tyrrhd- 
num, or Inferum; Umbria, Picenum, Samnium, on the Mare Ad- 
riaticum or Superum. The Tiber, running from N. to S., divided 
Etruria on the right, from Umhria and Latium on the left bank. The 
name of Samnium is, however, more correctly applied to the southern 
inland district of Central Italy, so that the Sabellic tribes, who were 
related to the Samnites and Picentes, formed geograpliically a sepa^- 
rate seventh group, under which were included the Vestini, Marruclni 
and Frentam, extending to the Adriatic coast, and the inland districts 
of the Sabines, Pceligni, and Marsi. 

1. Etruria, inhabited by the Etruscans (Rasenna), or Tuscans, in 
twelve coimnunities under kings or Lucumos. These formed a con- 
federacy, whose federal constitution seems to have been exceedingly 
loose. The most important places in Etruria were, from N. to S.: 
Pisce, Volaterra, Arretium (Arezzo), Cortona, Perusia (Perugia, west 
of which Lake Trasimenus), Populonia, on the coast, Clusium (Chiusi), 
Volsinii, TarquinOj Falerii, Ccere^ Veii. 


82 Ancient History. B. c. 

2. Latiam. In the smaller district of the Latini : Roma, on 
the lejlt bank of the Tiber (a part of the modern city, Traatevere 
and Borgo, is on the right bjiiik, but the principal part of the 
city is still on the left bank), traditionally said to be buUt on seven 
hills (montes: CapUolinuSf Palaiinus, AvefUinus^ CcdiuSf Esquilinus; 
eolles : Viminalis, Quirinalis). ^ On the southern summit of the 
Mons Capitolinus the Capitolium with the temple of Jupiter Capitol- 
inusy and the Tarpeian Rock; on the northern summit, separated 
from the southern by the Inlermontium, the Arx with the temple of 
Juno Monita. At the foot of the Capitol, the Forum Rofndnum (the 
market-place), consistinff of the Forum proper, and the Comitium, 
with the speakers* platform (Rostra, named from the prows of the 
sliips from Antium) between the two. In the last century of the 
republic the forum was surrounded by temples and basilicas (e. g. 
Basilica Julia). The imperial forums were not open places, but 
masses of buildings and columned porticos. The Palatinus with the 
palaces of the emperors; £. of this, the Amphitheatrum Flavium 
(Coloss€um, for 80,000 spectators). N. from the Capitolinus to the 
Tiber lay the field of Mars, Campus MartiuSy during the republic 
an open field used for military practice, athletic sports, and political 
gatherings, after Cajsar and during the imperial period covered 
with splendid buildings, now the centre of the modem city. The 
buildings on the right bank of the Tiber did not belong to the Urbs 
proper. They were situated partially on the Afons Janiculus, paiv 
tially on the Mons VaticaniiSf where the Vatican and the church of 
St. Peter now stand; eastward stood, by the Tiber, the Mausoleum 
Hadriani, where the Castle of St. Angelo now stands. Finally must 
be mentioned the island of the Tiber. Sixteen great artificial roads 
ran from Rome in various directions : Via Appia and Via Latina to 
the S., Via Valeria to the E., Via Flaminia to the N., Via Aurelia to 
the W., etc. 

Ostia, the harbor of Rome, on the left bank of the Tiber, existed 
at the time of the kings; wider the emperors a second harbor, Portus, 
on the right bank of the Tiber. Laurentum, Lavinium, Ardea, Suessa 
Pometia, Aricia (on the Via Appia), Velitrce not far distant, Alba 
Longa on the slope of Mt. Albanus, near the lake of Albania, 
Tusctdum (near the present Frascati), Gabii, Tilmr (Tivoli) on the 
Anio, a branch of the Tiber; Fidence, north of Rome, south of the 
brook AUicu 

In the land of the jEqui, Prceneste (afterwards a Latin city again. 
In the land of tlie Hemicce, Anagnia. In the land of the Volscii, 
FregellcE, Arpinum, the birthplace of Marius and Cicero ; on the coast, 
AiUium and Tarracina (Anxur), south of the Pomptine marshes. 
In the land of the Aruncii : Formics, Mintuma;, on the Liris (Gari- 
gliauo) ; Suessa (Aurunca), near the Alons Massicus and the Ager 
Falernus (famous wines). 

1 The expression *' scvp-nhillod city *' applies nropcrlv to old Rome^ the pala- 
tine city. Its transfer to the SeiTinn and repuolican kome is the result of a 
later misunderMtandin^. The description of the city of the time of Con- 
btHUtine, leaves out the two colUs^ Quirinalis and ViminaliHj and increases the 
number of montts to 7 by addiii.:; the Vatlcunus and the Janiculus, which 
lay outside of the city proper. See Mommseu, Hist, of Rome^ I. 116, note. 

B. c. Roman History, 83 

3. Campania, traversed by the VoUumus (Voltumo), with the 
mountains Gaums and Vesuvius near Naples. Two bays separated 
from one another by a rocky isthmus: Sinus Cumanus (Bay of 
Naples), and Sinus Pcestanus TBay of Salerno). Along the coast: 
Lilenium; Cumce (K^fAri^ fouudea by a colony from Chalcis in Eubcea 
in 1050 ?) ; Mistnum near the promontory of similar name ; 
Puteoli (Puzzuoli) ; BaicE near lake Lucrinus, famous as a watering 
place ; Parthenope or PalcBopoliSf the oldest part of Neapolis (NccCtoAis, 
Napoli, Naples); Herculaneum and Pompeii^ buried m 79 A. D. by 
lava and ashes from Vesuvius; Salemum on the Sinus Psestanus, the 
chief city of the Picentes who had been transferred thither. Inland: 
Capita (not the modem Capua, but Sanla Maria Maggiore)^ with an 
immense amphitheatre; Nda. 

4. Umbrla. On the coast: Arvminum (Rimini), Pisauruniy Sena 
Gallica (Sinagaglia). Inland: Senllnum, Iguvium, Spoletium, 

0. Picenum. Ancona on the coast; Asculum Picenum. 

6. Samnium (in the wider sense, see p. 81). In the land of the 
Sabini : Amitemuniy birthplace of Sallust ; Cures Reate. In the land 
of the Pcdigni : Corjinium ; Sulmo, birthplace of Ovid. In Samnium 
proper: Bovianum; ^semia; Beneventum (Benevento), former Mal- 
ventum; Caudium^ in the neighborhood of Uie Caudine Pass (^Furculce 

m. Lower Italy, also called Greater Greece, Magna 
Gneca ('Eaa^s ij fAtyoArj), was divided into four districts : Apulia, 
Calabria in the east, Luoania and Bruttium ^ in the west. 

1. Apulia : Luceria, A(u)sciUum ApSlum, Cannce, Venusia, birth- 
place of Horace, near Mt. VuUur. 2. Calabria : Brundisium 
(Brindisi), the port of departure for Greece; Tarentum (Topos see 
p. 51). 3. Lucania: Pcestum (Posidom'a, TloafiZuyta), with notable 
ruins of temples; Metapontumj Heraclea ('H/mUxcm). 4. Bruttium: 
Syhdris (26fiapis), destroyed in 610, by the Crotonians ; Thurii 
afterwards built in its neighborhood (see p. 64); Crotan (Kp6Tuy)y 
not far from the promontory of Lacinium; Locn Epizephyrii (Ao/cpol 
'E^i^c^^pioi) ; Rhegium {'V^tov, i. e. rent, from piryivfu, the present 
l^ggio). Consentia (Cosenza on the river Busento). 

Italian Islands. 

Sicilia (2i«rcA/a), separated from Italy by the Fretum SidUum 
(Strait of Messina), formerly called Sicania, also Trinacria, with 
its three capes, or promontories: PelOrum in the north, Pachynum in 
the south, and Lilyb(Eum in the west. On the eastern coast from 
north to south : MessClna (formerly ZancUy p. 51), Tauromenium 
(T{u>rmina), Catdna (Catania) at the base of ffitna, Syracusao 
(2vp^«cov<ra4, Siragossa, see p. 51), at the time of its greatest extent 
comprising fiye cities: Ortygia, situated on an island, and hence also 
called NasoSf which now forms the whole city, with the spring of 
Arethusa, Achradina, Tycha, Neapolis, and Epipolce, at first a suburb. 

1 Tliis form (instead of Bruttii^ Bruitiut Agtr) has, however, no ancient 
authority. The Byzantines after the tenth century, A. D., gave Bnittium 
the name Caltibnoy after the Normans had di*«po^Ressed them of Calabria 
proper, and the eastern peniiibula was knovirn after that time as Apulia* 

84 Anciimi History, b. c. 

On the soath const: Camarina, Gela, Agrigentum (^AKpdyas, now 
Girgenti), between Grela and Agrigentum the promontory of Ecnomos, 
not far from the mouth of the (southern) river Himtra j Selinus 
(ScAivovs). On the west coast: Lihybceumy Drepdnunif Eri/x, On the 
north coast: Panormus (Jldvopfios, now Palermo, see p. 17), Himera^ 
Mi/lre. In the interior of the island: Henna. 

Sardinia (2ap8<6) : Caralis (Cagliari). 

CoTBioa. (Kvpyos): Alaliaf later the Roman colony of Aleria. Of 
the smaller islands the following are noteworthy: 1. Melita, now 
Malta, and Gaudos, now Gozzo, south of Sicily. 2. The Insulce 
jE gates, on the west of Sicily, not far from the promontory Lilybsenm. 
3. The InsulcB jEoUob (now the Liparian islands) the largest, Lipara, 
north of Sicily. 4. CaprecB, now Capri, and jEnaria, now Ischia, at 
the entrance to the Bay of Naples. 5. The Pontian islands, Pontia, 
Pandataria. 6. Ilva, now Elba. 


The Romans ppssessed an ancient religion entirely dist'mct from 
that of Greece. It was a common inheritance of the Italians, 
though probably early receiving Ktruscan and Grecian elements. 
In the last centuries of the republic the theogony of Greece was 
imported into Roman literature, and to some extent into the state re> 
ligion. At a still later time, under a policy of tolerance, all forms 
of faith and superstition were represented in the great capital. 

The religion of the Romans was a polytheism, bnt their deificar 
tion of nature was not so detailed, nor were their deities so human as 
was the case among the Greeks. Their faith had a sterner aspect, 
the practical side of religion was more natural to them than the 
poetic side. They honored and utilized their gods, but they wove 
few fancies about them. 

The great gods were: Jupiter, god of the sky, "father of gods 
and men; " Juno, liis wife, goddess of maternity; Minerva, goddess 
of intellect, presiding over the arts; Mars, god of war, the most 
representative of the Italian divinities; Bellona, goddess of war; 
Vesta, patron of the Roman state, goddess of the national hearth, 
where burned the sacred fiire; Ceres, Saturnus, goddess and god 
of agriculture; Ops, goddess of the harvest and of wealth; Her- 
cules, god of gain, presiding over the sanctity of contracts; Mer- 
curius, god of traffic; Neptunus, god of the sea. 

Venus seems not to have been one of the original Italian divinities. 
She first appears as a goddess of ag^culture, but was soon identified 
with Aphrodite, the Grecian goddess of love. Of the lesser gods there 
were many, watcliing over every act of individuals and of the state, 
and over every stage of growth and development. Such were Tellus, 
Silvanus, Terminus, Queri7uis, JanuSf the god of the beginning and end, 
represented with a double face. (Gate of Janus in the comiturm, 
open in time of war, closed in time of peace). Lares and Petiates, 
presiding over the family and the home, Sol, Luna, etc. 

1 Bawlinson, Relit/ions of the Ancient World, chap. VIII, Mommsen, 
Uisi. oj Rome, Book I. chap. XII. liei^ton, Hist, of Rome, chap. lY. 

B. c. Roman History, 85 

Worship. The worship of the Romans consisted of a round of 
ceremonies, — prayers, sacrifices, games, — of strictly prescribed 
form, with the object of securing the good-will, averting the anger or 
ascertaining the intentions of the gods. In private life these ceremonies 
were performed in the family and were conducted by its head, the 
paterfamilias^ in matters affecting the whole people, the state, which 
was a larger family, conducted the worship. In early times the king 
presided at the ceremonies. Under the republic a rex sacrijiculus was 
appointed to. perform those religious acts which were formerly the 
exclasive right and duty of the long. 

The state maintained at public cost : 1. " Colleges of sacred lore " 
having general supervision over religion and all matters connected 
therewith. The most important were: The college of Fontificea, 
four in number (afterwards nine and sixteen), the highest religious 
power in the state. With them rested the decision as to which days 
were suitable for the transaction of business, public or private, and 
which not (dies fasti et nefasti). Hence they controlled the calendar, 
whereby they, with the augures, became important uistruments in the 
hands of the government. The pontifices also decided upon the ac- 
tion made necessary by the auguries. At their head stood the pontifex 
maximuSf who appointed the rex sacrificuluSy the Jlamines and vestales. 
College of Augures, originally four, then nine and sixteen, who con- 
eulted the will of the gods, as revealed in omens, by the observation 
of the iiight, cries, and manner of feeding of certain birds. College 
of Petiales, twenty (?) in number, presiding over the relations be- 
tween the Romans ana other peoples. They conducted the conclu- 
sion of treaties, acted as heralds, and performed the ceremony of de- 
claration of war, by throwing a blood-tipped spear into the hostile 
territory.^ Duumviri Sacrorum, having the charge of the Sibylline 
books. The karuspices exercised the art of interpreting the will of 
the gods from tlie examination of the entrails of slaughtered victims. 
Thev were an Etruscan institution. 

2. Colleges of officiating priests: Flamines, who presided in va- 
rious temples with chapters of assisting priests. Salii, or dancing 
priests, of Quirinus and Mars, the latter having charge of the sacred 
shields of Mars (anciU(v), Vestal Virgins, guardians of the sacred 
fire of Vesta, six maidens who had taken the vow of virginity. Lu- 
peroi, Fratres Arvales, etc. 

Besides the observance of sacrifices and the offering of prayers, the 
priests had charge of conducting various public games: Lupercalia, 
(Feb. 15th), Ferioi Latinoi, Saturnalia (Dec.) and others. 


At the extreme south the lapygians. Their descent is not certainly 
established, though they undoubtedly belong to the Indo-European 
family and probably to the Illyrian race. In historic times the rem- 
nants of the tribe appear, in striking contradistinction to the true 
Italici, in process of rapid Hcllenization. 

1 When the growth of the Roman dominion had made this a matter of diffi- 
culty, a plot of ground in Rome was set apart to represent hostile territory, and 
into' this the spear was hurled. 

3 MommBen, Hist, of Romt, I. chap. 2. 

86 Ancient History, B. c. 

To the Indo-European family belonged likewise the inhabitants 
of central Italy, the Italic! proper, who were divided into the Latin 
and the Umbro-Sabellian (Oskan), tribes. They were the next of 
kin of the Hellenes. The Itiilici entered Italy by land. The Latini 
occupied the western lowlands (^Latium, connected with Idius),^ the 
Umbro-Sabellian tribes spread themselves over the eastern part of 
Central Italy {Umbrians^ Picetitesy Sahines, Marsi, Hernici, VoUcUy 
A main division of this grou{), the SamnUe,% occupied the mountain 
region which was named after them, and drove back the lapygians. 
From the Samnites several tribes branched off; so the Campanians, 
called after the plain (^Campus) which they settled along the Tyr- 
rhinc sea. 

Peculiarly distinct from the Latin and Sabellian Italici, in language, 
religion and customs were the EtniBcana (in their own language, 
Rasenna). Up to the present time all attempts to establish their 
ethnographical position, have failed to reach settled conclusions. 
The attempt recently made, to prove them members of the Indo- 
European family and the Etruscan lang^ge closely related to the 
Latin, must, it would seem, be regarded as a failure.^ 

Perhaps the Etruscan i>eople were formed by the union of two dif- 
ferent tribes, one of which came to Italy over tjlie Rsetian Alps, while 
the other came by sea. 

Before the invasion of the CelUtf Etruscans dwelt north of the 
Apennines, on both sides of the Po, between the territory of the 
Veneti (as far as the Adige), and the Ligurians. 

The whole of Upper Italy was occupied by Celtic tribes (about 
500 B. c.?), which gnuiually forced the Etruscans and Umbrians south- 

Besides all these migrations into Italy from the north by land, 
colonization of no mean extent began very early on the part of the 
Hellenes, in Sicily and Louder Italy, by sea. (The Dorians, Chalcid- 
tans (i. e. lonians), and ^olians were principally engaged therein). 

Roman History can be divided into five periods. 

753(?)-510(?) I. Mythical time of the kings. 

510-264. II. Development of the constitution by struggles between 
Patricians and Plel>eians. Subjugation of Italy proper (Cen- 
tral and Lower Italy), down to the beginning of the Punic wars* 

264-146. III. Epoch of the Punic tears, and beginnina of the univer- 
sal rule of Rome, down to the destruction of Carthage and 

146-31. IV. Firm establishment of the universal supremacy of 
Kome, by the conquest of the East, Spain, and Gaul. Epoch 
of the Civil toars, down to the beginning of the absolute rule 
of Octavian, in consequence of the battle of Actium, 

1 The Au9onii {Aui'unci^ in rampania) probably belon^od to the T^tin race, 
as well; also, perhans the Itnlici in the nnrrowtr sense, who dwelt originally in 
the western part of lower Italy, and the Siculi. 

2 "W. Corssen, Ueber die Sprache der Etrusher^ 1874. "W. Deeoke, 
Etruskhche Forschtnif/en, is of the contrary opinion, as is K. O. Miiller, Dit 
Etrusktr^ ed. by W. Deecke, 2 vols., 1377. 

B. c. Ho f nan History, 87 

31 B. C.-476 A. D. V. Sway of the Roman Ccesan, down to the fall 
of the Roman Empire of the west. 
The last period extends into Mediaeval History. 

Mythical Epoch of the Kings (753 ^-510). 

Fonndation of Rome according to the Roman legends. 
King NumUor of Alba Longa, the descendant of ^neas, who had 
settled in Latium with some Trojan refugees, was deprived of his 
throne by his brother AmuliuSj who put his son to death, and caused 
his daughter Rea Silvia to become a vestal virgin, in order that the 
line of Nurmtor should perish. The twins, Romulus and Remus, 
the sons of Rea Silvia and Mars, the god of war, were, by command 
of the king, thrown into the Tiber, then overflowing its banks. Their 
cradle being caught by the roots of a fig-tree, the children were 
rescued from drowning, were suckled by a she-wolf, and brought 
up by the royal shepherd Faustulus. As they grew up, Romulus 
and Kemus led other shepherds on the hunt and in forays for booty. 
At the festival of the Lupercalia, they were surprised by robbers ; 
Romulus was taken prisoner, brought before Numitor, and accuised 
of having phmdered his fields, ifumltor recognized his grandsons. 
The latter thereupon attacked the usurper Amulius at the head of 
their band, slew hun, and placed the rightful king, tlicir grandfather 
Numitor, again on the throne of Alba Longa. With the king's per- 
mission, the twins founded a city on that place on the bank of the 
Tiber where they had been exposed. (Festival of Palilia or Parilia, 
April 21, celebrated as the anniversary of the foundation.) In 
a quarrel as to who should g^ve his name to the city, Remus was 
killed. Romulus, being now the only king, called the city after 
himself, Roma.^ 

Surmises about the real origin of Rome. The results of mod- 
em scientific investigations leave not the least doubt that the Ro- 
man story of the foundation of the city is not historical, but an 
invention, having not the slightest basis of fact. It is perfectly 
clear that in reality Rome and the Romans did not derive their 
name from the founder of the city, but that, on the contrary, the 
name Romulus was foimed by the inventors of the legend from the 
name of the city and the people.^ All tribal heroes are of divine 
origin ; that those of the Romans should be sons of Mars, the god of 
agriculture and of war, needs no explanation. The legend of the 
exposure of the twins and of their miraculous preservation and recog- 
nition bears a striking resemblance to the story of the youth of 
Cyrus (p. 26). The fabulous descent from the Trojan ^neas as- 
cribed to the family of the founder of Rome was an invention of 

1 According to Varro's era 763, according to Cato's 751 ; but to change 
years of the city into years before Christ, 754 or 752 must be used as ihc minu- 
end. Both dates belong to the conventional chronology. See i)p. 88 and 89. 

a livius, I. 1-7. 

s CfMupnro besides Mommaen, Schwegler^ Bdm. Gesch., and Peter, Rdm, 
Gttch.y 1. OG. 

88 Ancient History. b. c. 

Grecian writers (StefnchSrus iii the sixth century, TirncBus in the third 
century, B. c). The tale of the building of Rome by emigrants from 
Alba, under guidance of two princes of divine birth, was a naive 
attempt to explain the growth of a city in the barren and unhealthy 
Roman Campagna by connecting it with the common metropolis of 

Nothing can be considered historical except that Rome was, as 
rt^gards the greater part of its population, a Latin settlement. 
Tlie city was founded, or rather gradually arose, at a w^hoUy 
unknown time and under wholly unknown circuniBtances. 
The settlement was formed very near the border of Latium, and just 
at the head of navigation (for small vessels) of the Tiber, the natural 
liighway of commerce for Latium, without regard to the sterile char- 
acter of the immediate neighborhood. This g^ves probability to the 
supposition that Rome in its earliest days " was a border trading-post 
of the Latins." * Not that Rome was ever a mercantile city, adPter 
the manner of Corinth and Carthage ; it was merely a trading village, 
where the imports and exports of Latium, which was essentially an 
agricultural district, were exchanged. 

The opinion that the Roman people was a mixed race cannot be 
maintained, when it is considered that the development of the Roman 
language, political institutions, and religion, was free and individual 
to a degree seldom equalled. Of the tlu^e tribes or townships 
(Ganen) which seem to have united to form Rome (the Ramnes 
(identical with Romani)^ the Titi(ens)€s, and the Luceres), the first was 
certainly, the third in all probability, Latin ; the second was, it is 
true, Sabine, but it was soon completely blended with the Latin ele- 
ments, as the Roman language shows. 

The Royal Epooh, according to the Roman Legend.^ 

753-716. Romulus, 

warrior king. Establishment of a retreat on the Capitolinns. Ap- 
pointment of 100 Senatores or Patres (fathers), whose descendants are 
called Patricians. The three centuries of knights : Ramnesy Titi(ens)eSf 
and Ltweres. Rape of the Sabine women; war with the Sabines fol- 
lowing, their king, Titus Tatius, seized the fortress on the Capitol 
through the treachery of Tarpeia, Battle between the Romans 
and Sabines intemipted by the Sabine women, who had been carried 
off. Union of the Romans and Sabines in one double state under the 
common rule of Romulus and Tatius, until the latter's death. War 
of Romulus with Pidcnre and Veii. Romulus is translated during a 
thunder-storm, and henceforward worshipped as the god Quirinus. 
715-C73. Numa Pompilius 

of Cures, elected, after a year's interregnum, by the Romans from 
among the Sabines. Peaceful king; arranges the religious services of 
the Romans according to the advice of the Camojnas (prophetess) 
Egeria, his consort. Temple of Janus. Appointment of the five 
PontiJiceSy the first of whom is the Pontifex Maximus, the FlamXnes, 

1 MommaeD, IJist. of Borne, Book I. Chaps. 2 and 4. 
a lilviuB, I. 8 foil. 

B, c. Roman History. 89 

FetialeSfi^e four Aug^jr&t, the four vestal virginSf afterwards increased 

to six. 

673-641. TulluB HoBtllius, 

warlike kiii^. War with Alba Longa; contest of the Horatii and 
Curalii decides in favor of Rome, to which Alba Ls obliged to submit. 
War with Veil and Fldcnce; treachery of the dictator of Alba, Mettius 
Fuffetius, who is torn in pieces. Destruction of Alba Longa j the in- 
habitants are transferred to Rome. 
(Ul-616. Ancus Marcius, 

grandson of Xuma, tit the same time peaceful and warlike (" et 
Nunue et Romuli memor "). Development of the institution of the 
Feliales. Successful war with four Latin towns, the inhabitants of 
which are settled on the Aventine, For this reason Ancus Marcius is 
represented in the traditional story of the kings of Rome, as the 
founder of the class of the plebeians.^ Fortification of Janiculum, con- 
struction of a bridge of piles ( jfons sublicius) over the Tiber. 

Foundation of the harbor of Ostta. 
616-o78. Tarquinius Priscus, 

who with his wife Tanaqu'd emigrated from the Etruscan city of 
TarquiniU and for whom Grecian descent from the BacchiadcB of Cor^ 
inth was afterwards invented. He became guardian of Ancus' son, and 
was elected to the tlirone. Commencement of the construction of the 
temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline hill. Construction of the cloacre. 
The Senate increased to 300 members ; the number of equites doubled. 
Circus Maximus. Successful wars witli the Sabines, Latins, and Elrus^ 
cans. After the murder of Tarquinius by the sous of A ncus, 
578-^534. BerviuB Tulliua 

becomes king through the cunning of Tanaquil. He was the son 
of the slave woman Ocrisia and a god, was educated like a prince by 
Tanaquil in consequence of the utterance of an oracle, ana became 
the son-in-law of Tarquinius. Wars with Veil. Rome joins the 
Latin league. Construction of the wall of Rome. Establishment of 
the census and the division of the centuries (p 92). Servius 
TuUius murdered by his son-in-law, 
53I-0IO. Tarquinius Superbus, 

represented by tradition as a cruel despot. Tarquinius Superhus 
(i. e. the haughty) subjugates the Latin league, conquers Suessa Po- 
metia, completes the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and gains posses- 
sion of the city of Gabii by the deceit and treachery of his son Sextus. 
Ti*adition ascribes to him tlic a'^quisition of the SihyWne hook's. 
Embassy of Titus and A runs Tarqniniua, the king's soils, to the oracle 
at Delplii. They are aeeoiiipanied by their cousin, L. Juni>ui Bruins, 
who represents himself as feeble-minded, in order to protect his life 
against the cruelty of the king; a story which was invented to exphiin 
the name of Brutm. Sie;^c of Ardcn. The rape of Lncretiay wife of 
L. Tarquinius Collatinus (i. e. from Collatia), hy the king's son, Sextus, 
leads to the expulsion of the Tarquins and the abolition of monarchy. 
The insurrection is headed by L. Junius Brutus, whom the legend 
makes Tribunus Celvrum, although he was commonly considered an 
imbecile. Over the body of Lucretia, who died by her own hand, he 
1 Feter, RGm. Gisch., I.* 3.3. romparc, on the otb'ir hand, p. 90. 

90 Ancient History, B. c. 

called the people to arms, and incited the army against the king, who 
found the city gates closed upon him, and went into exile (Livius, I., 

Historical Facts of the Epoch of the Kings.^ 

Tliere is no doubt that the constitution of the oldest Roman state 
was a patriarchal monarchy ; and tliat, after tlie new settlement 
had become an independent conmiunity, the highest power in Rome 
was exercised by a line of sovereigns elected for life (rex, from the 
same stem as regere, to govern). 

But neither the number nor all the names of the traditional kings, 
nor yet the deeds ascribed to the reign of each, still less the chro- 
nology of their reigns, can be considered historically authentic. The 
artificiality of the first four reigns, which are alternately warlike and 
peaceable, is self-evident. Doubtless the extension of the Roman ter- 
ritory and Rome's hegemony over the Latin league was not acquired 
without severe contests and brilliant deeds of arms; but the story has 
come down to us in a fabulous form and has been arbitrarily revised. 
The destruction of Alba, the ancient metropolis of Latium, is an his- 
toriccal fact ; the contest of three Roman against three Albanian 
brothers, their cousins, is probably only a personified designation of a 
war between two closely related towns, with similar political divis- 

As regards the last three reigns, it can be considered historical that 
the royal family of the Tarquins was of Etruscan origin ; that under 
its rule Rome made an important advance in power and civilization ; 
that the division of the people into classes, the erection of the so-called 
Servian wall, portions of which are still in existence, and the construc- 
tion of the first cloacae date from their reigns. 

At the commencement of the actual history of Rome there is found 
to exist a sharp division of the population into Patricians, or citizens 
with full political rights, and Plebeians, or free inhabitants 
without political rights (like the Lacediemonian Perio^ci and the 
Athenian Metcpci; see pp. 50 and 52). The traditional legend gives no 
explanation of this important fact, but only two hints at one, and those 
contradictory.^ Tlie citizens having full rights are evidently the de- 
scendants of the original settlers, the victors and later conquerors. 
Since, according to Roman usage, marriages of equals in rank con- 
ferred the rights of citizenship on the children, those having such 
rights called themselves Patricii, i. e. "Children of the fathers." 
The people who were not included in these families, but stood under 
their protection, who were compelled to have a protector (Patronus), 
were distinguished by the name Clientes (from cluere). Their de- 
scendants, increased by the former citizens of Latin towns conquered 
in war, fonned gradually a second Roman community, whose mem- 
bers were not citizens. These were called the Plebeians, the Plebs (or 

1 Sec Mommsen, Hist, of Rome, Book I. chap. 4. Peter, i2^. Gfsch. 
13 54-5G) likewise ascribes but a limited historical value to the traditional 
hi>t()ry of the kini]p». 

2 Spp paj^c 88 the rei'^n of Roninlui^ and p. 89, that of Ancu8 Marcius. Comp. 
Momiusen, IJist. <»/ Greece ^ Book I. chap. 5. 

B. c. Roman History. 91 

plebes, connected with pleo, plenus) ; i. e. the masses, the great mob. 
As the majority of the popidation of conquered cities were compelled 
to enter the plebeian class, whether they were settled in or near Rome 
or remained in their old homes, it is incorrect to imagine the plebs 
composed of poor people entirely; there were from the beginning 
many wealthy and respected families among them. 

Under the oldest constitution of Rome, which is commonly called, 
from the legend, the Constitution of Romulus, the Patricians alone 
formed the municipality and the military force, the populus (con- 
nected with poptUarif to ravage), since they alone performed military 
service. They were divided into curise, districts, at first 10 in num- 
ber, after the union of the Titus and Luceres with the Ramnes 30 
(p. 88), each curia being divided into ten families or gentes. The 
assembly (populus) of the citizens or patricians, called by the king 
when he had an announcement or an inquiry to make, formed the 
comitia curiata. To this body citizens under sentence had the 
right of \ippeal for pardon (provocatio) ; only, however, with the 
consent of the king. The comitia elected the king, who, after elec- 
tion, exercised absolute power, having to consult the community only 
when changes of the existing law or the commencement of an offen- 
sive war were in question. The Senate (council of the eldera, 
seniores, senatores) was an advisatory body, named by the king, but 
representing the gentes after a maimer. 

This oldest form of the community was essentially altered by a 
reform conducted during the reign of the last dynasty, and wliich 
tradition has coupled with the name of Servius TuUius. Military 
service and payment of the tributum was thereby made obligjitory on 
all land-oumers, whether they were citizens or merely inhabitants 
of the class of metoeci. Every freeholder between seventeen and 
sixty years of age was now liable to service. The cavalry, composed 
of citizens, continued as before, but there was added to it a force of 
double its strength, which consisted wholly, or in great part, of ple- 
beians. The wealthiest land-owners were drawn upon to furnish the 
cavalry. No regard at all was paid to political or class differences 
in making up the infantry, but the kind of armor to be furnished by 
the warriors was regulated in accordance with a property classifica- 
tion. This is the 

Servian classification,^ for militaxy service and taxation, 
of Patricians and Plebeians according to Uieir property (Cen- 

A. Cavalry (Eqoites). 

6 pure (?) patrician, 12 plebeian (and patrician) centuries ; in all 

1800 horse, all of the first class. 

1 The census was not expressed in money until the time of Appius Clauditu 
(B. c. 312). Iieiffhton, Hut. of Rome, p. 22, n. 5. [Trans.] 

92 Ancient History. b. c. 

B. Foot-Boldiers (FediteB). 
Class. Number of Centuries. Property in Asses, i Armor. Weapons. 




3. § 

80 C. with 20 jugera 100,000 galea, clipt-iis, oc- 

rese, lorica 

20 C. with I as mach 75,000 galea, scutum, 


20 C. with J as much 50.000 galea, scutum 

20 C. with I as much 25,000 scutum 

28 C. with i (1-10) as 12,000 




much fuudsB 

It appears from the number of centuries (i. e. companies) in the 
different classes, that the division of the land at that time was such 
tliat more than half the farms contained 20 jugera or more, and a 
farm of that size was considered the standard. 

In the five classes : 168 centuries of foot-soldiers, each of 100 men = 
16,800 men ; i. e. 4 legions of 4200 men each, 2 legions juniores (first 
levy, 17-46 years old, for service in the field) and 2 legions seniores 
(second levy, 47-60 years old, for garrison service). To be added are 
3 centuries of fahri (pioneers), tubicines and cornucines (musicians), 
2 centuries accensi velati (unarmed substitutes), 2 centuries prole- 
tarii and capite censi, making, with the cavalry, 193 centuries. As 
the population increased the number of centuries was not enlarged, 
but the separate divisions were strengthened by the addition of new 
recruits, without doing away entirely with the standard number. 

Tliis new military body, arranged in chisses and centuries, was 
henceforward consulted by the king in regard to offensive wars as the 
army had been when divided into curiae. This was at first the only 
privilege which the new citizens shared ; all other rights were reserved 
to the comitia curiata, which consisted exclusively of patricians. 
It was not until later (at the beginning of the Republic) that the 
new arrangement of the community acquired political importance, 
and tliat a new popular af^aemblf/f the comitia centuriata, de- 
veloped out of the new military organization. The reform ascribed 
to Servius had originally a purely military character. It gave the 
Plebeians at first scarcely any rights^ but only burdens • it opened the 
way, however, whereby they became true citizens. The inhabitants 
who were not land-owners, be they clientes or foreign metoeci, were 
henceforward distinct from the land-owning plebs. The inhabitants 
who owned no huid were called, after the money which they had to 
pay for protection, aerarii.^ 

For puqK)S('s of conscription the city and township were divided 
into four wards (Tribus), so that eacii le^-ion contained the same 
number of recruits from each ward. Every 4, later every 5 years a 
new census was taken, which closed with a sacrifice for purification 
(lustrum), whence in later times lustrum denoted a space of five 

1 Mommsen, Hist, of Rome, Book I. chap. 6. Iilvius, I., 42 and foil. 
^ Mommsen, Hist, of Homey Book I. chap. 6. 

B. c. Roman Bistori/, 93 


Struggles between Patricians and Plebeians, Subjugation 
of Italy Proper, to the Beginning of the Punic Wars 

510 (-0. Expulsion of the Tarquins, Borne a Republic. 

According to Roman tradition, the consuls for the first year of the 
republic were 

509 (?). Lucius Junius Brutus and L. Tarquinius CoUatinus. 
The latter, it is said, being related to the exiled royal family, 
soon fell under suspicion, and was replaced by L. Valerius Popli- 
cola, the first Consul suffectus, to whom tradition ascribes the 
lex Valeria de provocatione (Ne quis magistratus civem Romanum 
adversus provocationem (p. 91) neceret neve verberaret). On 
the same authority, the first dictator (p. 94) was Titus Lartius 
(501, against the Sabines). The Grecian historian Polybius calls the 
consuls of the first year 
509 (?). Lucius Junius Brutus and Marcus Horatius.^ 

We know absolutely nothing which is historically authenticated 
about the details of this revolution. This alone is certain, that the 
arbitrary rule of the last king brought about his expulsion and the 
banishment of the whole gens Tarquinia. (Tlie family sepulchre has 
been discovered in Ccere, in Etruria). The fear lest the common- 
wealth should be transformed into a t^-ranny seems to have united 
the patricians and plebeians for a short time. 

We are better informed about the nature of the constitutional 
change, since on this point uiferenccs can be drawn from the institu- 
tions which we find in existence in historic times. The change'in the 
constitution was, as far as this is possible in a revolution, conservative 
in character. The sovereign reigning during life was replaced by 
two rulers holding office for a year, taken from the patricians. They 
were called at first Praetores, Judices, or Consules; later, the latter 
name only was applied to them." They exercised, generally, regal 
power: Imperium (i. e. sovereignty in umr and peace) ; auspida puhlica 
(i. e. supplication of the gods in behalf of the state) ; convening the 
popular assembly and the senate; taking the census; appointment of 
senators and the two patrician qucestors. The latter, whose office was 
established during the time of the kings, exercised the functions of 
criminal police, and soon acquired the administration of the state 
treasury under the supervision of the consuls. The consuls were 
assigned 12 lictores as a public indication of their official power. 

^ Polybius, III. 22. Tlie statement of Polybius, that the first treaty be- 
tween Rome and Carthage fell in the first year of the Republic, 16 disputed by 
Mommsen ( /fdm. Chronologie bis anf Caisur^ 2 ICd. p. 3*20), but la stronjrly 
defended by IQissen {Jahrbiicher fur Philohrjit, ISfif), and others. 

2 The derivation of consul and pra-tor is doubtful. Consul denotes eithe»- 
" administrator of the state " {qui conntltt reijutbltca;)^ or merely cnllenirue. PraS" 
tor denotes **jfpneral" (qui prait erercitnt^ like the (Jennjin f/ci-.t'f/), or one 
who presides over the stale (qtd pnttil^ praetst reipubllcm ). See Marquardt- 
Mommsen, Rom. Altertkilmer^ 11. p. 71 f. 

94 Ancient History, B. c. 

According to the lex Valeria de provocatiane ^ (609), all citizens ' 
had right of appeal from sentences of death pronounced hy the con- 
suls, which were not delivered according to military law, to the peo- 
ple, even against the will of the consuls; and this ap])eal was not 
to the old " populus," composed of patricians, but to the comitia 
centuriata, the assembly of the new militt^ and political com- 
munity founded by the Servian constitution (p. 92). 

Tlie comitia centuriata acquired, moreover, in consequence of the 
violent alteration of the constitution, the right to elect the consiilB, 
or rather, according to old Roman interpretation, the right of desig- 
nating them to the consul who presided over the election, who there- 
upon appointed them (creare). Tlie comitia centuriata acquired 
also the right of accepting or rejecting bills laid before it, but 
the six patrician centuries of equites retained the important right of 
voting nrst on any proposed measures. 

The Senate, formerly consisting of patricians exclusively, was 
now enlarged, or rather brought up to its legal number, by the ad' 
mission of plebeians from the equites, i. e. the wealthy. Hence the 
formula: Patres [c/l conscripti. 

The nature of the changes which the comitia coriata (p. 91) 
underwent in consequence of the revolution is much disputed; it is 
certain only that it soon sank into complete insignificance. According 
to the view which is most commonly received, it retained at first the 
right of approving the elections or resolves of the comitia centuriata, 
a privilege expressed by the formula patres (i. e. patricii) auc- 
tores fiunt.^ Others understand the expression patres to apply to 
the senatores, and claim the right of approval mentioned above for 
the Senate.^ 

At a time of special danger the consuls were replaced by an ex- 
traordhiary ofiicial, the dictator, or magister populi, who was not 
elected, but appomted by one of the consuls (dictatorem dicere) 
without the participation of the citizens. (Practically, however, the 
Senate commonly played an important part in the selection.) As 
soon as danger was over the dictator resigned his office (dictatura 
se abdicare), which he could not hold longer than six months in any 
event. The dictator appointed his magister equitum (master of 
the horse) ; the sign of his power, which was thoroughly royal, was 
24 (?) lictors. Appeal from his decisions was allowed only in cases 
where it had been permitted against the king (p. 91). 

1 "The habeas corpus act of the Romans.'' Ijelffhton, ffitt. of Rome, 
p. 53. [Trans.] 

2 Becker, Horn. Alth. II. 3, p. 183, u. SchweRler, Rom. Gesch. II. 160. 

8 According to Mommsen {/Jist. of Rome, I. 204), all new citizem, that is, 
all Inml-otrnlng plebetanayf^ere in consequence of the revolution (510) admitted to 
the comitia curiata, and the old body of citizens, or the pntricians, thereby lost the 
ri^ht of debating and deciding (or political purposes, in an assembly apart from 
the rest of frhe citizens. This opinion is opposed by other scholars, who main-* 
tain that plebeians were first admitted to the comitia curiata toward the end of the 
Republic. MomnT^on thinks that the riffht of approval bolonffed to the ftnalUr, 
j^urcl V pnfricinn senate, while the Inrr/er senate, increased bv the addition of 
plebeian conscnpti, wa?<, during* the first years of the Republic, an advisatory 
council for the consuls. 

B. c. Roman History. 95 

509. According to the Itoman legend a conspiracy of young pa- 
tricians was discovered in Rome, which purposed the restora- 
tion of the monarchy. Execution of Brutus* son. 
508. Unsuccessful war of the Romans against the Etruscan king 
Porsena of Clusium. The Romans were defeated, and com- 
pelled to purchase peace by a surrender of territory and com- 
Slete disarming. Roman story of Horatius Codes, the bravo 
efender of the bridge over the Tiber, of the heroic courage 
of Mucins Sccevola (i. e. left-handed ; the well-known story is 
probably only an attempt to explain the name), and Clcdia, in 
Livius II. 9-13. When the Etruscans advanced further into 
Latium they were defeated by the Latins and their allies from 
lower Italy before Aricia, and could not maintain themselves 
on the left bank of the Tiber. In consequence of this Etrus- 
can defeat, Rome seems to have freed itself from the dis- 
graceful peace imposed upon it, and to have gradually re- 
gained its former powerful position. 
496 (?). Tradition of a great victory of the Romans over the Latins 
by the small lake KegUlus, near Tusculum, won by the dictator, 
Aldus Postumius, with the aid of the Dioscuri (Livius II. 19). 
The inner history of the Roman conmiuuity for this period deals 
with two contests, one political and one sociaJ. I. Contest of the 
patridana, who gradually developed into an hereditary nobility, 
against the new citizens, or plebeians. The latter, who could, it is 
true, become senators (conscripli), but were excluded from the offices 
of state and from the priesthood, aimed at complete political equality. 
Since the offices of state in Rome, as among the ancients generally, 
were administered without pay (hence, honores, officers of honor), it 
was essentially the wealthier plebeian families alone who were inter- 
ested in this contest. II. The social contest between the well- 
to-do property-oi^nerB and the ovrners or renters of small 
farms, who were growing poorer, or had been deprived of their pos- 

The use of the ager publicns, i. e. the public land, acquired by 
conquest (comprising both cultivated land and pasture), belonged 
legally to the patricians only. In fact the senate made exceptions in 
favor of the rich plebeian houses which had become members; the 
small plebeian lana-owners and renters were strictly excluded from 
the privilege. Very seldom, on occasion of new conquests, a dis- 
tribution of land was made among the poor plebeians, but the greater 
part of the state domain was leased to the patrician land-owners for a 
moderate rent, which was, probably, hardly ever regularly collected, 
and these estates were soon treated as private property. Gradually 
the tillage of the large farms was given over to slaves, and the ple- 
beian tenants were thereby driven from their holdings. The plebeian 
owners of small peasant holdings sank into a condition of the great- 
est misery, through frequent military service, taxation, excessive in- 
terest on loans, and the cruel Roman law of debt, which placed the 
person and property of the debtor in the creditor's hands. In conse- 
quence of this there were repeated uprisings and refusals to perform 
military service, which, in 495, was overcome only by the appointment 

96 Ancient History, B. c. 

of a dictator. Finally, when the patricians refused to grant the prom- 
ised alleviations, and continued their ill treatment of those who be- 
came their shives through debt (ncan*), the plebeian soldiers in the 
victorious army, as they were returning home, turned aside, under the 
leadershi]) of plebeian militxiry tribunes, to a small hill on the Anio 
(later called Mons Sacer), and threatened to found a plebeian city in 
that fertile region (three miles from Rome). Tliis is the so-called 

494 0).^ Seoession of the Plebeians to the Sacred 

Mount {secessio plehis in montem sacrum) , which compelled 
the patricians (Menenius Agrippa, fable of the beUy and the 
members) to make sincere concessions. After abrogation of 
the oppressive debts, 

494 (?). Creation of the tribunate (tribuni plebis) and 
the plebeian SBdiles 

The tribimefi of the people (at first 2 (?), then 5, finally 10), 
were always chosen from the plebs.* They were inviolable (sacro- 
sancti). They had the right of protection (juB aiudlii) for every 

Slebcian against injustice on the part of an official. This privilege 
eveloped into an extensive right of InteroeaBion {jns intercessionis) 
against every administrative or judicial aet, with the exception of the 
imperium miiUare, — tliat is to say, against the dictator and against the 
consul when he was more than a mile from the city. From the first 
the tribunes of the people exercised judicial functions, convened the 
assemblies of the plebeians, and proposed criminal sentences for their 
consideration. Later (448), the tribunes were admitted to the senate, 
where, by their veto, they could deprive any resolution of the senate 
(senatus consultus) of its legislative force, and reduce it to a mere ex- 
pression of opinion (senatus auctoritas). The two aediles of the 
people (cediles plebis) assisted the tribunes, and superintended the 
business of the markets. Their name was probably derived from 
the temple (asdes) of Ceres, where they preserved the official docu- 
ment which decreed the establishment of the plebeian magistracy. 

During this time (according to some authorities, not until later) 
occurred the establishment of the important comitia tributa. In 
this assembly the citizens voted according to wards or tribus; not, 
however, the four wards of the Servian constitution (p. 92), but ac- 
cording to a later (perhaps 495) division into 20 tribus f to which 
was aaded the Crustumiuian tribus (494), making 21, and the num- 
ber gradually rose to 35. It is probable that, down to the time 
of the legislation of the decemvirs, plebeians only, after that 
time, however, the whole body of lahd-owning inhabitants, both patri- 
cians and plebeians, voted in the comitia tributa,^ In this comitia 

1 Cf. Momtiisen, Ilist. of Rome ^ I. 279. 

2 It is commonly assumed as pnibable that up to the lex Publilia (472) the 
tribunes were elfoted in the comitia antuHota^ and approved by the comitia 
curiata. Accordinpf to the testimony of Dionysius (IX. 41) and Cioero (pro 
Corn.), they were chosen by the curiata; according to Mommsen's view (p. 94, 
note ], tliis denotes that they were at first elected by ih^ plebeiant assembled by 

8 See the different opinions in Booker, R6m. Alther^ II. 1, p. 176 and 890. 

B. c. Roman History, 97 

each tribus had one vote, which was decided by the majority of voters 
in the tribus. Compared with the comitia centuriatOf therefore, the 
ascendency of the wealthy was done away with, as was also the privi- 
lege, enjoyed by the nobility, of throwing their votes first. 
403. In the consulate pf Spurius Cassius, renewal of the eternal 
alliance between Rome and the Latin league on a basis of 
equality. Only gradually did Rome acquire ag^n the he- 
gemony over the Latins. Continual disputes with Etruscans, 
Sabines, jEqui, Volscians. Continuation of the contests be- 
tween patricians and plebeians; the institution of the tribu- 
nate proving to be the organization of civil strife and anarchy. 
An attempt was soon niade to abolish the tribunate by the 
491. Cn. (C. ?) MaroiOB, called Coriolanns (from the storm of 
Corioli), who, during a famine, proposed to grant the plebeians 
grain at the expense of the state, only on condition that they 
gave up the tribunate. When sunmioned by the tribunes be- 
fore the comitia tributa, Coriolanus declined to appear; being 
banished in his absence, he went to the Volscians, and, accord- 
ing^ to the story, led tiieir troops against Rome, but, at the 
rebuke of his mother, Vetuna, and Sie entreaties of his wife, 
Volumnia, gave up the war against his native city (Livius, 
II. 40). 
487. The Hemici invaded the Roman territory. Being defeated by 
the consul AquUlius, and, in the next year, by the consul Sptp' 
ritis CassiuSf the 
486. Hemici joined the Latin league. 

486. 8purius Cassius Viscellinus ( Vecellinus f), consul for the 
third time, brought forward the first agrzurian law. He pro- 
posed to divide a part of the public lands among needy plebeians 
and Latins ; the rest to be actually leased for the profit of the 
public treasury. The patricians and wealthy plebeians joined 
forces against Spurius Cassius ; the lower classes were dissat- 
isfied tlutt the Latins should also receive land and abandoned 
him. After the close of his term of . office he was sentenced 
and executed. 
479. Withdrawal of the gens Fahia and their 
477. destruction by the Etruscans at the brook Cremera, 
473. Murder of the tribune of the people, Crnceus Genucius, who had 

ventured to call two consuls to account. 
472. Law carried by the tribune of the people, Volero Publilius, 
to the effect that the plebeian magistrates should, in future, be 
elected by the comitia tributa (lez publilia: ut maffistratus 
plebei comitiis tributis creentury p. 96). 
4(>3. rlagne in Rome and throughout Italy. 

462. Motion of the tribune of the people, C. Terentilius Arsa, for 
the appointment of a body of ten men to reduce the laws to a 
written code. Violent opposition of the patricians. 
460. Surprise of the Capitol by Htrdonius at the head of some polit- 
ical refugees (Livius III. 15). 
Renewal of civil discord. In order to satisfy the plebeians, the num- 


98 Ancient History. B. c. 

ber of tribunes of the people was raised from 5 to 10 (457) ; in the 
following year the Mons Auentinus was divided into building lots, 
which were distributed among the poor citizens. Dictatorship of 
Z. Quinctius CindnnatuSf who rescued an army which had been sur- 
rounded by the Mqm (Livius III. 26). A compromise was reached 
in regard to the codification of the laws, wh&reby three ambassadors 
were sent to Greece to bring back copies of the Solonian laws and 
others (454). After their return 

451. Decemvirs, a body of ten men, were chosen from the 
patricians (Decemviri consiUari imperio legibus scnbundis)^ and 
the consulate, tribunate, and right of appeal were for the time 
suspended. The code of laws drawn up by the decemvirs was 
accepted by the people, engraved on copper tables, and set up 
in the forum. As an appendix seemed necessary, 

450. Decemvirs were appointed again, three being plebeians, who 
added two more tables. Henceforward the law of the city and 
county of Rome, according to which the consuls were to ex- 
ercise their judicial functions, was known as the Islwb of the 
twelve tables (Leges duodecim tabulanim). By their 
exposure the patrician administration was henceforth sub- 
jected to the control of public judgment. Instead of giving 
place to the regular magistrates after the completion of the 
two supplementary tables the decemvirs remamed in office 
during the succeeding year (449). An attempt of the mod- 
erate aristocracy, headed by the Valerii and HoratU, to 
compel the abdication of the decemvirs, was unsuccessful. 
The latter, under Appius Claudius, the head of the extreme 
party of the nobles, acquired the preponderance in the state. 
At first the people submitted and acquiesced in a levy for the 
war against the Sabines and Volscians. The oppression of the 
decemvirs, especially of Appius Claudius.- murder of the former 
tribune of the people, Siccius Dentatus, and the attack on the 
liberty and honor of the betrothed of the former tribune L. 
IciliuSf Virginia, whom her own father Virginius stabbed 
in the forum, brought about an uprising (Liv. III. 44 foil.). 
The plebeian soldiers occupied the AverUine and the Sacred 
Mount, Valerius and Horatius managed a compromise, ac- 
cording to which the decemvirs abdicated. Appius Claudius 
and Spurius Oppius disembowelled themselves in prison, the 
others were sent into exile. It is impossible to decide what 
part of this romantic story is historical. It seems certain that 
the consulate and tribunate were reestablished. The power of 
the nobility was further weakened by the 

448. Lavrs of the consuls Valerius and Horatius (leges Horatice) : 
1. The resolves (plebiscUa) of the comitia tributa were given 
equal force with those of the comitia centuriata (ut quod tribu- 
tim plebs jussisset populum teneret). 2. Every magistrate, in- 
cluding therefore, the dictator, was obliged, in future, to allow 
appeals from his decision (ne quis ullum magistratum sineprovo- 
catione crearet, qui creasset, eum jus fasque esset ocdldi). 3. Kecog- 

B. C. Roman History. 99 

nition of the inviolability of the tribunes of the people, and ex- 
tension of the same priYilege to the sBdiles (ut qui tribunis 
plebis, cBtfUibus nocuisset, ejus caput Jovi sacrum esset). About 
the same time (447) two qusestora were appointed whose pe- 
culiar charge was the military treasury (making in all 4 quaest- 
ors, see p. 93) ; they were patricians, but were appointed by the 
comitia tributa, wherein both patricians and plebeians voted 
henceforward, if not before (p. 96). In 421 the qusestorship 
was opened to the plebeians. Moreover, the tribunes of the 
people acquired the right of taking auspices, and were admitted 
to the senate, though at first required to occupy a bench near 
the door. 
445. Law of the tribune Canuleius legalizing marriage between 
patricians and plebeians (lex Canuleia de conubio : ut conubia ple^ 
bei cum palribus essent). The cliildren inherit the rank of the 
father. The motion brought forward by this tribune that the 
consuls might be chosen from the plebeians (ut populo potestas 
esset J seu de plebe sen de patribus vellet, consules faciendi), was vio- 
lently opposed by the nobility. A compromise was effected, 
and it was decreed that instead of consuls 

444. militaxy tribunes (6) with consular power (tri- 
buni militum consulaxi potestate) 
should be appointed, and that to this office plebeians could be 
elected. At the same time creation of a new patrician office, 
that of oensor. Tlie two censors were elected in tlie comitia 
centuriata, at first for 5 (4 ?) years, after 434 for 18 months, but 
every fifth year only, so that the office was vacant 3J years out 
of every five. Functions of the oensora : 1. Taking the census 
every 6 (4 ?) years (after every lustrum), and compiling 
the lists of citizens and taxes; appointment of senators {lectio 
senatus) and the equites (recognitio equitum), 2. Preparation 
and publication of the budget, management of the state prop- 
ert}', farming the indirect taxes (vectigalia), superintendence 
of the public buildings. 3. Supervision of the public morality 
(regimen morum). The duties and privileges included under 
the latter head gave the office great moral and political im- 
portance in the next century (Notatio censoria). 

439. Spitrius MceliuSf a rich plebeian, who, during a famine, distrib- 
uted grain at a low price, was accused of aiming at royal 
power, and was slain by C. Servilius Ahala, the master of the 
horse of the octogenarian dictator, L. Quinctius Cincinnatus. 

405-396. Siege of Veil, 

the history of which, like that of the previous wars with the 
EtruscanSf has been much ornamented by tradition. The long 
continuance and obstinacy of the war with Veii is proved by 
the fact that then for the first time the campaigns were not 
interrupted during the winter. The result was, that the citi- 
zens who served in the army now for the first time received 
pay from the public treasury (i. e. out of the taxes on the 
public lauds). ^ Capture and deatruction of Veii by the 

1 Ijeighton, Hist. ofRome^ p. 70, note 1. [Tbakb.] 

100 Ancient Ilialory, B. C. 

dictator, M. FuriuB Camillns. The fall of Veil markB the 
beginiiinp^ of the de(;liue of the Etruscan power, which was 
hard pressed at tlic same tiuie by the Latins in the south, Celts 
(^Gauls) from beyond the Alps iu the north, and from the sea 
by the Sicilian and ItalLan Greeks, especially the Syracusans, 
whose attacks had endured upward of a century. 
391. Camillus went into exile in consequence of a complaint of in- 
justice in the division of the booty from Veii. 
Latium invaded by the G-anla in consequence of Roman ambas- 
sadors having taken part, in the war of the Etruscans of Clusium, 
against the Gauls. The Gauls demanded that the ambassadors (the 
three Fabii) should be delivered to them, to which the senate agreed. 
The proposal was, however, rejected by the citizens. 

390 (July 18). Battle of the Allia, 

a brook, which falls into the Tiber eleven miles north of 
Rome. Utter defeat and rout of the Romans on the right 
bank of the Tiber, whereby the city was left defenceless. 
Abandoned by the citizens (the Mons Capitolinns alone contin- 
ued to be occupied), Rome was taken, pluudered, and burnt by 
the Gauls under their Brennus, i. e. military ruler. Slaughter 
of the senators. Unsuccessful attempt to surprise the Capitol. 
The geese of Juno. M, Manlius Capitolinns, After a seven 
months* siege of the fortress, the withdrawal of the Gauls w^ 
purchased with gold. Legend (a later invention) of an expul- 
sion of the enemy by a victory of Camillus, who surprised the 
liaughty Brennus ( V(b victis /) in the forum, while the gold was 
being weighed (I). Return of the inhabitants. The plan of 
emigrating to Veii broken up by Camillus. Hasty, but irregu- 
lar, reconstruction of the city, which soon regained its old 
power, after the jEqui, tlie Vohcians, and the Etruscans, who 
had taken up arms agiiin, had been defeated by Camillua. 

Equalization of the old orders. Origin of the new nobility. 

Recommencement of the civil contests against the patricians: 1, by 
the plebeian aristocracy to get admission to the consulate; 2, by the 
poor, indebted plebeiatis to obtain a reform of the laws of debtor and 
creditor, and a share of the public lands. The exertions of those 
tribimes who were friendly to the poorer classes were often neutral- 
ized by the opposition of their colleagues who represented the inter- 
ests of the plebeian aristocracy. The patrician M. Manlius Capi- 
tolinus, who had released plebeian debtoi's at his own expense, was 
accused of aiming at royal power, declared guilty of high treason, 
and thrown from the Tarpeian rock (384). A compromise was finally 
agreed upon between the plebeian aristocracy and the plebeian com- 
mons, whose results were seen in the 

376. Laws proposed by C. Licinius and Lucius Sextus, trib- 
unes of the people {rogationes Licinia). The first two were 
designed to secure the poorer classes a material alleviation; 
the third to give the plebeian aristocracy the long-^nished-for 
equality with the patricians. 

B. c. Raman History, 101 

L Relief of the debtors by the deduction of interest already 
paid from the principal; the rest to be paid within three years in 
three installments (ut, deducto eo de capite quod itsuris pemumeratum 
essetf id quod superesset triennio cequis portionibus persolveretur). 

U. No one should possess more than 500 jugera of the publio 
lands (ne quis plus quam quingenta jugera agri publici'^ possideret), 

m. Abolition of the tribuni miliium consulari potestate. One, at 
least, of the two consuls must be chosen from the plebeians (ne 
tribunorum miliium comitia Jierent consulumque xUique alter ex plebe crea- 

After a long contest, and after the appointment of Camillus to the 
dictatorship had failed to accomplish anjrthing, 

367. The Liclniaii laws were passed. 

366. L. Sextus Lateranus, colleague of the tribune Licinius, first 
plebeian consul. At the same time one of the three g^at 
colleges of priests {decemviri [formerly duoviri] sacris faciundis) 
was opened to the plebeians. 

In order to retain at least tlie admmistration of the judicial de- 
partment in the hands of their order, the patricians procured the 
establishment of a new patrician magistracy, the prsetorship. The 
praetor (since 243, one prsetor urbanus, and one pnetor inter cives et 
peregfinos; since ^2:11 y four', since 197, six pnetors) had the jurisdiction 
(dare sc. judicem, dicere, sc.sententiam, a^^ficere, sc. rem), and was the 
Ticegerent of the consuls during their absence. At the same time a 
new (BdUe was appointed, called, to distinguish him from the plebeian 
officer of that name, the ounile aedile ; tliis office was, however, soon 
(probably since 364; certainly since 304) made accessible to the ple- 
beians, and patrician and plebeian cunile ledlles were elected for 
alternate years. The duties of the two aediles curules were: 1. to 
manage the Ixjuii Romani ; 2. to supervise the markets and the street- 
police, and to preside in the police courts connected therewith. 

Although after the passage of the Licinian laws the patricians contin- 
ued their opposition to the political equalization of the orders, and 
even succeeded several times in electing two patrician consuls in open 
violation of the third Licinian law, all public offices were, neverthe- 
less, opened to all Roman citizens, in rapid succession : the dictatorship 
356 (the office of magister equitum before the adoption of the Lici- 
nian laws 368), the censorship actually 351, legally 338, the prcetorship 
337, the colleges of pontifices and augures (the number of members in 
each being increased to nine) 300, by the lex Ogidnia. The patrician 
order thereupon ceased to exist as a legally privileged caste, and con- 
tinued only as a social order or rank. 

A new nobjlity (optimates, nobiles) was gradually developed in 
political life, composed of those patrician and plebeian families wliieh 
had for the longest time retained possession of the chief public offices 
(summi honores). Tliese families regarded every citizen who obtained 
office, but did not belong to their set, as an upstart (homo novus). The 

1 The word publici ^s lacking in (he tovr of Livins (VI. 3.5). Hut it i* clear 
that tlip law could have referred to pftbfic l.nul «»iil,v. Cf. Kio'juhi, /list, uf 
Rome^ 111. 11; and Momxnsen, Hist, uf Rome, I. 304 full. 

102 Ancient History, b. c. 

new nobility could not, however, separate itself so sharply from 
the common people as the patrician order had done, but increased 
its ranks constantly from the most promising portion of the lower 

Through the equalization of the plebeian aristocracy with the par 
tricians, the oiHce of tribune, which was. generally in the hands of 
the most distinguished plebeian families, lost, for a time at least, its 
revolutionary and anarchic character. The tribunes of the people 
soon obtaijied not only seats and votes in the senate, but also the 
right to convene it. Growing importance of the senate, which from 
tlus time on was the principal executive body governing the state. 
Since the establishment of the republic the senators had represented 
both orders (p. i>4). They acquired their membership neither by 
the accident of birth, nor by the direct choice of the people. The 
censors (p. 99) filled vacancies in the senate principally from the 
numbers of those citizens which had occupied the ofBce of quaestor 
(p. 99) or a higher office. Their age was at least 30 years ; prob- 
ably a property qualification was soon required. Being appomted 
for life, but subjected every four (5) years to a new lectio of the 
censors, who could expel unworthy members, the Roman senators 
were independent of a fickle public opinion. To the wise and ener- 
getic conduct of the senate Rome chiefly owed the great growth of 
her power which took place in the near future. 

As formerly, the comities exercised the rights of sovereignty proper, 
especially the comltia centuriata and the comitia tributa, in 
which aU citizens, patricians and plebeians alike, were included (p. 96), 
while the right of approval vested in the patrician comitia curiata 
(or the narrower patrician senate, p. 94) became an empty form. 
Here belong t^«ro of the three laws of the plebeian dictator, Pub- 
UUus Philo (leges Puhlilice), of the year 338 : 1. A vote of the 
comitia tributa shall have the force of law without having been ap- 
proved by the comitia curiata (ut plebiscita omnes Quirites tenerent). 
2. Laws presented to the centuries shall be approved beforehand (u< 
legwTij qucB comUiis centuriaiis ferrentur, patres ante initium suffragium 
auctores ferent), 3. One censor must be a plebeian (ut alter ubique ex 
plebe censor crearetur). The same Publilius Philo became the first 
plebeian prsetor in 337. 

In the year 312 the censor Appius Claudius included the inhab- 
itants of Rome who were not freeholders in the tribes which they pre- 
ferred, and in the centuries according to their property. This far- 
reacliing and actually revolutionary change in the comitia centuriata 
and tributa was altered in a conservative sense by the censor Q. Fa- 
bius Rullianus (Maximus') in the year 304. As regards the comitia 
tributa, those freemen who were not freeholders, and^ those freed- 
men (libertini) whose property in land was valued at less than 30,000 
sestertes (about 31500J, were divided among the four city wards 
(tribus urbance), which now became the last in rank instead of the 
first. The country wards (tribus rusticos), the number of which had 
by the year 241 risen from 17 to 31 (making the whole number of 
the tribes 35, p. 96), were resei-ved for freemen who were freeholders, 
and for freedmen having larger landed properties. In the comitia 

B. c. Roman History. 103 

centtuiata, where the wealthy members had already acquired 
many privileges, equality of the freemen who were and those who 
were not freeholdei's was secured ; but the freedmen, with excep- 
tion of those of the first two classes, were entirely shut out from the 

The Liciiiian laws had naturally only ameliorated, not radically 
cured, the desperate condition of the poor and indebted plebeians. 
The law of the consul Fcetelius (lex Poetelia), passed m 326 or 
313, secured to every insolvent debtor who should transfer his prop- 
erty to the creditor his personal freedom (ne quis ceris cUieni causa 
nectatur, utique bona tantummodo obnoxia sint). By these and other 
ameliorations, and by the ever-increasing foundation of colonies of 
citizens and division of public lands among the poor, in consequence 
of successful wars, the social question was for a short time forced 
into the background. 

At this time occurred the alteration in the Servian constitution of 
the army.^ Division of the new legion into 30 maniples, each con- 
taining 3 centuries. Arrangement in order of battle in three lines 
(hastati, principeSf triarii). The assignment of arms according to 
property classification was abolished. Long lances (hasta) were re- 
served for the third line, the first and second line receiving in their 
stead the pUtwi, a short spear, adapted both for thrusting and hurl- 
ing. A short cut and thrust sword was used by all. 
367-349. Four wars with the Gauls who had permanently settled 
in upper Italy (henceforward known lOs Gallia Cisalpina), and 
thence made frequent inroads into central Italy. In the Jirst 
war single combat between T, Manlius Torquatus and a gi- 
gantic Gaul ; in the second, the first triumph of a plebeian 
consul. The fourth war was ended by a great defeat mflicted 
upon the Gauls in the Pomptine rerion by the consul M. Fa- 
rius Camillus, the younger. Single combat of M. Valerius 
Corvus with a Gaul. 
362. Story of a chusin opened in the forum closed by the sacrifice 

of M, Curtius. 
362-358. War with the Hernici and the revolted Latin cities 
(especially Tibur), ending in the renewal of the old league 
between Rome on the one part and the Latins and Hernici on 
the other; whereby both people were more strictly subjected 
to the Romans tlum before. 
358-351. Wars with the Etruscan cities Tarqtiinii, Ceere, and 
Falerii (victory of C. Marcius Rutilius, the first plebeian dicta- 
tor, 356), which led to the reduction of the whole of south* 
ern Etruria under Roman supremacy. 
348. (First ?) treaty of coimnerce between Rome and Carthage,' 

the text of which has been preserved by Polybius (III. 22). 
350-345. War with the Volscii, who were defeated in 346 at Satri- 
cum, and the Aurunci. The power of both peoples was com- 
pletely broken. The Roman legions forced their way south- 

1 Mommsen, Hist, of Rome, Book II. chap. 3. 

2 MommBOD, ffiat. of Home, Book II. chap. 8, and Peter, I.^, 222 foil. 
• See p. 93, note 1. 

104 Ancient History. b. c. 

ward without stay. This great deyelopment of Rome's power 
brought about the 

343-266. wars with the Sainnites, the other Italians, and 

the Greek cities of Italy. 
Result : Subjugation of all Italy to the Rubicon and Macro, under 

the supremacy of Rome. 

343-341. First wax with the Samnites. 

Cause : The Sidici in Teanum and the Campanians in Capua, both 
Samnite tribes who had emigrated from their home, asked aid of the 
Romans against their relatives, the Samnites of the mountains, 
who had formed a confederacy in Samnium proper, whence they con- 
tinually ravaged the plain (Campania), with new swarms. 

According to the Roman tradition,^ their armies gained three vic- 
tories in Campania over the Samnites : victory of M. Valerius Cor- 
VU8 on Mount Gaurus (near Cumse) ; victory of A, Cornelius Cossus, 
after his army had been rescued by P. Decius Mus, a military trib- 
une ; finally, victory of both Roman armies at Suessula. The war was 
ended by a treaty, whereby Rome received Capua, the Samnites 
Teanum. The Samnites were induced to conclude this treaty by a 
war with Tarentum, the Romans by the 

340-338. Great Latin War. 

The Latins rebelled against the hegemony of Rome and demanded 
complete equality with the Romans. One consul and half the senate 
were to be Latins. Capua (in spite of the opposition of the optimates) 
and the Volscii were allied with the Latins. 

Victory of the {Roman and Samnite ?) armies over the Latins and 
Campanians in the neighborhood of Vesuvius under the consul T. 
Manlius Imperiosus, Execution of the young son of the consul, who 
against his father's command had fought with the Latin commander 
and defeated him. P. Decius Mus sacrificed his life for the safety of 
his army. Decisive battle at Trifanum (between Mintumos and 
Suessa) ; victory of the consul Manlius over the Latins and Campa- 

Dissolution of the Latin League, which became a mere relig- 
ious association fur the celebration of festivals. Isolation of the 
Latin cities from one another. Comm^rcium and connuhium between 
them were prohibited. Most of the cities received Roman citizen- 
ship without suffrage, i. e. they became subjects. Several were 
obliged to cede land, which was divided among Roman citizens ; others 
were converted into Roman colonies (p. 109), e. g. Antium. The 
oititor's stand in the forum Romanum was ornamented with the bows 
of the old ships of this city (lience rostra). The Roman power in the 
territories of the Volscii and in Campania was strengthened by the 
settlement of colonies of Roman citizens. Capua and other cities 
became dependent Roman communities (p. 109). 

1 LiviuB, VII. 29 foil. See this tradition criticised by Mommsen, Uist. of 
Rome, 1. 365, note. 

IS. c. Roman History. 105 

326-304. Second war with the Banmites and the other 

Cause : Encroachments of the Romans on the Liris, especially the 
transformation of FregeUce into a Roman colony, and the capture 
of PalfEopolis (twin city of .Neopolis), by Q. Publilius PhUo, the 
first pro-consul. 

Alliance of the Romans with the Apulians and Lucanians and, in 
the course of the war, with the Sabellian cities south of the Yoltumus 
(IVda, Nuceria, HercidaneuTn^ Pompeii), who at first sided with the 

The Romans had the advantage in the first years of the war, and 
crossed Samnium to Apulia, pluudeiiug as they went ; but in 321 
the consuls Sp, Postumius and T, Veturius, hastening from Campania 
to the assistance of the Apulian city Luceria, were surrounded by the 
Samnites under Gkivius Pontius in the Caudine Pass (JurctdcB 
Caudina), near the present Arpaja, and compelled to capitulate, 
swear to a treaty of peace, and give 600 Roman equites as hostages. 
The whole Roman army was sent under the yoke. The Roman 
senate refused to approve the treaty, and delivered the consuls to the 
Samnites, who refused to receive them. 

The Sanmites conquered Luceria in Apulia and Fregellas on the 
Liris. By desperate exertions the Romans got the upper hand again. » 
In 319 the Roman consul L. Papirius Cursor reconquered Luceria, 
released the Roman hostages, and sent the Samnite garrison under 
the yoke. The war went on during the succeeding years with chang- 
ing fortune ; nevertheless, the Romans subdued their revolted allies 
and subjects, and punished the leaders in the revolt with death. They 
defeated the Samnites at Capua, drove them out of Campania com- 
pletely, and reconquered Fregellce. Settlement of new colomes (p. 109). 
Construction of a great military road from Rome to Capua, through 
the Pomptine marshes, the Via Appia, part of which still remains. 
(Begun under the censor Appius Claudius, 312). 

After 312, when the 40 years' peace with the Etruscans expired, the 
Etruscan cities toqit part in the war against Rome. Soon the whole 
of Etruria, which was still independent, was in arms against the 
destroyer of Italian liberty. Siege of the Roman border fortress, 
Sutrium. The victorious sidvance of the consul Q. Fabius Rullianus 
through the Ciminian forest, and his victory at the Vadimonian 
lake (310) caused the powerful cities of Perusia, Cortona, Arretium, 
to withdraw from the coalition against Rome, and effected after 
308 a provisional truce throughout Etruria. The Umhrians, Pi- 
centini, Marsians, Frentanians, Palignians, who had joined the Ital- 
ian CMilition, continued the war, and were ultimately joined by the 
Hemicians, The fortune of war for a short time favored the Sam- 
nites and their allies, but the Romans soon acquired a decided ascen- 
dency. L. Papirius Cursor defeated the Samnites in a great battle 
(309). Nuceria, the last Campanian town in alliance with the Sam- 
nites, was attacked by the Romans by land and sea, and forced to 
surrender. First appearance of a Roman vtslt fleet. The con- 
sul L, Postumius invaded Samnium from the Adriatic Sea ; another 

106 Ancient History. B. c. 

Roman army advanced from Campania. A decisive victory of the 
Romans and the capture of Bovianum (305^, the capital of the 
Samiiite league, ended the war. The Sanmites begged for peace, and 
with their Sabellian allies obtsuned a renewal of the old treaties and 
equality with Rome. 

Foundation of numerous Roman colonies and several military roads ; 
the Hemican league was dissolved ; the Volscians and jEquians were 
obliged to receive Roman citizenship without suffrage. Construction 
of two great military roads from Rome : the northern (later called 
Via Flaminia) extended to Namia (Nequinum) ; the southern (later 
Via Valeria) extended by way of Carsioli to Alba Fucentia (i. e. on 
lake Fucinus), the key to the territory of the Marsi. 

298-290. Third wax against the Samnites and the other 

Cause: The Sanmites succeeded in bringing men of their party into 
power throughout Lucania, and concluded a league with the Lucanians 
m order to risk a final struggle for the independence of Italy. New 
rising among the Etruscans, 

The consul L, Cornelius Scipio (whose sarcophagus, with an old 
Latin inscription,^ discovered m 1780, is still to be seen in the Vati- 
can Museum) forced the Lucanians to abjure their alliance with Sam- 
• nium. 297, victory of Rullianus at Ti/emum; victory of P. Decius Mus 
at Maluentum. In 296 the desperate exertions of the Samnites en- 
abled theiu to place three armies in the field : one to defend their 
own country, one for Campania, while the third was conducted by its 
commander Gellius Egnatius through the Alarsian and Umbrian lands 
to Etruria, This prevented the Etruscans from concluding the peace 
which they had nogotiated with Rome and conjured up the old coali- 
tion of the Italians, which was now joined by Gallic tribes. Great prep- 
parations in Rome. The consuls Q. Fahius Rullianus and P. Decius 
Mus advanced to Umbria with 60,000 men, where in 295 the deci- 
sive battle of Sentinum was fought, and by the devotion of P. De- 
cius Mus (Livius, X. 28) after a long contest ended in favor of the 
Romans. Dissolution of the army of the coalition, the Grauls scat- 
tered, the Samnites returned to Samnium, the Umbrians submitted, 
the Etruscans asked for peace in the next year (294). The war lasted 
in Samnium four years longer with varying fortune. In 293 the Sam- 
nites suffered a severe defeat at Aquilonia from Z. Papirius Cursor 
and Spurius Carvilius. In 292 the Samnites gained their last victory 
under the command of Gavias Pontius the yomiger. 

Finally the Samnites concluded peace with the consul M, Curius 
Dentatus, as it seems, without ceding territory ; but the Romans 

1 This insfription, which it is conjectured from linguistic reasons, was en- 
graved some time after the death of Scipio, was :' — 

Conn lilts Lucius Scipio Borhutus 

Gnnivofl pntre prof/ndtus Jortis vir sapit'nsgue 

quoius fdrmn virtutt i pnrisuma ( parissima) yiiii 

consdl cens6r aid ills queifuit a pud V08 

Tfiurdsid Cisnuna Samnid ctpit 

tubiyit Qinnc Loucdnum upsid*.s'iue cUxioucit, 

B. c. Roman History, 107 

thereby gained a chance to strengthen their power in the rest of 

This was accomplished by the foundation of new colonies which 
should serve as checks on the Italians, especially MintwmcR and Sin- 
uessa in the territory of the Auruncians, Hatria in Picenum, Venusia 
in Apulia. The Sabines were obliged to become subject to Rome, 
after a short and feeble resistance. At this time, after the Samnite 
wars, the 

286 (?). HortenBlem law (lez Hortensia) was passed. Thereby 

it was settled that all decrees of the comitia tribnta should 

be binding on all citizens. This was accomplished by the 

dictator Hortensius after a dangerous uprising of the plebeians, 

who had been unable to come to terms with the opposite party 

in regard to a reduction of debts, and had withdrawn to the 

Janiculua (last secessio pUhis). About this time questions of 

peace and alliance began to be submitted to the comitia tri- 


By the lez Meenia the second Fublilian law (that the curi®, or 

the narrow patrician senate, should assent beforehand to the resolves, 

see p. 102) was extended to the electionB which took place .in the 

conutia centuriata. Nevertheless, the real importance of the public 

assemblies was declining ; they became more and more instruments 

in the hands of the presidinc^ officers. After a short truce in Italy, in 

consequence of the peace with the Sanmites, there broke out a 

285-282. "war between Rome and a new Italian coalition. 

Cause : Tlie inhabitants of Thurii being attacked by the Lxicanians 
and BruUianSf sought help from the Romans. Alliance of the Lucan- 
ians and Bruttians with the Etruscans, Umbrians, and Gaids of north- 
em Italy. The annihilation of a Roman army at Arretium, by Senonian 
mercenaries of the Etruscans was terribly avenged by the Romans. 
The Gallic tribe of the Senones was in part slaughtered, in part 
driven from its home in Umbria. A victory of the Romans over the 
north Italians and their Gallic allies by Lake Vadimonium (283), 
and another at Fopnlonia (282), inclined the Gnuls to peace. After 
a victory of the consul C. Fabricius over the Lucanians at Thurii the 
non-Dorian Greek cities joined the Romans. Locri, Croton, and Thurii 
received Roman garrisons. This advance of the Romans led to the 

282-272. War with Tarentum. 

Special cause : Old treaties with Tarentum prohibited Roman 
ships of war from passing the promontory of Lacinium, A Roman 
war fleet on its way to the Umbriaa coast anchored in the harbor of 
Tarentum. The people, incited by demagogues in the assembly, at- 
tacked the vessels, and captured five, whose crews were either put to 
death or sold into slavery. A Roman embassy which demanded rep- 
aration in Tarentum was insulted. 

A Roman army advanced into the Tarentine territory. The Taren- 
tines called to their assistance Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, a renowned 
general and leader of mercenaries, who had long meditated the plan 
of conquering for himself and the Hellenic nation a uew empire in the 

108 Ancient History, B. c. 

west. PyrrhuB at first sent MHon with 3000 Epirotes to Tarentam 
(281) ; he himself landed in Italy, the following year, with an army 
of 25,000 men {Epirotes^ Macedonian,^ Greeks^ etc.) and twenty ele- 
phants. The war between Pyrrhua and the Romans was a contest of 
an army of mercenaries against militia, of a military monarchy against 
the government of a senate. Strict discipline maintained by the king 
in Tarentum ; the theatres were closed, the death penalty imposed on 
evasion of military service. Great preparations at Rome ; even the 
)>rolctarii, generally free from military service, were enrolled. One 
Lloman army was sent to Etruria, the main army to lower Italy. In 

280. Battle of Heraclea, near the Siris, 

the Romans were defeated, after a struggle whose result was long 
doubtful, by the phalanx and the elephants. Great losses of P^Trhus. 
The BruttianSf Lucaniang, and Samnites joined the king. The offer 
of peace made by Pyrrhus to the Romans through Cineaa was 
haughtily rejected by the senate. Speech of the blmd consular Ap- 
pius Claudius, Pyrrhus advanced as far as Anagnia in Campania, but 
there halted and returned to lower Italy, as two Roman armies took 
the field against him, and the allies of the Romans remained faithful. 
Roman embassy (C. Fabricius) sent to Pyrrhus to treat for an ex- 
change of prisoners. In the following year the two armies, each 
numbering with the allied troops 70,000 men, met in the bloody 

279. Battle of A(u)BCulam, 

in Apulia, which lasted two days, and in which Pyrrhus was 
victor, but again suffered enormous loss. 
The Syracusans, who, since the death of Agathocles (289, p. 20), 
had been hard pressed by the Carthaginians, caUed for aid upon 
Pyrrhus, who gladly gave heed to the request, but left a garrison in 
Tarentum. Offensive and defensive alliance of Rome and Car- 
thage (279) ; a Carthaginian fleet appeared off the coast of Italy, 
but soon returned to Sicily. The Roman's conduct of the war in 
Italy was at first feeble, owing to their great losses, but they soon 
captured all the cities on the south coast excepting Tarentum and 
Rhegium, After two years' absence (p. 20), Pyrrhus again landed 
in Italy. He started to assist the Samnites, who were hard pressed 
by the Romans, but was completely defeated in the 
275. Battle of Beneventum. 

1300 prisoners and 4 elephants fell into the hands of the 
victors. Despairing of success against Rome, Pyrrhus re- 
turned to Epirus, leaving a garrison in Tarentum. Not until 
after the death of Pyrrhus, which took place in 272 at 
Argos, did Milan surrender the city and fortress of Tarentum 
to the Romans, on condition of free departure. The Taren- 
tines were obliged to deliver up their arms and ships, and 
destroy their walls, but retained their own municipal admin- 
After the fall of Tarentum, subjugation of the LucanianSi Sam- 
nites, and BnUtians. All were compelled to cede portions of their ter- 
ritories and to receive colonies (see below). In 270 capture of Rhe- 

B. c. Boman JERsiory, 109 

giam, which had been for ten years in the hands of Campanian muti- 
neers, who were now punished with death. In 268 the PicerUini were 
defeated and a larfi^ number of them transferred to Campania. The 
subjugation of ItaJj to the Rubicon and Macro was completed by the 
defeat of the Sallentini in Calabria, 266. As regards the relation of 
the conquered towns to Rome we must distinguiiih: 

I. Municipal cities (municipia)j i. e. communities having Roman 
citizenship without suffrage ana with no claim to a public office at 
Rome (sine suffragio etjure honorum). They had the burdens but not 
the privileges of Roman citizens. Some places were permitted to 
keep the sidministration of their mimicipal affairs under officials of 
their own choosing ; in others the municipal constitution was entirely 

II. Colonies (cotonioe), i. e. Roman strongholds and fortresses. 
Many conquered towns had to cede a part of their land, which was 
then divided among poor Roman citizens, who retained all their rights 
of citizenship, and thenceforward formed the ruling class in the col- 
onies, like the patricians, while the old population was reduced to 
inhabitants having no political rights. The Latin colonies are to be dis- 
tinguished from the Roman colonies; the former owed their establish- 
ment to the Latin League, but had been further developed after its 
dissolution, in that the senate distributed lands among Jxitin or 
Roman citizens, who renounced their ^ti^ suffragiiet honorum. In the 
municipalities, as in the colonies, the jurisdiction was in the hands of 
a prefect (prcp/ectus iuri dicundd) appointed by the prastor urbanus 

III. Allies (socU, civitates foederatos), whose relation to Rome was 
regulated by treaty, who had for the most part their own administra- 
tion and jurisdiction, and were freed from service in the legion, but 
were obliged to furnish auxiliary troops or ships. 


Punic Wars. From the Beginning of Rome's imiversal Em- 
pire, to the Destruction of Carthage and Corinth. 


264-24L First Punio War. Contest over Sicily. 

For the earlier history of the Punic people (Carthaginians) see 
p. 16, etc. 

Cause of the war: The ill-feeling which had long existed between 
Rome, the first laud power, and Carthage, the first sea power, of the 
west, and which had only been waived for a moment during the at- 
tack of Fyrrhus, who represented the Hellenic states which were 
hostile to both powers (pp. 76 and 108). Since 311 the Romans had 
endeavored to form a fleet of war. About this time establishment 
at Rome of two commanders of the fleet (duumviri navales), later (267) 
of 4 Ancestors of the fleet (qucsstores classici). 

Special cause : Tlie Mamertines, i. e. men of Mars, formerly 
Campanian mercenaries in the pay of Agathocles (p. 20), had seized 
the city of Messana and put the male population to death. They were 

110 Ancient History, b. c. 

besieged by king Hiero II. of Syracuse. Part of their number sought 
aid from the Carthaginians, another part from the Romans. The 
Roman senate hesitated ; the assemblies resolved to grant the assist- 
ance asked (2()5). A Rom^m fleet, consisting principally of the ships 
of the south Italian allies, and the advance guard of the army, arrived 
in Rhegium. Meanwhile the Mamertincs had admitted Carthagin- 
ian ships to the harbor and received a Carthaguiian garrison in the 
citadel. The Roman advance guard crossed the strait, occupied Mes- 
sana, and drove the garrison from the citadel. The Carthaginians 
declared war. 

264. A Carthaginian fleet besieged the Romans in Messana. The 
consul Appius Claudius Caudex crossed the strait with the 
main body of the army and relieved Messana. Unsuccessful 
attempt to take S^Tacuse. The consul returned to Italy, 
leaving a garrison in Messana. 
263. Two Roman armies crossed to Sicily. Victory of the consul 
M. Valerius AlaximuSy called Messalla, over the Carthaginians 
and Syracusans. Hiero, king of Syracuse, deserted the Cartha- 
ginians and joined the Romans, who advanced to the south 
coast of Sicily. 
262. Agrlgentum captured by the Romans, after defeat of a 
Carthaginian army under Hanno, advancing to its relief. The 
Romans resolved to construct a large fleet. They built the 
first five-decker * ( pentere) after the model of a stranded 
Carthaginian ship. 
260. First naval expedition of the Romans against Lipdra, with 
17 ships, had an unfortunate end, the whole squadron with the 
consul Cn. Cornelius Scipio being captured by the Carthag^- 
ians. Immediately afterwards, however, 
260. First naval victory of the Romans under C. DuilioB at 
Mylae, west of Messana. Boarding bridges. Special hon- 
ors paid to Duilius. Columna rostrata in the Fonmi. The war 
was continued in the following years with changing fortune ; 
the Carthaginians under Hamilcar maintained themselves in 
the western portion of the island. 
257. Drawn battle at sea, off the promontory of Tyndaris, 

The Roman senate decided to attempt a landing in Africa. A 
fleet of 330 ships under the consuls M. AtiliuB Regulus and Z. Man- 
litis Volso sailed for the southern coast of Sicily, where, at the mouth 
of the Himera, the troops were taken on board. A Carthaginian 
fleet of 350 vessels attempted to stop the expedition, but in the great 
256. Naval battle of Ecnomus (south coast of Sicily) 

it was completely defeated. What was left of the Carthagin- 
ian fleet took up position before Carthage to protect the city. The 
Roman consuls landed to the east of the city at Clupea and laid waste 
the Carthasfinian territorv. Manlius returned to Itixly with half tlie 
army ; Regulus remained with 15,000 men. The Carthaginians being 
deft'ated sued for peace. Regulus demanded the cession of Sicily 
and Sardinia, surrender of prisoners and all vessels of war except one, 

^ Not the first ."hip of war ; the Romans had long had vessels of war and 
thrtt-decktrs^ ^eo \>\>. JOj, 107, lOU. 

B. C. Roman History, 111 

aud acknowledgment of Rome's supremacy. Stung by these inso- 
lent demands, the Carthaginians resolved upon most energetic prepa- 
rations, and levied troops in Greece, whence uumei-ous bauds of mer- 
cenaries, and among them the Spartan XanthippuB, went to Africa. 
The Carthaginian army being thus greatly sti-engthened (the ele- 
phants numbered 100), 

2o5. Regulus was defeated at Tunes 

and captured. A part of the Roman army escaped to Clupea. 
The senate at once sent a fleet to Africa, which, after gaining a naval 
victory over the Carthaginians at the promontory of Hermes, took on 
board the Roman army, which was surrounded at Clupea ; but on the 
return voyage three fourths of the ships were lost in a storm. The 
Carthaginians reopened the war in SicUy, landing in Lilybaeum under 
Hasdrubal, son of Hanno. The Romans built a new fleet. 

254. Capture of Panormus by the Romans. In the following 
year (253) the Roman fleet crossed to Africa and laid waste 
the coast. On the return voyage from Sicily to Italy it was almost 
annihihited by a storm. The Roman senate declined to continue the 
naval warfare. On land the Romans gained the 

251. Victory of Panormus 

over Hasdrubal under the consul CaBCilius Metellus, who at 
his triumph in Rome exhibited over 100 elephants. 
The story of the embassy of Regains to Rome falls in the period 
subsequent to this victory. It is, like the story of the cruelties 
inflicted upon him by the Carthaginians, probably an invention of a 
later time. The Romans renewed the naval war. They besieged 
LilybcBum in vain. The consul P, Claudius Pulcher in the 

249. Sea-fight at Drepanum 

defeated by the Carthaginians. Capture of a great number 
of Roman ships. After two more Roman fleets had been destroyed 
by storms on the south coast of Sicily, the Romans, for the second 
time, abandoned naval warfare. 

248-242. Campaign by land on the south side of Sicily. The Car- 
thaginian general Hamilcar, called Barak or Barcas (i. e. 
lightning) not only defended himself for 6 years successfully against 
the Romans, first on Mt. Eircte (Monte Pellegrino, near Palermo) , then 
on Eryz, but also annoyed the Italian coasts by privateers. Through 
the contributions of rich patriots at Rome, a new fleet was finally 
buUt entirely at private cost. With this fleet the consul C. Lutatius 
Catulus won the decisive 

241. Victory at the .Sgatian Islands 

(opposite Lilybseum), over the Carthaginian fleet under Hanno. 
Peace: I. The Cartliaginians gave up aU claims to Sicily. II. 
They paid 3200 talents (.^4,000,000) war indemnity in ten years. 
The larger w^estern part of Sicily became the first Roman prov.- 
ince ; the smaller eastern ^ pai't continued under the supremacy of 
Syracuse, which was allied with Rome. 

» The territory of Syrtcusi'^ Arrce, Leontiniy ^feg&ra. Helorum^ Neium^ 
Tuuromtnium. 'Conip. Marquardt-Mommseu, Ram. AUh.f IV. 91. 

112 Ancient HUtory, B. c. 

24] (?). In this period, probably, occurred the democratic reform 
of the constitution of the centuries, concerning the de- 
tails of which but little is known with certainty. Only this is clear : 
that the right of first vote was taken from the centuries of equites 
and that henceforward tlie century which should cast the first vote 
{cenViria pntrogatica) was determined by lot. It is probable that the 
csnturies from now on formed a subdivision of the wards (tribus). It 
is further probable that the number of centuries wjis increased; per- 
haps an equal number of centuries (i. e. voting bodies) was estab- 
lished for each class (p. 9li), and in this manner the preponderance 
of the first class was abolished.^ 

238. The Romans made use of an insurrection of the mercenaries 
and Libyan subjects against Carthage to extort from the Car- 
thaginians the cession of Sardinia. This island was at a later time 
united with tlie island of Corsica (formerly Etruscan, afterwards 
conquered by the Romans) to form one province. For the present 
the Romans were satisfied with the occupation of the coasts. 

220-228. "War with the lUyriana of Sc^odra, brought about by the 
piracies and acts of violence committed by these tribes, and 
their refusal to make the reparation demanded by the senate. A 
Roman fleet of 200 ships soon brought the Illyrian pirates to terms, 
and compelled the queen Teuta, the guardian of her son, to accept 
the following conditions : release of all Grecian cities from her sway, 
abandonment of piracy, limitation of navigation, and payment of a 
tribute. The Greeks attested their gratitude to the senate by admit- 
ting all Romans to the Isthmian games and the Kleusinian mysteries 
(p. 44). The lasting result of the %var was the firm establishment of 
Koman superiority in the Adriatic Sea and supremacy over Corcyra, 
Apolloniaf Epidamnus, and some neighboring tribes. In 219 the re- 
newal of the war led to the subjugation of a part of lUyria by L. 
JEm'dius Paullus, 
225-222. Subjugation of Cisalpine Gaul 

brought about by a dangerous invasion of the Grallic tribes 
inhabiting the plains of the Po (except the Cenomani) joined by 
numerous bands of transalpine Gauls. The Celts entered Etruria 
70,000 strong and advanced upon Rome. The Romans sent two 
consular armies against them, which were reinforced by a third. 
Surrounded by these forces the Grauls were defeated and annihilated 
in the 

225. Battle of Telamon, 

south of the mouth of the Umbro. The consul C. Atilius 
Regulus fell, 10,000 Gauls and one of their military leaders were 
captured, nearly all the rest fell or killed themselves. The Romans 
entered Gallia Cispadana, and the inhabitants, the Boii, submitted. 
Tlie Romans crossed the Po, with severe losses (*i23), and defeated 
the Insubres. After two more victories in the following year (222) 
the consul Cn, Scipio captured Mfdiolanum, the capital of the In- 
subres, and Comum, To strengthen their power the Romans founded 
the fortresses of Placentia, Cremona, and Mutina. The military 

1 Becker, Rdn. Alltrth. 11.3, p. 9^ foil. 

B. c. Roman History. 113 

road to Spoleiium was extended across the Apeimmes to the Adri- 
atic Sea, and along the coast to Ariminum (ViaFlaminia). Further 
measures for the firmer establishment of their power in Cisalpine 
Gaul were uiterrupted by the 

218-201. Second Punio War.^ 

Causes : Envy of the Romans, excited by the new prosperity of 
Carthage, springing from her I'ecent acquisitions in Spain, and the 
efforts of the party of the BarcsB to take I'evenge on Rome. 

Special causes : Tlie conquests of Hamilcar Barcas in south- 
ern and western Spain (i^3(>-228) being successfully pursiied after 
his death by his son-in-law Ilasdrubal, the Romans concluded a treaty 
with the Grecian cities Zacyntkus or Saguntum, north of Valencia, 
and Emporia, now Ampurias, at the foot of the Pyrenees, and com- 
pelled the Carthaginians to promise to neither attack these cities nor 
cross the Ebro with the purpose of making further conquests. 
After the murder of Hasdrubal (221) the army chose the son of 
Hamilcar Barcas, Hannibal, then 28 years old, for their general. 
In order to make war unavoidable even against the will of the 
Carthaginian government, Hannibal conquered and destroyed Sagun- 
tum (219^ after a brave resistance of the inhabitants for eight months. 
A refusal to deliver up Hannibal as demanded by a Roman embassy 
in Carthage was followed by a declaration of war on the part of the 

The plan of the Romans to land their main army in Africa, while a 
second army should engage the Carthaginian troops in Spain, was 
thwarted by 
218. Hannibal's daring expedition to Italy 

by land.^ Leaving a sufficient number of troops in Spain, 
Hannibal crossed the Pyrenees with 50,000 foot, 9000 horse, and 37 
elephants, traversed Gaul not far from the coast by way of Narho 
(Narbonne) and Nemausus (Nimes). The Roman consul P. Cor- 
nelius Scipio, who had stopped at Massilia on the voyage to Spain, 
heard of Hannibars march, but his attempt to prevent the Cartha- 
ginians from crossing the Rkodanus (Rhdne) with a division of his 
army came too late ; the Carthaginian army had already passed the 
river above Avenio (Avignon). Cavalry skirmish. Tlie Roman consul 
sent his brother Cn. Scipio with the main part of the army to Spain, 
while he himself returned with a small force to northern Italy 
{Pisoi). Hannibal marched up the Rhdne to Vienna, then turned 
eastward through the territory of the Allobroges and Centronet; y where 
he forced a way with great loss, crossed the Alps, still fighting, by the 
pass of the Little St. Bernard, and after inilcscnbablc exertions 
and severe losses reached the valley of the Dora Baltea with about 
26,000 men and a few elephants. In upper Italy a small Roman 
army was engaged with the revolted Gauls. Hannibal defeated the 
consul Scipio, who had gone on before with the cavalry and light- 
armed foot soldiers, in the 

' ^ Also called the Hnnnibnlic War {Tfellum ffnnnibalinun). 

2 See Kiepert, Atlnx Anf. Tnh, VII. and X. The topoprnphlcal ques- 
tions have been Betih^l bv the Englishmen Wickham aud Cramer. 


114 Ancient History. B. c. 

218. Cavalry engagement on the Tlcinus, a northern branch of 
8ept. the Po. The wounded consul waa rescued by his seventeen- 
years-old son, the future "Afrieanus." Reinforced by the 
Gauls, Hannibal defeated in the 
218. Battle of the Trebla, a southern branch of the Po, the other 
Dec. consul, Tib, Sempronius Longus, who had been hastily recalled 
froui Sicily before the commencement of his African expedi- 
tion, and now commanded the luiited Roman armies ; the 
reimiant of the Roman force threw itself into the fortresses 
Placentia and Cremona, 
In northern Itiily Ilamiibal organized the national insurrection of 
the Cisalpine Gauls ; over 60,000 joined his army. In Rome two 
new consular armies were placed in the field for the next campaign. 
One under Cn. Servilius was to pursue the Via Flaminia to^'ai'd 
Arifninum in Umbria, tlie other the Via Cassia toward Arretium in 
Etruria, to meet a possible attack by the Carthaginians. After Han- 
nibal had released without ransom all prisoners belonging to the 
Roman allies, and by their influence had incited all Italy to desert 
Rome, he crossed the Apennines, and marched, imexpectedly to the 
Romans, througli the swampy remous about the Amo, Severe losses. 
ILinnibal himself lost an eye. By this march he flanked the Roman 
defensive position. The consul Flaminius followed him in all haste, 
and allowed himself to be decoyed by Haimibal into a narrow pass. 
In the 

217. Battle of Lake Trasimene, between Corlona and Perusia^ 
the Roman army was partly slaughtered, partly made pris- 
oner (in all 30,000 men). Terror at Rome. Preparations for the 
defence of the city, destruction of the bridges over the Tiber. Ap- 
pointment of Q. FabiuB Maximus as dictator. Hannibal, how- 
ever, did not march upon Rome, but passed the fortress of SpoletiuTn 
after an unsuccessful attempt to surprise it, traversed Umbria across 
the Apennines to Picenum and the Adriatic Sea. There he rested his 
army, reorganized it after the Italian system, and established com- 
munication with Carthage by sea. Then he advanced southward. 
His hope that the Sabellian tribes would join him was not ful- 
filled ; most of the cities closed their gates upon him. 

After the dictator Q. Fabius Maximus had united his new legions 
with the army of Ariminum, he followed, at a discreet distance, the 
Carthaginian army, which went through Samnium to Apulia, and 
passed by Lucrria to Arpi. Fabius avoided a pitched battle (hence 
his niekiiaine Cunctator, delayer), but tried successfully to weaken 
the Cai'tliJii^niiiau army by numerous skii'inislies. Hannibal crossed 
the Apeuuinos again, aiul wont through Samnium to Capua, which 
he tried in vain to seduce from Rome. The dictator followed and 
obstructed the ('arthagiuiau march on the Volturnus, where Hannibal 
gained the pass by a stratagem only (Li\dus, XXII. 16). After he 
had severely liarried the Sabellian tribes, Hannibal returned to 

Meantime the military conduct of Fabius Maximus had so dis- 
pleased the Roman populace tliat they entrusted one half the army 
to the iJidependent command of M. MinuciuSf master of the horse, 

B. c. Roman History, 115 

who had had a fortunate skirmish with the Carthag^inians, as a second 
dictator.^ The new dictator attacked Hannibal, but was defeated, and 
only saved from complete annihilation by the first dictator, Fahius 

The consuls for 216 were the vetei^an general L. iEmilius Paul- 
luB, elected by the optimates, and the incompetent C. Terentius 
Varro, elected by the popular party for the puq)03e of taking the 
offensive against Hannibal with an army of 86,000 Romans and allies. 
On the day when he had the decisive vote in the council of war, Varro 
imprudently attacked the Carthagfinians, who held an advantageous 
position. The Romans suffered in the 

216. Battle of Cannae (in Apulia, on the Aufidus), the most terri- 
ble defeat they ever experienced ; 70,000 fell (among them 
more than eighty men of senatorial rank and the consul L. JSmilius 
PatUlus) ; the rest were captured or dispersed. Varro, with a small 
troop, escaped to Canusium. 

In the same year the legion which had been sent to Cisalpine Gaul 
was almost entirely destroyed. The secession of Capua, the Sam- 
nites, Lucanians, and many cities of lower Italy from the Roman 
alliance was the immediate consequence of the battle of Cannse. 

Admirable conduct of the Roman senate. The time of mourning 
for the families of the fallen was limited to thirty days. Hannibal's 
ambassadors, who offered to exchange prisoners, were refused entrance 
to the city. A new army was formea by a levy of the youngest men 
and all who could bear arms, even slaves; they were armed in part 
out of the ancient spoils from the temples. M. Claudius Marcel- 
lus, who had approved himself in the Gallic war, was placed in com- 
mand of the new army, which joined the remnants of the army of 
Cannse. A second army was conducted by the dictator Af. Junius, 
The Romans successfully defended Naples, Cumce, and Nola. 

Carthage formed an alliance with Philip V. (III.) of Macedonia, 
and Hieronymus, the grandson and successor of Hiero, of Syracuse. 
Hannibal went into winter quarters at Capua. 

215. The fortune of war turned in favor of the Romans. Q. Fahius 
Maxinvxs, Tib, Sempronius Gracchus, the consuls, and M. Clau- 
dius Marcellus, pro-consul, led three Roman armies. In the 

215. Battle of Nola, 

Marcellus defeated Hannibal, who retired to Apulia, Hannibal 
was obliged to assume the defensive, since, with the ex(.-ei)tion of 4000 
men, he received no support from Carthage. The dispatch of rein- 
forcements from Spain was prevented by the successful 

:dl8-212. War of the Romeuis against the Carthaginians in 

The Romans, under M, Scipio and Cn, Scipio, defeated Hasdruhal, 
Hannibal's brother, on the Iberus (Ebro), crossed this river, and pene- 
trated the Carthaginian territory as far as the BcBtis (Gujidalquivir). 
There they defeated the Carthaginians in two encounters at IlUtnrgi 

^ E<tal)]i<«h<^'l by an in.-.cription found in 1862. See Mommsen, ^.m. Gesch.y 
l.% p. 599, note. * 

116 Ancient History, b. c. 

and Intibiliy and maintained themselves in southern Spain, until 212, 
in spite of varying fortune. At the same time they were pressing the 
Carthaginians in Africa through their ally, Si/phax, king of western 
Numidia. The alliance with Philip of Macedon likewise brought no 
help to Hannibal. The 

215-206. First Macedonian w^ar 

was successfully conducted by the Romans with scanty forces. 
The irresolute Philip did not dare to fulfil his promise to Hannibal of 
landing in Italy. In 212 the Romans brought about a league of GrC' 
cian stales against Philip, under the lead of the .iEtoliana, wliich was 

i'oined by Illvrian and Tliracian chiefs, and even by King Attains of 
'ergamus. The war was, on the whole, unfavorable to Philip. In 
206 peace was concluded between Philip and the Romans, against the 
wishes of the latter; but it was, nevertheless, accepted by the senate. 

The alliance with Syracuse proved also of no use to Hannibal, as 

214-212. War in Sicily (Siege of Syracuse) was decided by 
Marcellus in favor of the Romans. After the destruction of 
the Carthaginian army of relief under Hamilcar, by defeat and 
disease in the swampy lowlands of the AnapuSy 

212. Syracuse w^as captured and plundered, in spite of a brave 
resistance ( A rchimedes) . 

In Italy Hannibal gained possession of Tarentum through treachery 
(212), and laid siege to the citatlel of that city 'by land and sea. Death 
of Tib. Sempranius Gracchus in Samnium. Hannibal advanced to 
Campania and compelled the Romans to raise the siege of Capua, 
after which he defeated two Roman armies in Lucania and Apulia, 
but retired to Tarentum. The Romans again laid siege to Capua. 

In Spain the war took an unfavorable turn for Rome in this same 
year, 212. Both Scipios were defeated and killed by the Carthar- 
ginians and their ally, Massinixsay son of the king of eastern Nu- 
midia (king himself in 208)/ The Romans were driven back over the 

211. Hannibal attacked the Roman army before Capua. He was 
repidsed, and in order to force the Romans to raise the siege 
he marched through Samnium to the territory of the ./Eqiii on the 
later Via Valeria, past Tibur, across the Anio, directly upon Rome, and 
encamped a mile from the city (Hannibal ante portas /). Finding the 
Romans prepared for defence, he retired, after ravaging the neigh- 
borhood, to lower Italy, without having gained his end. 

211. Capua surrendered to the Romans, 

who visited a terrible punishment upon the city. Fifty-three citi- 
zens were beheaded, many sold into slavery ; the community was de- 
prived of the right of self-government. Hannibars attack on Rhe- 
gi'im and on the citadel of Tarentum having miscarried, his Italian allies 
abandoned him, and tried to make their peace with tlie Romans. 
210. P. Cornelius ScipiOj son and nephew of the brothers who fell in 
Spain, and now 25 years old, was sent to Spain with procon- 
sular powers (Livius, XXVI. 18). 

B. r, Roman History. 117 

In Italy Hannibal gained a victory over the proconsul Cn. Fulvius 
at Herdonea, In Sicily the Romans captured Agrigentum, slaugh- 
teriug the Carthaginian garrison and selling the populace as slaves, 
and reduced the whole island under their power. In Spain Scipio 
crossed the Ebro (209) and conquered New Carthage. 
209. M, Marcellus, having been defeated in an encounter with Han- 
nibal, gained a victory over him in a second battle on the fol- 
lowing day. Q. Fahius Maximus captured Tarentum ; 30,000 
Tarentines were sold as slaves. Hannibal retired to Aleta- 
I pontum, 

' 208. Marcellus fell in a cavalry skirmish at Venusia, Great ex- 

haustion of Rome and its allies in consequence of the war in 
its own country, now in its tenth year. 
In Spain Scipio (i^08) pressed victoriously southward, but fought 
a drawn battle at Bcecula with Hasdrubal, and was unable to prevent 
him from crossing the Pyrenees on his way to his brother Hannibal. 

Arrived in upper Italy (207), Hasdrubal was successful in inciting 
the Cisalpine Grauls to arms. Great preparations in Rome (23 legions) 
to prevent his union with Hannibal, who was advancing to meet him 
through Lucania and Apulia. The consul M. Livius Salinator was 
sent against Hasdrubal, the consul C. Claudius Nero against Hannibal. 
Drawn battle at Grumentum in Lucania, between Nero and Hannibal j 
the latter broke through the enemy, marched to Apidia, and encamped 
by Canusium. Nero, who had followed him, left a part of the army 
to watch Hannibal, while with the rest he joined his colleague by 
I means of forced marches. The two consuls defeated Hasdrubal in 

the bloody 

207. Battle of Sena gallica, not far from the river Metaurus. 
Death of Hasdrubal. On receipt of the news of this defeat 
(the Romans threw the head of Hasdrubal among the Cartha- 
- ginian pickets), Hannibal retired to Bruttium. In Spain 
victory of Scipio at Boecula over Hasdrubal^ son of Gisgo. 
^06. After completing the expulsion of the Cartliaginians from Spain 
by the capture of Gades (Cadiz), and after concluding a secret 
alliance with Massinissa, P. Cornelius Scipio returned to Rome. 
For the following year 
205. Scipio was elected consul, and made preparations in Sicily 
for an African expedition. Mago, the youngest brother of 
Hannibid, landed at Genoa with the remnants of the Spanish 
army of the Carthaginians, and called the Ligurians to arms. 
*At once, the Romans levied three armies agauist him. 
2Qi. Scipio landed in Africa. Massinissa, who had been driven 
• from his throne by the Carthaginians, and by Si/phax, husband 
of HasdrubaVs daughter Sophronisbe, now their ally, joined 
203. Scipio defeated Hasdrubal^ son of Gisgo^ and Syphax by a night 
attack, and threatened Carthage. Unsuccessful negotiations 
for peace. The Carthaginians recalled Hannibal and Mago 
from Italy. The latter died on the passage. Hannibal em- 
barke<l at Croion^ having previously massacred the Italian sol- 
diers who refused to accompany him. After fruitless personal 
negotiations between Scipio and Hannibal the 

118 Ancient Hittary, b. c. 

202. Decisive battle of Zama 

was fought, wherein tlic Carthaginian army was defeated and 
aimiliilated. Hannibal escaped to Hadrametum, 
201. Seipio granted the Carthaginians peace on the following con- 
ditions : 1. Surrender of their Spanish possessions and of all 
Mediterranean islands still under their control. 2. Transfer of the 
kingdom of Syphax to Mdssinissa. 3. Payment of a yearly tribute 
of 200 talents ({$250,000) iorjifty years. 4. Surrender and destruc- 
tion of all ships of war except ten. 5. No war to be undertaken 
without the permission of Rome. P. Cornelius Scipiot who received 
the .cognomen of Africanus, celebrated his triumph in Rome with a 
splendor never before witnessed (^Syphax). 

The Italian allies of Hannibal were in part sentenced to cede large 
portions of their territory, in part reduced to subjects of Rome, de- 
prived of their independence and their right to bear arms (peregrird 
dediticil). Foundation of numerous Roman colonies in Lower Italy. 

In consequence of another general rising of the Cisalpine Grauls and 
the Ligurians, 

200-191. Upper Italy was again subjugated after a severe strug- 
gle. Although the peoples of Transpadane Gaul retained 
their tribal constitutions they soon became, with few exceptions, com- 
pletely Latinized. This took place still more quickly among the Cts- 
padane Gauls after the leading tribe, the Boiij had been almost extern 
minated in war. Numerous colonies were in part founded, in part 
reorganized. Via ffimiHa from Ariminum to Placentia. 

Spain was regarded as a Roman province after 205. It was 
divided into : 1. Hispania dterior, later Tarraconensis ; and 2. Hispa- 
nia ulterior, or Bcetica and Liisitama, The country was, however, dup- 
ing this period, and a part of the next, commonly in a state of war. 
In 195 the consul, M. Porcius Cato, gained a great victory over the 
Spaniards, and decreed a universal disarmament. The insurrections 
soon began again. A victory of the prsetor L. jEmUius Paullus (189), 
and another, still more important, gained by the prsetor, C. CalpuT" 
nius, over the Lusitanians (185), induced quiet for a time in Hispania 
ulterior. The victories of Q. FtUvius Flaccus (181) and Tiberius Grao 
chus (179-178) partially subdued the Celtiberiaus of Hispania citerior. 

200-197. Second Macedonian War. 

Cause: A Macedonian force of mercenaries sent, as the senate 
maintained, by king Philip, had fought at Zama against the Romans. 
King Attains of Pergamus, the inhabitants of Rhodes and Athens be- 
sought assistance from the Romans against King Philip V. (III.) 
of Macedonia, who, in alliance with Antiochus III. was warring with 
Egj'pt and also grievously troubling the supplicants. 

In the autumn of 200 the Romans landed at AjMonia, in Hlyria, 
under P. Sulpicius Galhn, The Roman fleet guarded Pirseus and 
threatened Eubcea. Philip waa repulsed before Athens, and driven 
from Central Greece. The Romans, who were joined in 199 by the 
jEtolians and afterwards by the Achceans, carried on the war with 
varying fortune, but without result, until (198) the consul, T. Quinc- 

B. C. Roman Histortf, 119 

tins FlaminlDiis, took command of the army. He subdued Epirus, 
got into the rear of Philip's strong position, and defeated the king 
in the 

197. Battle of CynoscephalsB (Kvi os K€<^aAai, in Thessaly). 
Peace : Pliilip was obliged to give up the hegemony of 
Greece, and in general all possessions outside of Macedonia 
proper, and to pay 1000 talents (Jjl, 250,000) in ten years. He 
was to maintain no more than 5000 soldiers and five ships of 
war, and not to carry on war beyond Ids own borders without 
the consent of Rome. During the Isthmian games, T. Quinc- 
tins Flamininus proclaimed, under general rejoicing, the de- 
cree of the Roman senate declaring the Qreek states free 
and independent. The majority joined the Achsean league. 
The Romans limited, without destroying, the power of Nabis, 
tyrant of Sparta, "hoping thus to counterbalance the Achaean 

Id5. At Carthage a democratic reform of the constitution was car- 
ried out by the influence of Hannibal. The oligarchs defamed 
Hannibal before the Roman senate, which demanded that he be 
delivered to the Romans. Hannibal fled to the East. 

192-189. War with Antiochus III., of Syria. 

Cause: Interference of the king of Syria in Grecian affairs, and 
of the Romans in Asiatic politics ; reception of Hannibal at the court 
of Antiochus. 

Antiochus, deceived by the ^tolians who had fallen out with Rome, 
and promised to join him with all the Greek cantons as allies, began 
the war, without listening to the advice of Hannibal, by landing in 
Thessaly on the Gulf of Pagaste, whence he went to Eubcea. Most of 
the Greeks, especially the Achsean league, remained true to the Ro- 
mans, who were also joined by Philip of Macedon, Eumenes o/Perga- 
mus, and Rhodes. Antiochus occupied the pass of Tliermopylse. 
Landing of the consul, Manius Acilius Glahio, in Epirus (191) and 
march to Thessaly. The former consul, M, Porcius Cato, conqueror 
of the Spaniards, who served as military tribune in the Roman army, 
surprised the iGtolians on the moimtain path of Ephialtes, while the 
consul captured the pass itself and scattered the army of Antiochus, 
who escaped to Chalets with a few soldiers, and there took ship for 
Ephestis. The Romans besieged the ^tolians in Naupactus; their 
fleet, under C. LiviuSy defeated that of Antiochus at Chios, In the 
following year (190) a fleet from Rhodes defeated a fleet of the king, 
under the command of Hannibal, at the mouth of the Eurymedon, 
and somewhat later the Roman fleet, with that of Rhodes, won a 
nayal victory at Myonnesus, 

A Roman army, nominally under the command of the consul, 
L. Cornelius Scipio, but really under his brother, P. Cornelius Scipio 
Africanua, marched througli Macedonia and Thrace, crossed the Hel- 
lespont, and defeated Antiochus in the 

190. Battle of Magnesia on the Sipylns, 

not far from Smyrna, whereupon the king concluded peace in 

120 Ancient History. B. 0. 

the following year : 1. Surrender of aU European possessions, and of 
his Asiatic possessions as far as the Taurus. 2. Payment of 15,000 
Kuboeau talents (';?19,125,000) within twelve years. 3. Surrender of 
Hannibal, who, however, escaped. Tliis peace struck the kingdom of 
the Seleucidffi from the list of great jwwers. The Roman senate 
having resolved, for the present, not to acquire any immediate pos- 
sessions in Asia, divided the ceded territory among its allies, Eumenes 
of Pergamus, and Rhodes, and proclaimed itself the protector of the 
Greek cities of Asia against the Galatians (189, Expedition of Cn, 
Mardius Volso), and regulator of the political relations of Asia. In 
Greece the iEtolians were conquered and subjugated, the other can- 
tons retained, for the present, their independence. Internecine quar- 
rels continued among the Greeks, and the Roman senate was in all 
cases appealed to as arbitrator. Philip of Macedonia received but 
scanty remmieration for his services in the war ag^nst Syria. 

183 (?). Death of Hannibal, He poisoned himself at the court of 
Prusiasy king of Bithynia, by whom he saw himself betrayed. 
Death of his conqueror, P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, at Lintemum^ 
whither he had retu*ed after he and his brother, Lucius, had been ac- 
cused by M. Porcius Cato of having been bribed by Antiochus. 

180. The lez annaliw of the tribune, L, Villius, established, besides 
a military service of ten years, a fixed age for all the curule 
offices : tediles, 37 years ; pnetor, 40 ; consul, 43. Since the first 
Punic war the expenses of the great games were no longer borne by 
the public treasury, but by the sediles, which at once closed the office 
to all who were not men of property. The higher offices of state, 
and the position of senator, became more and more decidedly privi- 
leges of the nobility (p. 102). 

171-168. Third Macedonian war. Destruction of the 
Macedonian monarchy. 

Cause : The plan of Philip V. (III.), to revenge himself on the 
Romans, and to regain the old borders of Macedonia, was carried 
forward by his son and successor, Perseua, the murderer of his 
brother Demetrius, who favored Rome. King Eumenes of Pergamus 
informed the senate of the preparations of Perseus. 

During the first three campaigns, weak and unsuccessful conduct on 
the part of the Roman generals, combined with injustice and cruelty 
against the allied Aclisans and Epirotes, who were thereby forced to 
actual desertion. At last L. .SmiliuB Paullus, son of the consul who 
fell at Canme (p. 115), obtained the chief command. He restored dis- 
cipline in the Roman army, drove back the Macedonians, and defeated 
Pei*seus in the 

168 Battle of Pydna. 

Sept. 11,000 Macedonians were captured, 20,000 perished. Perseus 
fell into the power of the Romans (in Samothrace). Splendid triumph 
of iEmlliua PauUuB. The spoils brought to Rome were so im- 
mense that henceforward the citizens were relieved from the tributum. 
Dissolution of the kingdom of Macedonia, which was transformed 
into 4 confederacies dependent upon Rome, neither the right of emi- 

B. c. Roman History. 121 

gratiou nor of intermarriage (commercium et connMurn) being allowed 
them. GetUkiuSy king of Illyriay who had been an ally of Perseus, be- 
ing soon conquered (168), that coimtry was divided into 3 tributary 
districts with federal constitutions. Epirus was cruelly punished, 70 
towns being plundered and destroyed, 150,000 Epirotes sold as slaves. 
The Greek cantons, friend and foe alike, were reduced to the condi- 
tion of subject clients. 1000 Achaeans of high standing, among whom 
was the h^torian Polybins, were carried to Rome for- examination 
(167), and detained without trial 16 years in Italian cities under sur- 
veillance. The old allies of the Romans, Enmenes of Pergaxnus and 
Rhodes, who had attempted to hold the position of mediators during 
the war, were chastised and all the possessions of the latter on the 
mainland taken away. In a war which broke out between Syria and 
Egypt the senate interfered as guardian of both powers. The Ro- 
man ambassador, C PopUlius Lamas, arrogantly and insultingly or- 
dered ArUiochus /F., king of Syria, to retire from before Alexandria. 
He drew a line around the king with his staff, and bade him decide 
before he stepped from the circle. (Polybins, zxix. 27.) 

149-146. Third Punio War. 

Cause : The Carthaginians, whose commerce and maritime power 
had begun to increase, having been unable to procure from Rome 
any reparation for several losses of territory which they had sustained 
at the hands of Massinissa, finally took up arms themselves. The 
Roman senate, on the instigation of M. Porciua Cato (" Ceterum 
censero Carthaginem esse delendam ") declared this a breach of the 

Two Roman armies landed at Utica. Humble submission of the 
Carthaginians, who at the command of the consul delivered up their 
war-ships and weapons. But when ordered to abandon their city and 
make a new settlement ten miles from the sea, the Carthaginians re- 
solved on a desperate resistance. With the greatest sacrifices on the 
part of all the inhabitants of Carthaee, without regard to rank, age 
or sex, new equipments were provided. Weapons were manufac- 
tured day and night. A new fleet was built in the inner harbor. An 
attack of the Romans was repulsed. Siege of Carthage. 
147. P. Cornelius Scipio JBmilianus (son of .^milius Paullus, 
adopted son of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus (Major), assumed 
the command. He shut off the city completely on both the 
land and sea side. 

146. Capture and destructioxi of Carthage. 

Street fight lasting six days, and a conflagration which lasted 

seventeen days. 
The remaining inhabitants were sold into slavery. The coast land 
from the river Tusca, opposite the island of Galatha (Galitd), to 
ThencR, on the Syrtis minor, was made a Roman province under the 
name Africa, with the capital at Utica, The rest of the countir fell 
for the present to the allied kingdom of Numidia, Splendid tri- 
umph of Scipio, who received the name of Africanus (Minor). 

14&-146. Fourth Macedonian War, 

122 Ancient History. b. c. 

against Andriscus, who gave himself out as PhUipptUf brother of Per^ 
sens (Pseuda-Philipnus), and incited the Macedonians to rise against 
the Roman role. He was defeated in two battles and captured by 
Q. Cascilius Metellus, Macedonia became a Roman province 

146. AohsBan Wax. 

Cause : Betom of 300 Achieans from Italy, after an imprisonment 
of 16 years (p. 121). The anti-Roman party was thereby strengthened 
in all cities. Incited by Critolaus and DioeuSf the Achsean league be- 
gan war with Sparta, with whom the Romans took sides. The senate 
pronounced the dissolution of the League. 

Victory of Metellus over Critolaus at Scarphea in Locris. Diceus 
summoned all who could bear arms together on the Isthmus, and 
armed 12,000 slaves. He was defeated by the consul L. Mummius 
in the 

146. Battle of Lencopetra. 

Corinth, the chief city of the Achiean league, was occupied 
by Mummius without a blow. The art treasures were sent to Rome, 
fuid the inhabitants were sold as slaves. The territory of the city 
was in part given to Sicyon^ in part transformed into Roman public 

Corinth destroyed at the command of the senate. 

The other Greek cities were, for the most part, mildly treated, and 
allowed to retain their autonomy (their own administration and juris- 
diction), but in such a way that they were subordinated to the governor 
of Macedonia and had to pay tribute to Rome. Not until later (p. 
80), it seems, did Greece become a Roman province with the name 

At the close of this epoch Rome possessed eight provinces: 
1. SicUia (241). 2. Sardinia (238), with Corsica. 3. Hispania cite- 
rior (205). 4. Hispania ulterior (205). 5. Gallia Cisalpina (191?), 
6. Illyricum (168). . 7. Africa (140). 8. Macedonia (146), and Greece 

The ^st four provinces were at first governed by prsstors, so 
that, counting the prcEtor urhanus and the prcelor inter cives et peregrin 
nos (p. 101) who always stayed in Rome, there were six praetors 
elected every year. Later, however, it was decreed that all six (after 
Sulla, 8) praetors should remain in Rome during their year of office, 
4 (6) to preside over the standing courts (quoBstiones perpetucs). Of 
these the first, for cases of extortion {de repetundis), was established in 
149 by the lex Calpumia ; to this were added down to the time of 
Sulla (p. 132) courts having jurisdiction over fraud in obtaining 
office (de ambitu), over high treason (de maiestate)f over embezzle- 
ment (de peculatu). Sulla created courts for the trial of cases of 
murder and poisoning (de sicariis et veneficiis) of forgery of wills and 
of counterfeiting (de falsa). 

For the year succeeding their year of office the praetors went as 
prc-preetors to the provinces which had fallen to them by lot. 
The propraetors received, as a rule, however, only those provinces 

B. c. Rotnan History, 123 

which were considered qaiet, and which could be adminifitered with- 
out any considerable militajy force. Those which were still the 
scene of wai-fare were assigned to one of the consuls in ofiBce, or to a 
proconsul, the consul or the preceding year having his term of 
command prolonged for the prosecution of the war (imperium proro- 
gare) or an ex-consul (yir considaris) or an ex-preetor (vir prcetorius) 
being appointed proconsul. Thus the provinces were at a later 
period distinguished into proconsular and proprcetoriaL 

The organization of a province was commonly entrusted to the gen- 
eral who had conquered it, and a commission of ten senators. Many 
cities in the provinces retained their own jurisdiction and municipal 
government (civUates libercB), in consequence of a treaty concluded 
with the Roman people {foedus, hence civUates fcederatae)^ or of a law 
(lex) or decree of the senate (senatus consultum). The taxes of the 
provinces were generally let to tax-farmers (publicant), mostly Ro- 
man citizens of the equestrian order (ordo equester) many of whom 
also did business in the provinces as bankers (negotiatores).^ 

In 153 the term of service for the consulate began in January for 
the first time, and this soon became the rule. Especially noteworthy 
in this epoch is the practical disappearance of the dictatorship. 
The last dictator with military power was appointed after the battle 
of Cannte (216), and the last nominated for municipal business was 
in 202. After this, in times of peculiar danger, the senate conferred 
dictatorial power on the consuls, by the formula : '' The consuls shall 
take measures for the public good according to their discretion." 
(Videant consules ne quid detrimenti respublica capiat), which some- 
what resembles a modem proclamation of martial law or state of siege. 


Firm Establishment of the Universal Power of Rome. Pe- 
riod of the CivU Wars (146-31). 

143-133. Numantine War. 

Continuance of hostilities in Spain. War in Lusitania against 
Viriathus, 147-139, ended only by the latter's murder. The war in 
northern Spain centred aronnd the fortified city of Numantia,^ 
which was vainly besieged by Metellus, and then by several incapable 
generals, who utterly neg^lected the discipline of the army. Fmally 
P. Cornelius Scipio jEmuianus Afncanus (Minor) received the com- 
mand. He restored discipline, and, after an investment of fifteen 
months' duration, starved the city into submission. Desperate de- 

133. Surrender and destruction of Numantia. 

Scipio ^milianus received the surname of Numanticus, After the 
fall 01 Numantia all Spain, excepting the mountain tribes of the north, 
was reduced under Roman government. 
135-132. First servile war. 

Insurrection of the slaves in Sicily, who were terribly ill- 
treated, under the Syrian Eunus, who called himself king Antiochus, 

1 Marquardt-Mommsen, Jiom. Alt. IV. 338 foil, and 377 foil. 
^ The present Garray, an hour's walk north of Soria on the Duero. 

124 Ancient History, B. c. 

and fought a long time successfully against the Roman armies, main- 
taining himself in Hetina and Tauromenium, but was finally captured 
and executed, together with a great number of the insurgents. 

133-121. Civil disturbances under the Gracohi, 

excited by the political and social reforms urged through rero- 
lutionary means by the brothers Tiberius Gracchus and Caius 

Constant increase in the number of great estates worked by slaves 
(Latifundia). The number of slaves in Italy was inunensely increased 
by the successful wars, and by a most extensive slave trade, especially 
with eastern Asia. The order of free peasants and renters was 
thereby greatly reduced, while there was formed in the capital a 
numerous rabble without property or occupation, who lived on bribes 
and gifts of grain. Bad government of the optimates (p. 101). Fam- 
ily cliques which took exclusive possession of all public offices and 
places m the senate. 

Tib. Semproniua Oracchna (16^133), son of the plebeian con- 
sul of the same name (through his mother, Cornelia, grandson of the 
victor of Zama, p. 118), when tribune of the people proposed the 
recnacttnent of the Licinian ae;rarian Ul'w (p. 101) which had 
long been forgotten, with this alteration, that besides the 500 jug^ra, 
250 jugera of public land should be allowed for every two sons, and 
tlmt damages should be paid for all btiildings erected on land which 
had to be given up. Opposition of the tribune M, Octavius, who had 
been gained over oy the senate, and whom Tib. Gracchus caused to be 
deposed by an unconstitutional popular decree. The agrarian law 
was accepted by the people ; its execution was entrusted to Tib, 
Gracchus, his father-in-law Appius Claudius, and his brother C 

133. Death of AUalus III., long ofPergamus, who left his kingdbm 
and his treasures to the Komans. 

Tib. Gracchus proposed in the popular assembly, contrary to the 
common usage, according to which the senate had the disposal of this 
inheritance, to divide the treasures of Pergamus among the new land- 
owners, in order that they might procure the necessary equipment. 

Preparation of further popular laws of political tendency; shorten- 
ing of the time of militazy service ; extension of the right of appeal, 

Hb. Gracchus tried, contrary to the constitution, to secure the election 
to the tribunate for the following year. The election was forcibly 
stopped by the senate. Tib. QracchuB and 300 of his followers 
were killed by the optimates, armed with clubs and chair-legs, and 
led by the consul, P. Scipio Nasica. 

129. After the defeat of Aristonicus, a pretender to the throne of 
the Attalidffi, by Perpcma, Pergamus became a Roman prov- 
ince under the name of Aaia. 
\ 133-129. The division of the public lands was partially carried out 

\ as decreed. The stniggle between the democracy and the 

\ optimates continued. The leader of the latter party, P. Scipio 

^milianus, husband of Sempronia, the sister of the Gracchi, 


B. c. Raman Higtory, 125 

who had successfully opposed the proposals of the democratic 
129. tribune, C CarhOj found dead in his bed (murdered ?). 
125. The democratic consul, M. Fulvius Flaccus, who had unsuc- 
cessfully proposed to give the right of citizenship to all Ital- 
iansy was sent by the senate, which wished him out of the way, to 
assist the Massiliotes against the Gauls, by whom they were nard 
pressed. He hud the foundation of Roman supremacy in Transalpine 
Gaul. The immediate purpose of this occupation was the establish- 
ment of communication by land, between Italy and Spain. In 123 the 
proconsul, Sextius, founded the colony of Aquas Sextus (Aix). Gkillia 
Narbonnensis, so called after the colony Narho Martius founded 
in 118, a Roman province. In 123 the ^Balearic Islands were sub- 
jected to Rome. 

123. Caiiis Sempronius Qracohus, for two years qusestor 
in Sardinia, returned to Rome against the will of the 
senate, and was elected tribune of the people. 

Surpassing his brother in talent, force of character, and passionate 
energy, C. Gracchus not only took up again the latter's social reforms, 
but also brought forward, one after another, a series of proposals 
looking to a revolutionary alteration of the constitution. Uad they 
been completely adopted, these innovations would perchance have 
substituted for the existing aristocratic republican government the 
rule of one man under the form of a democracy. Whether C. Grac- 
chus desired such a power for himself is, however, very doubtful. By 
the regular distribution of grain, at the expense of the state, C. Grac- 
chus attempted to make the proletarii of the capital his willing tool 
in coercing the comitte. He was able to secure m 122 his election to 
the tribunate for the second time. 

The lez judioiaria transferred the jury-duty from the order of 
senatora to that of the equites, and made the preexisting separa- 
tion between these two parts of the Roman aristocracy still more 

The designation, *^ordo equester,^^ which belonged originally to those 
citizens only who actually did cavalry service, had been gradually 
extended to aU who, in consequence of having property to the amount 
of at least 400,000 sesterces, were liable to such service. Since 129 
the senators were obliged, according to law, on entering the senate, to 
leave the centuries of equites. Hence " equites " denoted especially 
the members of the aristocracy of wealth, who were not members of 
the senate ; yet the young men of senatorial families continued to 
serve regidarly in the centuries of equites. 

Encroachments of C. Gracchus on the administrative privileges of 
the senate by means of resolves of the popular assembly. Tlie lex 
provocatio reenacted. Colonies sent out by decrees of the people in- 
stead of by decrees of the senate. C. Gracchus himself established 
the colony of Junonia on the site of Carthage. 

The absence of the all-powerful tribune from Rome was utilized 
by the senate, to secure him a dangerous opponent in the person of 
the tribune, M, Limus Dnaus, The proposals of this tribune, in the 
interests of the lower classes, were constantly approved by the senate, 
with the view of undermining the popularity of Gracchus. 

126 Ancient History, B. c. 

122. The motion of C. Gracchus and his coUeafi^e, M. Fulmus Flac- 
cuSf to grant the Latins all the rights of citizenship, and the 
other Italians Latin rights, was defeated by the united opposi- 
tion of the senate andtlie lower classes of the capital. C. Grac- 
chus was not elected tribune for the following (third) year. 
121. Civil strife in the city, occasioned by a murder committed by 
one of the supporters of Gracchus. The democratic party oc- 
cupied the Aventine, which, being poorly defended, was stormed by the 
optimatcs. C. QracchuB and M. Fulvius were slain, along with 
several hundred of their supporters. Of the prisoners about 3000 
are said to have been strangled in prison.^ Restoration of the power 
of the senate, and the former condition of things. After M. Livius 
Drusus had removed the ground rent, and repealed the law prohibit- 
ing the alienation of assignments of public land, and thereby given 
the optimates opportunity to repurchase their confiscated lands, a 
decree of the people. 111, converted all public lands in possession of 
citizens into the private property {not subject to taxation) of those who 
had formerly enjoyed the usufruct. 

111-105.* Jugurthine war. 

Cause: Micipsa, Massinissa's eldest son, had decreed in his will 
that after his death his sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal, should reign 
over Numidia in common with his nephew and adopted son, Jugur- 
tha. Quarrels of the kings. Attempt to actually divide the king- 
dom. Jug^rtha murdered Hiempsal and expelled Adherbal, who 
sought protection in Rome. A commission of the senate, which was 
bribed by Jugurtha, arranged a division of the kingdom entirely in 
Jugurtha's favor. The latter attacked Adherbal anew, defeated him, 
and besieged him in Cirta, his capital. Without heeding the interven- 
tion of the Roman senate, Jugurtlia captured Cirta, and put to death 
Adherbal and the whole male population of the city, including many 
Italians. Indig^tion at Rome, and, finaUy, at the instance of the 
tribune, C. Memmius, declaration of war against Jugurtha. 

Jugurtha bought from the consul, L. Calpumius Bestia, a peace, 
which the senate, upon the motion of Memmius, refused to ratify. 
Invitation of the king to Rome. Jugurtha appeared in the city upon 
guarantee of safe conduct, and gained partisans for himself by his 
money. When, however, he connived at the murder of Massivay a 
third grandson of Massinissa, in Rome itself, he was banished from the 
city, and the war was renewed. 

110--109. The war was unsuccessfully conducted by the Romans. 
Jugurtha defeated a Roman army, sent it under the yoke, and 
dictated a peace which was repudiated by tlie senate. 
109. Q. MetelluSj entrusted with the command, defeated Jugurtha 
on the river MuthuL The Romans occupied Numidia with 
tw^o armies, one under Metelhut, the other commanded bj' his 
legate C. Mariua (son of a day laborer from the vicinity of 

1 Mommsen, Hist, of Borne, III. 101-130. 

3 Concerning the chronology of this wur^ see Mommsen, III. p. 153, note. 

B. c. Roman History. 127 

107. After fruitless negotiations, another Roman victory. Jugortha 
withdrew to the oaaes of the desert and induced the nomads of 
those parts (GcetiUce) to take up arms against the Romans. 
Pursued into the desert, he joined forces with his father-in- 
law, Bacchus, king of Mauritania. 

107. Marius, in spite of the opposition of the aristocrats, received 
the consulate and chief conmiand. He conquered the Gietu- 
lians, repulsed a combined attack of Jugurtha and Bocchus 
at Cirta, entered into secret negotiations with Bocchus through 

106-105. his qujBstor, L. Cornelius Sulla, and secured the deliv- 
ery of Jugurtha into his hands. The captive king was led 
in triumph at Rome and died of hunger in prison. Numidia 
was divided between BoccAtw and Gauda, the last living grand- 
son of Massinissa. 

113-101. Wax againflt the Cimbri and Teutones. 

The Germanic, or, according to others, Celtic, tribe of the 
Cimbri (Chempho, i. e. warriors ?) made their way from the 
113. north into the Alpine regions, defeated at Noreia, in Corinthia, 
the consul Cn. Papirius Carbo, turned afterwards westward 
towards the Rhine, which they crossed, and defeated a Romaju 
109. army under M. Junius SUcmus, who had hurried to the aid 
of the AUobroges. Helvetian bands pressed into Gaul, and 
107. defeated the consul L, Cassius Longinus on the Garonne. The 
Cimbri traversed Gaul in various directions, defeated and an- 
nihilated two large Roman armies under Q. Servilius Ccepio 
and Cn, Mallius Slaximus at Arausia (Orange) on the Rhdne. 
Terror at Rome. Violent proceedings of the democratic 
leaders against the incapable generals of the optimates. 
Ccepio, Maximtis, and others condemned. 
101-100. Marius elected consul five times in succession. 

The Cimbri meantime had crossed the Pyrenees and were wan- 
dering aimlessly about among the Spanish tribes. Defeated by the 
Celtiberians, they recrossed the Pyrenees, traversed western Gaul, 
and gave Marius time to reorganize the Roman forces in the Provincia 
Narbonensis (Provence). Defeated by the Belgians, the Cimbri 
united with the Grennanic tribes of the Teutones and with Helve- 
tian tribes (Tougenes and Tigorini). These three peoples resolved 
to enter Italy in two separate bands. The greater part of the 
Cimbri and the Tigorini were to invade Italy from the north, while 
the Teutones with the Ambrones, the best among the Cimbri, and the 
Tougenes were to force their way into Italy through southern Gaul 
(102). Marius attempted to intercept the latter band. By his posi- 
tion at the junction of the Isfere and the Rhdne, he covered the two 
military roads which at that time alone connected Gaul and Italy 
(Pass of the Little Si. Bernard, and the shore road). Futile attempt 
of the barbarians to storm the Roman camp. They passed the camp 
on their way down the Rhdne. Marius, following them, defeated 
and annihilated their army in the 

102. Battle of Aquae Seztise (Aix in Provence, see p. 125). 
The king of the Teutones, Teutobod, was captured. Thereupon 

128 Ancient History, B. c. 

Karins crossed the Alps to the assistance of his ooUeagae 
C(Utdu8y whom the Ciinbxi, having reached Italy by way of 
the Brenner Pass, had discomfited upon the Adige and driven 
behind the Fo. The two consuls, iiaving joined forces, ad- 
vanced across the Po and annihilated the Cimbri in the 
101. Battle of Vercellsa (m campis RaudUs). Triumph of 
Marius, who was hailed by the multitude, <* the third Romulus" 
" the second Camilltts.** 
At the time of the Cimbrian war occurred the complete abolition 
of the Servian military organization, according to which military 
service was principally a tax on property, but which had already 
been several times altered. This had also long been the principle 
upon which the military service of the Italian allies was regulated. 
Hereafter the system of a citizen levy was supplemented by a re- 
cruiting system, principally of course from the idle and lazy portion 
of the population, and by a system of reinforcements, whereby cavalry 
and light-armed troops were drawn henceforward from the con- 
tingents of subject and vassal princes. A separate mUiiary order 
was formed, which was distinct from the civil order and opposed to 
it. The organization of the army, the strength and divisions of the 
legions (henceforward 6000 men in 10 cohorts), also underwent im- 
portant changes. 

103-d9. Second servile tasunreotion (in Sicily) under Tryphon 
and Athenicn^ which was put down by the consul, Manius 
AquiUiuSj siter a hard struggle. 
100. Marius, for the sixth time oonsnl, aiming at the royal power, 
joined the leaders of the people, the prsetor C Servilius 
Glauda and L. Apptdeiua Saturmnu^ with the purpose of overthrow- 
ing the constitution. Satuminus, having gained the tribunate by 
murder, procured by violent means a division of lands among the 
veterans of Marius. The consul Q. Metellus went into voluntary 
banishment. The murder of C Memmius, who had been nominated 
consul for the year 99, led to an actual contest in the forum between 
the optimates and the popular party. Saturninus and Glaucia 
being betrayed by their accomplice, Marius, were killed, with many 
of their followers. 

99. Q. MeteUus recalled to Rome. Marius, hated by both parties on 
98. account of his equivocal conduct, went for a time to Asia. 
91. Three bills brought forward by the tribune M. Iiivius Dru- 
1. Reform of the judicial department (Jiex judiciaria), which re- 
stored to the senate the places on the juries which haa been taken 
from it, at the same time enlarging the senate by the addition of 300 
equites. 2. A new division of lands {lex agraria). 3. Bestowal of 
the right of citizenship on the Italians (de civitate sociis danda). The 
first two proposals were adopted by the comitiie, but declared null 
and void by the senate ; as he was on the point of bringing the third 
before the people, Drusus was assassinated. 

The disappointment of the Italian allies who had fixed their hopes 
upon Livius caused the revolt of nearly all the Italians excepting the 
Latins, most of the Etruscans and Umbrians and some southern cities, 
and led to the 

B. c. Roman History. 129 

90-88. Marsian or social war. 

The Italians formed a federal republic under the name Italia^ gov- 
erned by a senate of 500 senators from ail Italian tribes. The capital 
was Corjinium, They appointed two consuls and twelve pnetors. 

The terrible danger reconciled for the moment the parties at Rome, 
and caused the adoption of energetic measures : repeated levies of 
citizens, and enrollment of freedmen in the army. The best generals 
of both parties offered to serve under the consuls. 
90. At the seat of war in the north, Marius fought against the 
Marsians and the other Sabelliain tribes, for the most part, 
successfully. The Roman consul, RutUius, fell; Cn. Pampeius 
Strabo, defeated at first, was afterwards victorious. At the 
southern seat of war (^Campania, Samnium, Lucanid), the allies 
got so decidedly the better of the Roman consul, L. Julitts 
Cotsar, in spite of the dashing forays of Sulla, that the Etrus- 
cans and Umbrians, in the north, who had before remained 
faithful, were encouraged to revolt. In order to prevent this 
a law was passed 

Granting the right of citizenship to the Latins and to all districts 

among the above peoples which had remained faithful {lex 

89. Successful conclusion of the war in the north. Superiority 

of the Roman arms in the south, especially under Solla. 
By the lex Plautia^Papiria Roman citizenship was given tb aU Ital- 
ians who applied for it ; they were, however, included in 8 tribes only 
which were especially designated. The towns of Cisalpine Graiu 
which had municipal organizations received Latin rights {lex Pom- 
88. By this concession the war in the south was also in the main 

brought to a close. 

88-84. First Mithridatic war* 

Canse : Mithradates or Mithridates YI., king of Pontus (120- 
63), had extended his power over the eastern shore of the Black 
Sea (Colchis) and along the Cimmerian Bosphorus (Crimea^ and 
southern Russia). Kingdom of the Bosphorua. He had conquered 
Paphlagonia and Cappadocia and had provoked the interference of 
the senate by his encroachments on the client cities of Rome in Asia 
Minor. Already had Sulla, who was then proconsul in Cilicia, in 
92, taken arms against him, and reinstated a king in Cappadocia. 
A second expulsion of this king, and quarrels of Mithridates with the 
king of Bithynia, who was supported by the Roman consul M. Aquil- 
litis, led to war. 

88. Mithridates defeated Nicomedes, kine of Bithynia, on the Am- 
nios, a branch of the Halys, defeated the Roman generals. Op- 
plus, Cassius, and AquilUus (the latter being cruelly put to death^, and 
drove them out of Asia Minor. The Grecian cities of Asia joined 
him, and upon an order issued from Ephesus, put to death in one 
day all the Italians within their walls (80,000, or according to others 

130 Ancient History. B. c. 

Snlla, the consul for 88, was on the point of starting for Asia to 
attack Mithridates, when there broke out the 

88-82. Civil war between Sulla (optimates) and Ma- 
rius (democrats). 

Direct cause : the revolutionary proposals of the tribune P. SuL- 
picius, which were carried by the most violent means, and particularly 
designed to secure the division of the new citizens, Italians and f reed- 
men, among all the 3o tribes (ut novi cives libertinique in omnes tribus 
distribuerentur) . 
88. The popidace under the control of demagogues deprived Sulla 

of tlie chief command and gave it to his opponent Marius, 
with proconsular power. Sulla marched with his army from Nola 
upon ilome and took the city by storm. Sulpicius and eleven other 
outlaws were killed upon the flight. Marius escaped by way of J/i/i- 
tumce to Africa, 

Sulla restored the old order of voting in the centuries as it had 
existed under the Servian constitution, but had been given up in 241 
(p. 112), and decreed that in future the popular assemblies should 
not vote upon any measure which had not previously passed the 
87. An optimate, Cn. Octavius^ and a democrat, L. Cornelius Cinna, 

were elected consuls. Sulla, as proconsul, took the command 

in the Mithridatic war. 
During Sulla's absence Cinna endeavored to renew the laws of 
Sulpicius by violence. After a bloody struggle in the forum he was 
driven out by the optimates. He formed an army in Campania 
of armed bands of dissatisfied Italians, liberated slaves, etc., and 
uniting with the aged Marius, who had returned from Africa, with 
Q. Sertoriua and Cn, Papinlus Carbo, advanced upon Rome, which was 
compelled to surrender. Revolutionary reign of terror in the 
city. Five days' slaughter at Marius' command of all optimates who 
had not fled (among others L, and C. CoMar, M, Aniontus, P. Cras- 
8US, Q. Caixdus)y confiscation of their property, plundering and out- 
rages of the armed bands. 

80. Marius (for the 7th time) and Cinna, consuls ; Sulla deposed 

in his absence. Death of Marius, over seventy years old. 

L. Valerius Flaccus was made consul in his stead and appointed 

by the popular party to the command of the Mithridatic war. 
87-84. Tyrannical government of Cinna at Rome, regardless of the 

newly restored democratic constitution. 
Meantime the outlawed Sulla was conducting the war against 
Mithridates. The latter had sent his general Archelaus with an army 
and fleet to Greece, where most of the cities joined him at once, par- 
ticularly Athens under the government of Aristion, 
87. Sulla landed with 30,000 men in E pirns, advanced to Boeotia, 

drove Archelaus and Aristion out of the coimtry and besieged 

the former in Pirasus, the latter in Athens. He defeated an 
86. army of relief from Pontus, and after a tedious siege captured 
March. Athens. Sulla defeated Archelaus, who had voluntarily 

evacuated Piraeus, gone by sea to BoBotia, and joined the rein- 

forccmeuts sent by Mithridates, in the 

B. c. Roman History, 131 

86. Battle of ChaBronea and in the next year in the 
85. Battle of Orchomenua, after which he went into winter quar- 
ters in Thessalj. In the following year Sulla, supported by a 
fleet of ships, collected from Asia Minor and Syria by Lucuuus, 
marched through Macedonia aud Thrace, crossed the Helles- 
pont to Asia, and through the mediation of Archelaus concluded 
84. Peace 'with Mithridates la Dardanos. I. Evacuation of the 
Roman province of Atria, restoration of all conquests made by 
Mithridates, and reinstatement of the kings of Bithynia and Cappa- 
docia. II. Mithridates surrendered 80 ships of war and paid 3000 
talents. After the conclusion of peace, Sulla turned his attention to 
the Roman army of the democratic party which had gone to Asia in 
86 under the consul Flaccus, and, after his murder, had fought suc- 
cessfully under Fimbria (victory over the younger Mithridates at 
Milelopolis), A part of the army having gone over to Sulla, Fim- 
bria committed suicide, whereupon the rest of his army joined Sulla. 
After leaving these troops behind (milites Flaviani, two legions) under 
Licmius Murena, and iniiicting upon the Grecian cities of Asia Minor 
the immense fine of 20,000 talents (i$25,000,000), which LucuUus was 
to collect, Sulla sailed from EpAesus to PirasuSf went by land to Patra^ 
and thence by sea to Italy. 

83. Salla landed with 40,000 men in Brundisiwn. After the death 
of Cinna (84), during a mutiny in Ancona, where he intended 
to embark against Sulla, his colleagues Carbo, the younger Marius, 
and Sertorius were the leaders of the democratic party ; never- 
theless for the year 83 neither of them, but instead two incapable 
men, L, Scipio and C Norbanus, were elected consuls. Sulla, who 
upon landing was joined by the 23-year old Cn. Pompeius with 
an army of volunteers, formally guaranteed their rights to the Ital- 
ians and marched against the consuls. He conquered Norbanus on 
Mt. Tifata and opened negotiations with Scipio, in the course of which 
the entire army of the latter went over to Sulla. 
82. Sulla rested for the winter in Capua, and fought during the fol- 
lowing year against the younger Marius and Carbo, who had 
been appointed consids. At Sacriportus Sulla defeated Marius, who 
retired to Prcenesie, where he was surrounded by a division of the anny 
under Q. Ofella. Sulla perceived this, and passed rapidly through 
Rome to attack the democrats in Etruria, whither also a part of his 
army under Metellus, Pompeius, and Crassus had already forced its 
way from Picenum and Umbria and were pressing Carbo hard. On 
receipt of the news that strong Samnite bands were advancing to the 
reliei of Pneneste, Sulla went back to Latium, prevented the relief 
of PrsBneste, and repulsed an attack of the Samnites upon Rome 
(Nov. 82). More than 3000 prisoners were slaughtered at Sulla's 
command. Pneneste surrendered, the younger Marius was put to 
death by his slaves at his own command. The party of Marius in 
northern Italy liad already been completely defeated at FaverUia, 
Carbo and Sertorius fled. Sulla took terrible vengeance upon the con- 

Suered cities and towns of Italy. The par^ of Marius in Spain waa 
efeated at a later time by C, Annkts and Valerius Flaccus ; m Sicily 
and Africa it was defeated by Pompeius, whom Sulla allowed to tn- 
umph, and saluted with the surname of Magnus. 

132 Ancient History > B. o. 

82. Stdla had himself appointed dictator in Rome for an un- 
limited time, for the sake of reorganizing the commonwealth 
(dilator reipublicce constituendc^ a power analogous to that of the de- 

Reaottonary Reign of Terror. Proscription Ivtts of the evil 
minded (Zex de proscribendis malU civibus). The number of the out- 
lawed, on whose death a reward was set, and whose property was 
confiscated amounted to 4700. Allotments of lands to the veterans 
of Sulla and establishment of military colonies with full right of 
citizenship in the territories of cities of the hostile party, whose 
right of citizenship was abrogated. Liberation of 10,000 slaves be- 
longing to the proscribed citizens, and bestowal upon them of the 
right of citizenship (the so-called Cornelians), 
83-81. Second Mithridatic War, 

conducted by the proprietor Murena (p. 131), who occupied 
Cappadocia, which Mithndates, in spite of the peace, had not com^ 
pletely evacuated, and invaded Pontus, where he was defeated by 
Mithridates and obliged to withdraw. The war ended in a trealy 
which was a renewal of the first peace. 

Attempt at a conservative anstocratic reform of the government 
in Rome, by a series of laws originated by Sulla (leges Comeliai). 
Reorganization of the senate which had sudSered severely from the 

Sroscriptions of the civil wars. It was now enlarged in an unprece- 
ented manner by the additicm of 300 members to be chosen by the 
comitia trihutcL Admission to the senate became a prerogative of the 

2u»storship. Henceforward 20 quoBstors were annually elected by 
lie comitia trilmta. Abolition of the censors' privilege of revising 
the roll of the senate every five years, and consequently introduction 
of the irremovability of the senators. Thus the senate, for a short 
time, was indirectly chosen by the people, and acquired a representa- 
tive character, llie places in the juries which C. Gracchus had 
transferred to the equiies (p. 125) were restored to the senate. 
The privileges of the senate were rurther increased ; it acquired, in 
particular, &e right of prolonging the term of office of proconsuls 
and proprsBtors, and of removing them. The comiticB lost the power 
of electing the priests, which nad been given them in lOl, the 
priestly colleges receiving again the right of filling their own vacan- 
cies. On the other hand Sulla gave up the Servian order of voting, 
the restoration of which had been attempted in 88. Powers of the 
tribunes of the people reduced, misuse of the right of interpellation 
punished with heavy fines, the right of the tribunes to initiate roga- 
tions subjected to the approval of the senate ; it was also decreed that 
acceptance of the tribunate conveyed incapacity for accepting higher 
offices. Reorganization of the department of justice, increase of the 
perpetual courts {quasstiones perpetuce). Henceforward 8 pnetors. 
Criminal legislation (lex de sicarus, de falsa, etc.). 
81. Sulla permitted the election of consuls, but continued to conduct 

the government under the title of dictator. For the year 
80. He caused himself and his companion in arms, Q. Metdlus, to 

to be elected consuls, and so bridged the way to constitutional 


B. c. Roman History, 138 

79. Snlla voluntarily abdicated the diotatonihip and retired to 

private life. 
78. Death of Sulla, probably in consequence of a hemorrhaee.^ 
78-77. Attempt of M, Emilias Lepidus (consul with Q, Lutatius 

Catidus, 78) and the Marian: M. Junius Brutus, to violently 
overthrow the work of Sulla. Lepidus, on his way from Etruria to 
Rome at the head of an army, was defeated on the Campus Martins 
by Catulus ; defeated a second time at Cosa, he fled to Sardinia, 
where he fell sick and died. Brutus was forced by PoTnpeius to sur^ 
render at Mutina, and was afterwards put to death. 

80-72. War against Sertorius, 

who in 83 had been allotted Lusitania and Spain as his prov- 
ince. He had been driven out (82) by Sulla's generals, and, after 
leading a roving life as an adventurer along the coasts of Spain and 
Africa, returned to Lusitania. Here this partv leader, alike distin- 
guished as statesman and general, had founded an independent sov- 
ereignty. Q. Metellus and even Cn. Pompeius waged for a long time 
unsuccessful war against him. He formed an alliance with Mithri-' 
dates, but was murdered, in 72, by his subordinate Perpema. The 
latter was defeated and executed by Pompeius. 

73-71. War of the Gladiators and (third) Servile 

Bands of gladiators who had escaped from a gladiatorial school at 
Capua occupied Vesuvius under command of two Gauls and the 
Thracian Spartaous, and from this vantage-j^und plundered and 
burned throughout the neighborhood. Kemforced by numerous 
slaves they grew to an army, and defeated four Roman armies in 
succession. Spartacus, who wanted to leave Italy, was forced by his 
companions to remain. He marched upon the capital. Terror in 
Rome. The prsetor M. Uoinlus Crasaus received the chief com- 
mand. The insurgents refrained from attacking Rome and wandered 
about Italy ravaging and plundering. Craaaus defeated them in two 
battles, in the second of which, on the Silarus, Spflutaoua fell, fight- 
ing valiantly. The remnants of the bands were annihilated by Pom- 
peius, who was returning from Spain. 

In 70 the consuls M. UcinioB Craflsns and Cn. Pompeitis Mag- 
nus restored to the tribunate the privileges which it had lost under 
Sulla (p. 132). The Aurelian law (lex Aurelia), passed during their 
consulate, repealed the enactment of Sulla that the jurors should be 
taken exclusively from the senators ; henceforth one third should be 
senators, two thirds men of the equestrian census (of these one half 
should be taken from the so-caUed tribunp-asrnrii). Already, in 72, 
the privilege of the censors, of revising the roll of the senate, which 
Sulla had abolished, had been restored (p. 132), and probably five 
years became again the length of the censors' term of office. 64 
senators were expelled from the senate by the censors GeUius and Len-- 

1 He did not die of the so^saUed PhtAirians. Cf. Mommaen, Hist. o/Rome^ 
III. p. 390. 

134 Ancient History. B. c. 

78-^. War against the pirates. 

The result of the neglect of the Roman marine since the destruc- 
tion of Carthage, and of the oppression of the Roman goyemors in 
Asia was a constant increase of piracy. There gradually grew up 
an organized pirate-community, whose principal seats were Crete and 
Cilicia. The pirates controlled the entire Mediterranean as far as 
the columns of Hercules, and captured the vessels which were convey- 
ing grain to Rome. 
78. vVar had been waged with the pirates since 78, at first under the 

proconsul of Asia, P. Servilius, who destroyed many pirate 
75. cities, and in the year 75 took possession of Isauria, PampkyUa^ 

Pisidiay for Rome, under the name of Cilicia, and afterwards 
74. under the praetor M. Antanius, who possessed most extensive 

powers, but accomplished little, and in 71 died at Crete after 

being defeated by the Cretans. 
68. Metellus after a long contest, subdued Crete (province since 67), 

whose inhabitants lived for the most part, upon piracy. As 

piracy still continued, 
67. Pompelus received, on the motion of Gabinius (lex Gabinid)f for 

th^e years unlimited command over the whole Mcditerra^- 
nean and its coasts for fifty miles inland ; the public treasuries and 
resources of all the provinces and client states were placed imcondi- 
tionally at his disposal. In three months Pompeius, in two short cam- 

Saigns, completedly cleared first the western, then the eastern, 
lediterranean of pirates, captured 3000 vessels, put to death 10,000 
pirates, destroyed their fortresses, captured 20,000 men, and settled 
them in the interior of the country. (Construction of Pompeiopolis in 

74-64. Third Mithridatio war. 

Cauae : Strained relations between the Romans on the one side, and 
Mithridates of PorUus and his son-in-law, Tigranea of Armenia, on 
the other. The latter took possession of the kingdoms of Canpadocia 
and Syria. When Nicomedes III., of Bithyniaf likewise son-in-law of 
Mithridates, bequeathed his kingdom to Rome, and Bithynia was 
made a Roman province, Mithridates declared war and occupied Bi- 

74. The conduct of the war was entrusted to the two consuls Ii. Lu- 
cullua, who was to enter the kingdom of Pontus through Phry- 
gia, and M. Aurelius Cotta, who sailed with the fleet for the 
Propontis. Mithridates defeated the latter by land and sea at 
Chalcedon and laid siege to Cyzicvs, which was relieved by Lu- 
cuUus, who hastened from the south. 
73. Mithridates was forced to retreat with great loss. Lncullns as 
proconsul conducted the war successf ullv at sea ; then took the 
offensive on land, crossed the Halys (Kisil Irmak), traversed 
Pontus, defeated Mithiidates at Cabiray and drove the king 
completely out of his kingdom. He took refuge with his son- 
in-law, Tigranes, while LucuUus, after a tedious siege, cap- 
72-70. tured the trading cities Heraclea^ Svnope^ AmisuSi and occupied 
Armenia Minor, 

B. c. Roman History, 185 

Without waiting for authority from the senate, Lucullus opened 
war upon Tigranes, crossed the Euphrates into Armenia proper, de- 
feated Tigranes in the famous 

69. Battle of Tigranocerta, 

captured that city, and then turned against the two kings who 
had now joined forces. Lucullus forced the passage of the Euphrates 
(68) by a second successful encounter with the enemy, crossed the 
river here in its upper course for the second time,^ marched through 
the Armenian plateau toward Artazata, the residence of Tigranes, 
but was compelled by a mutiny among his soldiers (P. Clodius, broth- 
er-in-law of Lucullus) to begin a retreat over the Tigris to Mesopo- 
tamia, long before he had reached Artaxata*^ 

Lucullus took Nisibis by storm, but was obliged to cross to the 
right bank of the Euphrates again to rescue a division of the army 
which had been cut oft (67). Meantime Mithridates returned to Pon- 
tus and defeated a Roman force under Triarius at Zela {Ziela), 
New mutinies in the army of Lucullus, who was at the same time in- 
formed that he was slandered at Rome, that he had been recalled, and 
the consul M. Acilius Glabrio appointed in his stead. Glabrio went to 
Asia, but in consideration of the difficult position of affairs, did not 
assume command. Lucullus conducted the Roman army by a mas- 
terly retreat back to Asia Minor. 

Mithridates, having not only reconquered Pontus, but also com- 
menced to ravage BUhynia and Cappadocia, a law was passed at the 
instance of the tribune of the people, C. Manilius (Cicero's oration, 
pro imperio Cn, Pompeii, ot pro lege Manilla), entrusting 

66. Cn. Pompeius with the command in Asia with unlimited 

Unfriendly meeting of Lucullus and Pompeius at Danala in Gralatia. 
After concluding a treaty with the Parthians, whom he guaranteed 
possession of Mesopotamia, Pompeius opened the campaign partly 
with new troops, drove Mithridates out of Pontus, and defeated him 
in the 

66. Battle by night on the Lycos (Yeshil Irmak), near the future 
Nicopolis in Armenia minor. Abandoned by Tisanes, Mithri- 
dates fled to Colchis, Pompeius followed as far as the Fhasis, return- 
ing then to Armenia, where his ally, the king of the Parthians, had 
meantime made an inroad. At Artazata Tigranes gave himself up 
to Pompeius, who permitted him to keep Armenia proper for his 
own kingdom, but took from him all his conquests, Syria, Phoenicia, 
Cappadocia, and imposed upon him a fine of 6000 talents. 
65. After an expedition northward, where he fought successfully 
with the Caucasian tribes, Pompeius for the second time aban- 
doned the pursidt of Mithridates, who had taken refuge in the Tauric 
Chersonese (Crimea), and went to Pontus, and thence to Syria. 

1 Cf. Eiepert, Atlas Antiqvusy Tab. III. 

> The secontl victorv of Lucullus was not gained near Artaxata. Cf. 
Mommsen, flist. ofHome^ IV. p. 70. 

186 Ancient Hittory. B. c. 

64--63. Organizatioii of the Roman possessions in Asia» nnder Pom- 
peins. New Provinces: 1. PontuB, comprising Bithynla 
(already treated as a province since 74), the coast of Paphlagonia, 
and the western part of Fontua proper, along the coast. The rest 
of the kingdom of Mithridates was given to vassal kings. 2. Syria, 
comprising at first only the coast from the gulf of Issus to DamascuSf 
afterwards considerably enlarged. 3. Cilicia, reorganized by Pom- 

feius, although it had been a province in name since 75. It included 
^amphylia and Isauria (p. 134). These Asiatic provinces were much 
cut up, and surrounded by: (a) territories of autotiomous cities; 

S princely and priestly sovereignties under Roman supremacy, 
e most distinguished of the vassal kings of Rome in the east were 
the king of Cappadocia, and Deiotams, king of Galatia (p. 78). In 
Palestine, after the capture of Jerusalem and the Temple, Pompeius 
restored Hyrcanus, who had been driven out by his brother, as high- 
priest and civil governor, but made him tributary to Rome. 
63. Itfithridatea, who had busied himself with gigantic schemes of 
a land expedition to Italy, killed himself at Panticapcmmj in 
the Tauric Chersonese, in consequence of the revolt oi his son, 
Phamaces, Upon receipt of this news Pompeius returned to 
Pontus. He confirmed Phamaces in possession of the kingdom 
of the Bosphorus. 
61. Return of Pompeius to Italy. He dismissed his army at Bmn- 
disium, and entered Rome as a private citizen. Magnificent 
triumph, lasting two days. 

66-62. Conspiraoy of Catiline. 

Union of the democrats and the anarchists. Leaders of the demo- 
crats: M. CraBBus and C. Julius Caosar (bom 102 ?, son-in-law of 
Cinna, outlawed by Sulla, afterwards pardoned, 67 qusestor in Spain, 
65 sedile, 63 pontifex maximus). Leader of the anarchists: L. Ser- 
gius Catilizia, ex-prtetor, one of Sulla's executioners. The demO' 
crats dreaded the reconciliation of Pompeius, whose military dictator- 
ship was the work of their own hands, with the optimates. Hence 
they sought to overthrow the existing government before the return 
of Pompeius, by a violent revolution, miile the anarchists, in part pro- 
letarians, in part young men of honorable families who were sunk in 
debt, hoped for plunder and confiscation of property. 

The Jirst conspiracy, in 66, according to which the consuls for 65 
were to be murdered, and Crassxa made dictator, and Ccesar, master 
of the horse, failed of execution through the indecision of some partici- 
pants. At the close of the year 64, it was again renewed for the pur- 
pose of securing the election of L, Catilina and C Antonius (also a 
former follower of Sulla) at the consular elections for 63, by the in- 
fluence of Caesar and Crassus, who were to remain in the backgroimd. 
Antonius alone was, however, actually elected; his colleague for 63 
was M. Tullius Cicero, a favorite lawyer and orator, belonging to 
no party unreservedly (bom 106, 75 qusestor in Sicily, 70 prosecutor 
of Verres, 69 eedile, 66 praetor urbanus). The latter resigned before- 
hand to Antonius, who was deep in debt, the lucrative governorship 
of Macedonia, thereby detaching him from the conspirators. 

B. a Roman History. 137 

Fonnation of an insurgent army in Etroria, under C Manliusj a 
comrade of Catiline; at Rome organization of the conspirators, who, 
at a given signal, were to fire the city, and thereby produce universal 
conf^on. Plan of Catiline to murder his competitors at the con- 
sular election for 62, and the consul, Cicero, who would preside over 
the election. Cicero, informed of this by his spies, denounced the 
conspiracy in the senate, appeared on the day of the election sur- 
rounded by numerous armed guards, and defeated the election of 
Catiline. The latter's plan of having Cicero surprised and murdered 
in his own house was also betrayed and failed. 

63. Nov. 8. First speech of Cicero against Catiline 
delivered in the senate. 

Catiline left the city, and betook himself to the army of 
Manlius in Etruria. 

Nov. 9. Second speech of Cicero against Catiline, to the people. 
The accomplices of Catiline, LentuluSy Cethegus, Gabinius, 
Statilius, and Coeparius, were taken into custody on the 
strength of written proofs of guilt obtained by Cicero. 

Dec. 3. Third speech of Cicero against Catiline, to the people. 

Dec. 5. Fourth speech of Cicero against Catiline, in the senate. De- 
cree of the senate that they should be strangled in prison with- 
out trial and sentence (Ccssar opposed the resolution ; Cato's 
speech determined the vote), executed by the consul Cicero. 
Cicero greeted as pater patriae. 
The consul AnUmius was entrusted with the conduct of the war 

against Catiline. His lieutenant defeated Catiline at Pistoria (62). 

Catiline and 3000 of his followers fell on the field. 

02. Caesar administered the pnetorship in Rome. A part of his 
large indebtedness having been paid by Crasms, he went for 

Gl. the year to Hispania uUerioTj as proprsetor, where he laid the 
foundation of his military fame, and where he found means 

to discharge his debts. He returned bearing the honorary title of 

'* imperator," but refused to triumph, in order that he might become 

a candidate for the consulship. The refusal of the senate to grant 

the allotment of lands requested by Fompeius for his veterans, 

led to a complete break between Pompeius and the government, and 

resulted in the so-called 

60. First Triumvirate, 

a reciprocal agreement of the three statesmen Fompeius, 
Ccesar, and Crassiis. They secured the election for the next year 
59. Caosar as consul. 

As his colleague, the optimatc M, BibiUus, and the senate op- 
posed the proposals brought in by Csesor for an ag^rarian law, espe- 
cially in the interests of Pompeius' veterans {lex Julia de agro cain^ 
pano : ut ager campanus plebi divideretur), and the ratification of the 
organization of Asia, these measures were submitted to the popular 
assemblies and passed by them, without the approval of the senate. 
Violence offered BibtUus and M. Porcius Cato. Bibulus did not 
dare leave his house again during his year of office. Intimate 

138 Ancient History, b. c. 

friendship and close family ties between Caesar and Pompeitis. 
Csesar's daughter, Julia, 23 years old, given to Pompeius in marriage. 
On the motion of P, Vatinius, tribune of the people, Csesar received 
by a popular decree the government of Oallia Cisalpina and lUyrir 
cum for 5 yeara, with extraordinary powers. At Pompeius' motion 
the astounded senate added Gallia Narbonenais (p. 125) to Ciesar's 
province. A. Oabinius, a friend and military companion of 
Pompeius, and X. Piso, father-in-law of Cssar, were elected consuls 
for the following year. The execution of the agrarian law was en- 
trusted to Pompeius and Crassus. Before Caesar departed for his 
58. The abaence of Cato and Cicero from Rome was procured 

by F. Clodiua, tribune of the people, who had secured this 
office at the sacrifice of his patrician rank by hasty adoption into a 
plebeian family. Cato was appointed by a popular vote to take pos- 
session of the kingdom of Cyprus, which had been left to Rome by 
will. Cicero was driven to flight by the decree, " Whoever shall have 
caused the execution of a Roman citizen without legal sentence shall 
be punished with outlawry '^ (lex Clodia : ut qui civem Romanum in- 
demnatum interemisset ei aqua ei igni inter diceretur), and then banished 
bv a second lex Clodia to a distance of 400 Roman miles from Rome. 
Clo<lius caused Cicero's house on the Palatine to be burned, and his 
Tusculan and Formean estate to be ravaged. 
58-51. Conquest of Oaul by Cseaar. 

Results of Ctesar's eight years of brilliant warfare, and its 
meaning in the history of the world. 

1. Annihilation of the Celts, as a nation, for whose lasting Romani- 
zation Ctesar opened the way. 

2. Creation of a dam which for four centuries protected the 
Romano-Hellenic civilization against destruction by the Grcrman bar- 

3. Enlargement of the boundaries of the old world, not only by the 
immediate conquest, but also through the information obtained by 
Csesar's expeditions to Britannia and Germania. 

4. Acquirement of the means for accomplishing the change, now 
become necessary, of the Roman republic into a monarchv : the vet- 
eran legions and troops of the allied states, who had become at- 
tached to their general and expert in war. 

58. Victory of Csesar over the Helvetiana, who had invaded Gaul, 
at Bibracte,^ and over the German prince Arioviatua, N. E. 
of Veaontio (Besan<;on) in the vicinity of Aliihlhausen in 
Alsace 3 (Csesar, Bellum Gallicum, I.). 

67. Subjugation of the Belgli. Annihilation of the Nervii in Hen- 
negau by a terrible battle on the Sombre, not far from Bavay 
(B. Gall. III.). In the southeast, occupation of Octodurus 
(Martigny), to secure the Alpine pass of the Great St, Bernard, 

66. Subjugation of the Venetii in Armorica (Bretagne) by Caesar, 

1 On the site of the modern Aufun, according to V. GKiler ; two miles west 
of Autun according to Napoleon lU.lVitffe Cesar.) 
3 See Mommsen, Hist, of Home, I V. p. 244, note. 

B. 0. Roman History, 139 

after hard fighting on land and sea, and of the Aquitanii by 
his lieutenant P. CrassuSy son of the triumvir. In the north- 
east, successful war with the Morinii and Menapii (B, GalL 


55. Csesar drove the Germanic tribes of the Usipetes and Tenchterii 
back across the Rhine. Passage of the Rhine on a bridge of 
piles, between Coblence and Andemach, After a stay of fifteen 
days on the right bank, Csesar recrossed the stream. (B, 
GalL lY.) 

First expedition to Britain with two legions. Departure from two 
ports, one of which was Itius portuSj E. and W. of Cape 
GrisneZf landing between Dover and Deal, probably at Walmer 
CasUe.^ (B. GaU. IV.) 

51. Second expedition to Britain, with five legions. Cassivelaunus, 

leader of the British Celts. Caesar crossed the Stour and the 
Thames (between Kingston and Brentford), while Cassivelau- 
nus attacked the Roman camp where the ships lay. Retreat 
and embarkation of Csesar siter he had received hostages. 
(B. GalL V.) . 

53. Insurrection of the Eburones under Ambiorix, and of other tribes. 
Ctesar crossed the Rhine a second time. (B. Gall. VI.) 

52. General insurrection of the Grauls under the Arvemian, Vercin- 

getorLc. Siege and capture of Avaricttm (Bourges) by Cae- 
sar, occupation of Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris) by Lahienus, 
Unsuccessful siege of Gergovia, near Clermont in the Auvergne ; 
Csesar, compelled to retreat, united with Lahienus. Siege of 
Alesia (Alise Sainte-Reine at Semur in the Dep. Cdte d'Or, 
between Chfttillon and Dijon) by Csesar, while the Roman 
army was in turn surrounded and besieged by the insurgent 
army of relief ; after a hard fight, complete victory of Csesar. 
VercingetorLc forced to surrender himself. He was exe- 
cuted at Rome, five years later (B. GalL VII.\ 
51. Completion of the subjugation of Transalpine Gaul (cruel pun- 
ishment of the insurgents). Ten legions located in detach- 
ments throughout the country held it m obedience to Csesar. 
While these magnificent feats of war were placing the older mili- 
tary fame oJ^Pompeius in the shade, the latter was trying unsuccess- 
fully to master the anarchy at Rome. Leader of the ultras-demo- 
crats, the former tribune, P. Clodius (pp. 135, 138). In opposition to 
him the recall of M. Tullius Cicero was procured in 57, by the efforts 
of the tribune T, Annius Milo. In the same year M. Porcius Cato 
returned to Rome. The aristocratic reaction opposed the armed bands 
of Clodius, which patrolled the streets and forum, with the armed 
bands of Alilo, The attempt of the republicans in the senate to free 
themselves from the influence of the rulers, and the resolution to 
revise the agrarian law passed during the consulate of Csesar, resulted 
in a renewal of the alliance of the tlu'ee statesmen. 

1 Compare Heller, Casar^s Expedition nnch Brittanien^ in the Zeittchrift 
JUr alia. Erdhindty 18B5. According to v. GK>ier, the Jirsi expedition started 
rrom wiasant near Cape Gritnez, the tecond from Calais. 

140 Ancient History, b. c. 

In 56 a meeting of the triumTirs Csesar, Pompeltui, and Crassiis, 

and their followers (200 senators) took place in Luca. In conse- 
quence of agreements there concluded, the election of Pompeius 
and Crassus as consuls for 55 was carried by the use of force. A 
decree of the people {lex Trebonia) then assigned to Pompeius the 
government of both Spains for five years, and to Crassus that of 
Syria, while Csesar's command in Gaul was prolonged for Jive years 
more, and the payment of those troops which ne had recruited on his 
own authority was assumed by the state. The Roman aristocracy 
was obliged to submit to these decrees. 

After the close of liis year of office as consul Craflans went to 
Syria in 54, where he undertook in 53 an expedition against the PoT" 
thians. He suffered a terrible defeat at Carrhse in Mesopotamia, 
and was shortly after killed by the Parthians during an interview 
with one of their satraps. Pompeius remained in Kome, and dele- 
gated the administration of his provinces to his legates. 

In 52 Clodius and MUo happening to meet on the Via Appia, a 
fight sprang up between their lollowers, during which Clodius was 
wounded, and then, at Milo's command, put to death. Clodius' 
corpse was carried to the Curia HastUia^ near the forum in Rome, 
and there burnt, together with the building. To put an end to the 
disturbances of the mob which followed this event, Pompeius was 
appointed "consul without a colleague '* by the senate, and clothed 
with dictatorial power. Trial of Milo, who was condemned by the 
jurors, in spite of Cicero's oration ^ in his defence, to be banished. 
Cicero proconsul in Cilicia. Breach between CsBsar and Pompeius, 
whose connection had been previously weakened by the death of Julia 
(54). Pompeius selected his new father-in-law, Metellus Scipio, for his 
colleague in office, caused his governorship in Spain to be prolonged 
for five years, and deprived Csesar of two legions, urging the impor- 
tance of the Parthian war, which a victory had already ended. 

Pompeius openly reassunied the leadership of the republican aris- 
tocracy {lex de vi et ambitu). Caesar remained leader of the democ- 
racy ^ which under a constitution without representation led of neces- 
sity to monarchy. Demand of the senate tliat Csesar should resi*jn 
his command before the expiration of the term which had formerly 
been granted liim. Refusal of the senate to permit C»sar to stand 
for the consulship during his proconsulship, as had been allowed by 
the citizens. This brought about the 

49-48. Civil war between Csesar and Pompeius. 

The senate declared Ctesar a public enemy {hostis) should he 
not disband his army within a given time. The tribunes of the peo- 
ple who favored Ciesar fied to him at Ravenna. 

49. Ciesar, with one legion, crossed the brook Rubicon, the boundary 
of his province, and thereby opened the civil war. Great con- 
sternation at Rome. Pompeius, who had only commenced his prepa- 
rations, and the greater part of the senate, fled to Brundisium, Ceesar, 

^ Not the one which we have. This was written for the occasion, but the 
tnmult and fear prevented its delivery. 

n. c. Roman HiHory, 141 

reinforced by a second legion which had overtaken him, marched 
through Umhria, Picenum, where Domitius, at Corjinium, was obliged 
to surrender, and Apulia to Brundisium, to which he laid siege, auer 
a third legion of veterans had joined him, and he had levied three 
new legions. Pompeius succeeded in conveying his troops, by two 
expeditions, to Greece, before the capture of the city. Csesar, unable 
to follow him from lack of vessels, commenced the construction of a 
fleet, and went to Rome. There he quieted the apprehensions of a 
return of the horrors of the first civil war. Magnanimous behavior 
toward his foes (C»sar, Bell. Civ. 1-^). 

49. CfiBsar went by land to Spain to subdue Pompeius' le^tes, 
Spring, leaving Trebonius to besiege Massilia. The legates of Pom- 
49. peius, A/ranius and Petreius, were compelled to surrender at 

Aug. Ilerda (Lerida), N. of the £bro, and their army was dis- 
banded (Csesar, Bell. Civ. I. 34^7). 
VarrOf who conunanded in Hispania uUeriora, threw himself into 
Gades (Cadix), but ^most of the cities joining Csesar, he capitulated. 
On Csesar's march back to Italy, Massuia, which was suffering from 
starvation, surrendered on being threatened with a storm (Cesar, BeU. 
Civ. II. 1>22). Meantime Caesar's le^te Curio had reduced Sicily 
to subjection. He then crossed to Africa, where he was at first victo- 
rious at Ulicaf but was afterwards defeated at the Bagradas by Juba^ 
king of Numidia, who had declared for Pompeius, and fell in the 
battle (Cffisar, BeU. Civ. II. 23-44). 

Csesar, during his absence, was proclaimed dictator at Rome 
by the pnetor M, jEmilius Lepidus (on the authority of a new 
lex de didatore creando), but abdicated the office after eleven 
days, and had himself appointed consul, with P. Servilius, for 
the year 
48. while that part of the senate which had participated ia Pom- 
peius' flight to Greece prolonged the term of office of Pom- 
peius ana all the officials of the previous year. 
Csesar landed in northern Epirus, at Oricunij not far from the 
promontory of Acroceraunia, with a part of his army. The trans- 
ports which returned for the rest of the troops were mostly captured 
by the fleet of Pompeius; and the coasts of Italy being sharply 
watched, Ctesar was placed in a situation of great difficulty, as M, 
Antonius was able to transport the second half of the army only after 
several months. His army being at last united, Csesar inclosed the 
army of Pompeius at Dyrrhachium by a lone chain of military posts. 
Daily skirmishes, for the most part favorsS)le for Csesar. At last 
however, Pompeius broke through Caesar's line. Caeaar, defeated 
and compellea to retreat, went to Thessaly, whither Pompeius fol- 
lowed him, leaving Cato in Dyrrhachium. In the Thessauan plain 
was fought the 

48. Decisive battle of Fharsaltis. 

Aug. 9. Csesar, with about 22,000 men, defeated and completely scat- 
tered the army of Pompeius, which had more than twice 
that strength; 20,000 men laid down their arms. Pompeius fled to 
the coast, and took ship for Egypt by way of Lesbos. At the command 

142 Ancient History, B. c. 

of the minister of the young king, Ptolemseus, he was murdered upon 
landing. Csesar followed X^onmeius and landed in Alexandria with 
4000 men (Caesar, BelL Civ, III.). 

Especial honors paid to Caesar in Rome (consulate for five years, 
tribunate for life, dictatorship for one year). Caesar having taken it 
upon himself, at Alexandria, to decide between the ten-year old PtoLe^ 
mosus and his followers and his sixteen-year old sister Cleopatra, there 
broke out the so-called 

48-47. Alexandrine i^ar, 

an uprising of the whole population of Alexandria, sup- 
ported by the Roman army of occupation, which had-been in garrison 
there since the restoration of the king Ptolenusus AtUetes (55). Csesar, 
besieged in the royal palace, was in the greatest danger, from which 
only his reckless darmg rescued him. He caused the Egyptian fleet 
to be set on fire, whereby the famous library of Alexandria (s. 77) 
was also burned. Ciesar, with the help of an army of relief which 
arrived from Asia, defeated the Egyptian army on the NUe. The 
young king Ptolemseus was drowned on the flight. The government 
was given to Cleopatra and her younger brother, under Roman «*- 
premacy, and a Roman garrison was left in Alexandria. Caesar went 
to Asia Minor, and in a Jive days* campaign (vent, vidi, vici) ended 

47. War against Phamaces, 

son of Mithridates (p. 136), who had occupied Pontic, Arme- 
Aia Minor, and Cappadocia, Csesar defeated him at Zela and forced 
him to fly. Fharnaces fell in battle against a revolted governor. 
Arrangement of the Asiatic relations. Deiotams, who h^ fought 
against Csesar at PharsaJus, lost the greater part of his kingdom. 

Return of Caesar to Rome. After he had subdued a mutiny of the 
tenth legion, he undertook the 

47-46. War in Africa 

against the adherents of Pompeius, Sextus Pompeius, Scipio, 
Cato, Labienus, Petreius, king Juba. Caesar landed at hadrumetum, 
where he was in great danger, since the larger part of his force did 
not arrive till later in consequence of a storm. After several unim- 
portant encounters Caesar defeated and annihilated the republican 
army, which far outnumbered his own, in the 

46. Battle of Thapsus, 

during and after which 50,000 of the enemy were slaughtered 
by Caesar's embittered soldiers. Scipio killed himself on the flight, 
Cato committed suicide in Utica, Petreius and Juba agreed to kill one 
another, in a personal contest. Juba struck Petreius down; and being 
himself but slightly wounded, had himself killed by one of his slaves. 
Labienus and Sextus Pompeius escaped to the latter's brother, Cn. 
Pompeius, in Spain. 

A part of N'umidia was united with the province of Africa by 
Csesar; the rest was g|iyen to Bocchus, king of eastern Mauritania. 

Return of Caesar to Rome, where he celebrated four triumphs, for 

B. c. Roman HtBtory. 143 

Gaulj Egypt, Phamaces, Africa, Entertainments for the people, splen- 
did games, distribution of gold and grain. Caesar was appointed dic- 
tator for 10 years, and censor without a colleague, under the title 
prcefectus marum, for 3 years. Correction of the Calendar, by an 
extraordinary intercalation of 67 days in the year 46; thereafter were 
was a solar year of 365^ days (a leap-year every four years without 

46-45. Wax against the sons of Pompeius, 

Cnceus and SextuSj and the rest of the Pompeian party. Al- 
though repulsed before Corduba by Sextus PompeiuSf Ciesar by great 
exertions defeated both brothers in the 

45. Battle of Munda, north of Ronda, between 

Cordova and Gibraltar, in which he was obliged to lead the 
legions against the enemy in person. Over 30,000 Fompeians were 
slain, and among them Labienus, Varus, Cn. Pompeius ; Seztns es- 

After Csesar had returned to Rome he caused the senate to appoint 
him at first (45) consul for 10 years, afterwards (44) dictator, and 
censor /or life. Since 48 he had borne the new official title Impera- 
tor, which denotes the possessor of the imperiunij the concept of civil 
and military ofBcial power.^ This includea full control of the finances 
and the nulitary power of the state, and also the right of coining 
money with the portrait of the ruler of the state. As proifectus morum 
(censor) Csesar had the right of enlarging the senate ; as pontifex 
maximus he possessed the control of religious affairs ; as possessor 
since 48 of a power resembling that of the tribunes, he had the ini- 
tiative in legislation, and was the inviolable (sacrosanctus) protector 
and representative of the people. Accordingly the position and 
powers of the new democratic monarch were almost exactly analo- 
gous to those of the old Roman kings. 

The people retained, nevertheless, at least in form, a share of the 
sovereignty, all laws affecting the constitution requiring, as under the 
republic, to be ratified by the comitiffi, which were, however, easily 
controlled. The senate became again, what it had been under the 
kings, an advisatory coimcil only. Ciesar brought the number of 
members up to 900 and increased the number of quaestors from 20 to 
40. Election to this office, it will be remembered (p. 132), admitted 
the holder to the senate. The democratic monarch, however, exercised 
to the utmost his right of appointing senators, and thereby gravely 
offended the nobility. Ex-centurions, Spaniards, Gavds, sons oi freed^ 
men, etc., found through him admission to the senate. The monarch 
had an extensive right of nomination at the elections of magistrates. 

Restoration of the old royal jurisdiction exercised by decision 
of the monarch alone, from whose sentence there was no appeal, — a 
right which, of course, was but rarely exercised (trial of Ligarius and 
of Deiotarus). In general the ordinary judicial system was retained. 
Prsetors increased to 16. 

Reorganization of the military system. Creation of Ugati legionis 

1 Of. Mommaen, Hist, of Rome, IV. 468, note. 

144 Ancient HUtory, b. c. 

pro prcstore^ appointed by the imperator. Reform of the^fwincioZ ad" 
ministration. The system of tax-farming was exchanged for the im- 
position of direct taxes. Allotment of the Italian domains, particu- 
larly among the veterans. Wide-spread colonization in the provinces 
with the view at once of Latinizing the provinces, and of diminishing 
the number of proletarians in the capital. Commencement of mag- 
nificent buildings in Rome. New system of provincial administration 
for the protection of the provinces against the extortions of the gov- 
ernors. Sumptuary laws. Criminal legislation. Arrangement of the 
relations of debtor and creditor. 

Project of a war against the Parthians, to revenge the Roman de- 
feat under Crassus (p. 140) and add to the security of the eastern 
boundary of the empire. Conspiracy of some 50 republican aristo- 
crats against Caesar^ life (M. Junius Brutus, C. Cassius, Longinus^ 
C. Tr^bonius, Decimus Brutus, Tellius Cimber, etc.). 

44. Assaissinatioii of CaBsar during a Bession of the 
March 15. senate, 

which on that day was held by chance in a hall in the theatre 

of Pompeius. Ctesar fell, pierced with 23 wounds, at the foot 

of a statue of Pompeius. 

For a moment the senate took the reigns of government again, and 

decreed that Caesar's laws should continue in force, and offered an 

amnesty to his murderers. But the populace of the capital, incited 

by the J^uneroZ oration of M. Antonius, violently assaulted the conspira^ 

tors. The leaders of the conspirators departed for the provinces which 

the senate had assigned them : M. Brntus to Macedonia, Caflsius to 

Syria, Decimus Bnitua to Gallia cisalpina. 

In Rome M. Antonius (consul with DoldbeUa), having possession 
of Csesar's papers, assumed an uncontrolled power under pretext of 
executing the will of the dictator, and caused Macedonia, the prov- 
ince of M. Brutus, to be assigned to himself with five of the six 
legions which Ceesar had dispatched thither for the Parthian war. 
Dolabella received Syria, the province of Cassius, while the provinces 
of Crete and Cyrene were assigned to M. Brutus and Cassius. Anto- 
nius, moreover, procured from the popular assembly the province of 
Gallia cisalpina, which the senate had refused him. In the hope of 
balancing the usurped power of Antonius, the senate entered into 
negotiations with tlie eighteen-year-old C. Ootavius, Csesar's grand- 
nephew and adopted son, henceforward known as C. Julius Caesar 
Octavianos. The latter, who was beloved by his soldiers, took com- 
mand of two legions. Antonius, endeavoring to eject Decimus Bru- 
tus from his province of Gallia cisalpina, there broke out the so-called 

44-43. War of Mutina. 

As was advocated by Cicero in the Philippics, Hirtius and 
Pansa, consuls for 43, and the young Octavianns as proprsetor, were 
sent against Antonius, who was besieging Decimus Brutus in Mutina 
(Modena). Pansa died at Bononia of a wound received in the first 
encounter ; Hirtius fell as victor in the 
43. Battle of Mutina 

against Antonius, who was now declared an enemy of the state 

B. c. Roman History, 145 

(^hostis). While Decimus Brutus followed him to Gallia cisalpina, 
Ootavianus, now sole commander of the army which was originally 
the army of the senate, marched to Rome, and extorted his appoint- 
ment to the consulship, the repeal of the amnesty extended to the 
conspirators, and their sentence (lex Pedia). This accomplished, he 
took the field, in appearance, against Ai^toniiis, with whom he 
already had had secret negotiations. Meantime Decimus Brutus was 
abandoned by his troops, captured upon his flight, and put to death 
at Antonius' command. At a meeting near Bononia, 

43. The Second Triumvirate was formed 

Nov. avowedly for the " Organization of the State " (triumviri rei- 
public€s constituendcR) by Antonius, Octavianns, and Lepi- 
doB, the former magister equiium of Csesar. This new aasimiption of 
power was ratified by a decree of the people for a period of five years. 
New proacriptions ; several bundled senators and 2000 equites 
outlawed and their property confiscated. Murder of Cicero. The 
triumvirs began 

43-42. War against the republioan party 

and crossed to Greece, where they were opposed by M. Bm- 
tos, who, despite the senate's decree, had taken possession of his 
province, and C. Casaius, who had defeated DdabeUa in Syria and 
driven him to commit suicide. In the 

42. Battle of Philippi 

in Thrace, Antoniua, who commanded the right wing, de- 
feated the left wing of the republican army under Cassius, while 
Brutns with the left wing of the republicans drove back Octavia- 
noB. Hearine^ a false report of the defeat of Brutus, CaBsios 
caused one of his slaves to put him to death. Brutus, being defeated 
by Antonius in a second battle, killed kimself . 

Antonius ravaged the provinces of Asia and Syria, and then fol- 
lowed Cleopatra (p. 142), whom he had ordered to meet him at 
TarsuSy to Egypt Meantime Ootavianus, in Italy, was carrying out 
the promised allotments of land among the veterans. Quarrels 
between himself and the followers of Antonius led to the so-called 

41-40. Civil war of Penisia 

between Octavianus and Lepidus on the one side and Lucius 
Antonius, the brother, and Fulvia, the wife of the triumvir, on the 
other. L. Antonius was compelled to surrender in Perusia. Octavia- 
nus, now supreme ruler of Italy, assumed the administration of Gatd 
and Spain, while Lepidus was put off with the government of Africa. 
Another civil war threatened, but was avoided by a compromise, 
which the death of Fulvia facilitated. Antonius married Octavia, the 
sister of Octavianus. The administration of the empire was divided 
between the triumvirs, so that 

40. Octavianus received the toest, Antonius the east, and Lepi- 
dus Africa, 
39. In the following year, however, the triumvirs were obliged to 
make terms with Seztus Pompeius, who had created a naval 

146 Ancient History. B. c. 

empire, with Sicily as the base, and had cut off the grain supplies from 
Rome. By the treaty of Misenum Sextus Pompeius received Sicily, 
Sardinia, Corsica (f) and Peloponnesus, with the promise of a reim- 
bursement for the loss of his paternal property. 

Antonius went to the east, where he lived for the most part with 
Cleopatra in Egypt. He carried on, however, a war with the Par- 
thians, at first through his legate VerUidius (39), and afterwards in 
person (36), but without much success. New quarrels led to the 

38-36. Sicilian war 

between the triumvirs and Sextus Pompeius. Octavianus, aban- 
doned by both his colleagues, was obliged to conduct the war alone 
at first, and suffered great loss at sea. A difference between Octa- 
vianus and Antonius was made up at a meeting in Tarentum, and 
Octavianus gave Antonius two Italian legions for the Parthian war, 
while Antomus placed 100 ships at the service of Octavianus against 
Sextus Pompeius. By means of this reinforcement, Octavianus got 
the upper hand of Sextus, especially since M. Vipsanius Agrippa 
commanded his fleet. Sextus Pompeius, defeated by Agrippa at 
Mylce, fled to Asia and died in Miletus. In the mean time, Lepidus, 
who had landed in Sicily, demanded this island for himself. Aban- 
doned by his men, he was forced to surrender to Octavianus, who 
permitted him to retain the dignity of Pontif ex Maximus, and sent 
him to Circeii. The administration of Africa was assumed by Octa- 

35-33. Campaigns of Octavianus against the Alpine tribes, the Dal- 
matians, and the lUyrians. Antonius defeated Artavasdes, 
king of Armenia, captured him, and led him in triumph at Alex- 

New disputes between Octavianus and Antonius. The latter pre- 
sented Cleopatra with Roman territory, and sent his wife Octavia, the 
sister of Octavianus, papers of separation. Octavianus procured a 
popular decree removmg Antonius from his command and declaring 
war upon Cleopatra. 

31-30* War between Octavian and Antonius, 

also called BeUum A ctiacum. 
During the long delay of Antonius and Cleopatra in Ephesus, 
Athens, and at Patrce in Achaia, Octavianus completed his preparations 
and transported his army to Epirus. His fleet of 250 ships, under 
the command of Agrippa, defeated the fleet of Antonius and Cleo- 
patra, which outnumbered it, in the 

31. Battle of Actimn, 

Sept. 2 Cleopatra fled before the battle was entirely decided, and 
was followed by Antonius. The army of Antonius surrendered 
to Octavianus without a blow. 

30. Octavianus went to Asia, where he entered upon his fourth con- 
sulship, returned for a short time to Italy by sea to repress a 

revolt, and then returned to his troops and marched through Syria to 

Egypt. Antonius, abandoned by his troops, killed himseu on hear- 

B. c. Soman History. 147 

ing a false report of Cleopatra's death. The latter, when eonvinced 
that Antouius spared her only that she might grace his triumph in 
Rome, poisoned herself. Octavianus made XSgypt a Roman province. 
OctavianuB sole ruler, after the manner of Caosar (p. 143). 
29. Octavianus celebrated three triumphs in Rome, and the temple 
of Janus was closed for the third time in Roman history.^ 


Reigns of the Roman Emperors down to the Fall of the 
Western Empire.^ 

31 (30) B. C.-476 A. D. 

B. C. A. D. 

31-68. The five Julil, or the descendants of Caesar's adopted son, 
31-14. Caesax Octavianus Aug^ustus. 

The surname Augustus (the Illustrious^ the Sublime), which was 
given Octavianus by the senate in 27 B. c, is the navie by which, as 
sole ruler of the Roman world, he is most conunonly known ; it also 
became, like PrincepSy^ Ccesar, Imperator (p. 143), the tUle of the 
Roman sovereigns. In later times Ccesar became a peculiar designa- 
tion of the appointed successor of a reigning Augustus, 

Augustus reduced the senate to 600 members and made a high 
census (one million sesterces) the necessary condition of admission. 
The consular office was retamed in name, but was sometimes held 
for a series of years by the imperator ; sometimes c^ranted, as a 
special distinction, to some one else for a short time (two months). 
The prcefectus urbi^ having police and criminal jurisdiction, and the 
prcefectus prcetorio, commander of the standing body-guard of nine 
(afterwards ten) prsetorian cohorts, became the most important of- 
ficers. Division of Rome into 14, of Italy into 11, regiones, 

B. C. 27, new division of the provinces into senalorialy comprising 
those quiet provinces which could be administered without an army 
(^Africa, Asia, Achaia, Illyricum, Macedonia, Sicilia, Creta, with Cy- 
renaica, Bithynia, Sardinia, Hispania Boeiica), and imperial, including 
those where an army was maintained, and which were administered 
by legates in the name of Augustus (Hispania Tarraconensis, Lusi- 
tania; the four provinces of Gaul : Narbonensis, Lugdunensis, Aquv- 
tania, and Belgica ; Germania superior et inferior, Moesia, Syria, CUicia, 
Cyprus, JSgyptus). * 

Period of the highest development of Roman literature. Mcece- 
nas (t B. c. 8), friend of Augustus, patron and protector of the poets : 
P. Vergilius Maro (70-19 b. c), Q. Horatius Flaccus (65-8 B. c.) ; 

1 Once under Numa, and once in 235. [Trans,] 

3 Peter, JUfm. Gesch. III.^, 1871, and RSm, Ueich, in hurzerer Fassung, 
2d ed. 1878, p. 475 foil. 

8 Princept was, it is true, not an official title. About the meaning of this de- 
signation and its relation to the ditrnity of the Princept senatus^ see Mar- 
quardt-MoxnmBen, Rom. Alth, II.-, 2, p. 750 foil. 

♦ Later many changes were made in this division. AU provinces created 
after 27 b. o. were assigned to the emperor. 

148 Ancient History. B. c. 

the elegiac poets, C. Valerius Catullus (87-^54 B. c), AWius Tibullus 
(54-19 B. C. ?), S. Propertius (49-15 B. c. ?); P. Ovidius Naso (bora 
43 B. c, 9 A. D. baniiihed to Tomi on the Pontus EuxinuSy f 17). 
The historian T. Limus (59 B. C.-17 A. D.) 

Family of Augnstiu. 

C. JuliuB CaBsar Ootavianus Ausu>tu8, b. 63 b. c, f 14 a. d. 

Married : 

1. Claudia. 2. Scribonia. 3. Livia. 

Tiberius and DrusuB, 
Sons of Tiberius Claudius Nero 
and Livia. 
Julia, t A. D. 14. 


1. Marcellus, 2. M. Vipsanius Agrippa. 3. Tiberius, 

son of Octavia. t A. d. 12. 

t B. c. 23. I 

Gains Caesar. Lucius C»sar. Agrippina. Julia. Agrippa Postumus. 

t A. D. 4. t A. D. 2. t A. D. 33. t A. D. 28. t A. D. 14. 

Julia (the elder) was banished to the island of Pandataria because 
of her excesses. Oaius Ccesar and Lucius Ccesar were fuiopted by 
Augustus B. c. 17, and designated as his successors. Agrippina (the 
elder) married Germanicus, son of Drusus, and became the mother of 
the younger Agrippina, the mother of Nero (p. 150). Agrippa 
Postumus, almost an idiot, was adopted, but afterward banished to 
the island of Flanasia. Julia (the younger) was also banished. 
Tiberius, son of Livia by her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero, 
was adopted by Augustus, A. D. 4. 

29. Mossia subjugated (made a province in 16 B. c. ?). 

27-26. Expedition of Augustus against the Cantabri and Astures, the 
operations against whom he was obliged, on account of sick- 
ness, for the most part to leave to lus legates. 

25. Expedition to Arabia, without results, conducted by C jEUus 
UaUus, prefect of Egypt. Subjugation of the Alpine tribe of 
the Salassi. Foundation of Augusta Prcetorta (Aosta). 

23. Augustus caused the senate to confer upon him for life the dig- 
nity of the tribunate, and the proconsular imperium in general. 

22 and 21. Successful war against the Ethiopians, conducted by Pe- 
tronius, the successor of Gallus in 'Egypt. 

20. Campaign of Augustus against the Parthians, whose king Phra- 
ates, upon hearing of the arrival of Augustus in Syria restored 
the Koman standards which had been taken from Crassus. 
Tigranes was reinstated in the kingdom of Armenia by Tibe^ 

19. Subjugation of Spain completed by the conquest of the Cantabri 
and Astures. 

15. After the subjugation of the tril)es from the northern boundary 
of Italy to the Danu1)e, Reetia was made a Ronuui province, 
along with Vinddicia (Augusta Vindelicorum, now Augsburg) 
and Noricum. 

B. c.-A. D. Roman History. 149 

12-9. Starting from the left bank of the Rhine (Germania superior 
and Germania inferior, which bad been constituted provinces in 
27), DrusuB undertook four campaigns in Grermany proper, 
and led the Roman armies to the W eser and the Elbe. I)rnsus 
died upon the way back. 

8-7. TiberiuB, the brother of Drusus and his successpr in the com- 
mand, after he had subjugated Pannonia (12-9), compelled a 
portion of the Grermanic tribes on the right bank of the Rhine 
to recognize the supremacy of Rome. 

Birth of Christ (four years before the commencement of our 

6-9. An attack made by Tiberius upon the Suevian kingdom of Mar- 
bod was interrupted by an insurrection of the Illyrian and Pan- 
nonian tribes, which were reduced to subjection only after a 
severe contest. 

10. Pannonia (the S. W. portion of Hungary) made a Roman prov- 

9(?). Three Roman legions under QuintiliiiB Varus annihilated 
in the Tentoburg forest, by Arminius (Hermann?), a 
leader of the Chenisci, and husband of Thvandda. 
Lex Papia Pojopcea and Lex Julia directed against celibacy. 

14. Augustus diea at Nola, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 

14-37. Tiberius (Claiidiiis Nero)y 

step-son of Augustus, by whom he had been adopted, a sus- 
picious despot. The (formal) right of ratifying laws transferred from 
the comitice to the senate. The law against high treason (de maiestate) 
was extended to include the most trivial offences offered the sover- 
eign. Rewards given to informers (delatores). 

Revolt of the legions on the Rhine, quelled by OermanicuSf son of 
the elder DrusuSf and of the legions m Pannonia quelled by the 
younger Drusus, son of Tiberius (Tacitus, Annates. I. 16-49). 
14-16. Three expeditions under Germanicus against the Crermans. 
On the third attempt, which was made by sea, Drusus landed 
at the mouth of the Ems, and crossed the Weser. Roman 
victory in the battle on the Campus Idistaviso (according to 
Grimm, Idisiaviso, " meadow of the elves ") over Arminius, 
between Minden and Hameln. In spite of the success of the 
Roman arms the right bank of the Rhine remained free (Tac. 
Ann, II. 5-26). 
17. Germanicus recalled from Germany, through the envy of Tibe- 
rius, and sent to the East, installed a king in Armenia, made 
Cappadocia a Roman province, and died (19) in Syria (of poi- 
son, administered by Piso ?). 
23-31. Rule of the abandoned Bejanus, Tiberius' favorite. By 
uniting the pnetorian cohorts in one camp near Rome, Sejanus 
laid the foundation of the future power of ihe prcUorians, 
23. Sejanus poisoned Drwuvt, son of Tiberius. 
27. Tiberius took up his residence in Caprem (Capri). 
29. Banishment of the elder Agrippina (j- 33). — Livia f. 

150 Ancient IKitory. A. D. 

31. Trial of SejanuSy who was executed in company with many others 
(accomplices in the conspiracy?). Macro succeeded Sejanus 
in the favor of Tiberius. 

37-41. Caligiila (properly, Gains Ccesar Gemuiniciis), 
youngest son of GermanicuSy called by the soldiers Calignhi 
(bootling), a cruel, half-crazy t}Tant {oderintj dum metuanti). Self- 
adoration. Bridge over the bay of Puteoli. Cliildish expedition 
with an immense army to the coast of Gaul (39-40), which ended 
with the collection of mussels (spolia oceani). After his murder the 
pnetorians proclaimed as imperator his uncle, 

41-54. Claudius (Tiberius Claicdltis Nero), 

son of Drusus, younger brother of Grermanicus, a weak- 
minded, vacillating prince, ruled by miserable favorites (the freed- 
men Narcissus and Pallas) and his wives: 1, the shameless Messalina, 
and, after he had caused her to be killed, 2, the ambitious Agrippina, 
daughter of Germanicus TTacitus, Annales, XI. and XII.). 
43. Commencement of the conquest of BTntain under the command 

of A. Plautius and his legate, T, Flavins Vespasianus ; the 

southern part of Britain became a Roman province (Tacitus, 

Agricola, 13y 14; Ann. XII. 31-40). 
During Claudius' reign the following provinces were incorporated : 
in Africa, Mauretania, Tingitana, and Mauretania CoBsariensis (42); 
in the east Lycia (43), Thracia (46), JudcBa^ which had been a de- 
pendent kingdom 41-44, became m 44 a province again. 

Affrippina persuaded Claudius to adopt X. DomitiuSf her son by Cn, 
Domitius (he took the name of Nero at his adoption), and to appoint 
him his successor in place of his own son by Messalina, Britannims, 
whose sister Octavia was the promised wife of Nero. As Claudius 
showed signs of repenting of tlie adoption of Nero, Agrippina poisoned 

54-68- Nero {Nero Clatidius Ccpsar Augustus Germanicus)^ 
proclaimed imperator by the pnetorians, was for the first 
five years of his reign under the guidance of tlie prce/ectus prceto- 
rio Burros and his teacher L, Senecay who prevented the influence of 
his mother Agrippina from becoming predominant. Law against 

With Nero's passion for the freedwoman Acte, and afterwards for 
Poppcea Sabina, the opposition between himself and his mother grew 
stronger and stronger, and the list of his crimes began. He poisoned 
(55) his step-brother BritannicuSf whom his mother had threatened to 
make imperator, had Agrippina put to death (59), drove from him 
his wife Ortavia, whom he afterwards executed (62), and married 
Poppcea Sabina, Excesses and mad cruelty of Nero. He appeared 
in public as chariot-driver in the races, actor, and singer. Crawling 
servility of the senate (Tac. Ann, XIII.-XVI.). 
61. Revolt in Britain, suppressed by Suetonius PauUnus. 
68-63. War with the Parthians and Armenians. After the capture 
and destruction of Artarata, Domitius Corbulo forced King 
Tiridates of Armenia to acknowledge the supremacy of Rome. 

A. D. Roman History, 151 

64. A fire of six days' duration, followed by another lasting 
three days, destroyed a large part of Rome Tset by Nero^B 
command, in order that he might rebuild the city more beau- 
tifidly?). Nero accused the Jews and the communities of 
Christians of setting fire to the city. 

64. First persecution of the Christians.^ 

Re-building in Rome, on a larg^ scale. The palace of Nero 

(damus aured) occupied the entire Palatine and extended to 

uie Esquiline. 
66. Conspiracy of Pisa discovered (Seneca f ). 
68. Revolt in Graul (C JuLixiS Vindex) and in Hispania citerior, 

where the governor Stdpicius CraJha, then 73 years of ac^, was 

Proclaimed and acknowledged imperator. Nero fled and killed 
imself on the estate of one of his freedmen in the neighbor- 
hood of Rome. 

68-69* Qalba {Serviiis Sulpicius Ckdba), 

June-Jan. whose avarice soon gained him the hatred of his soldiers 
(Tao. Hist. I.), and who became the victim of the revolt of 

69. Otho {Lucms Salvius Otho Titiantcs)^ 

Jan.-Apr. once a favorite of Nero's (Tae. Hist. I. II.) The legions 
on the Rhine had already proclaimed as imperator 

69* Vitellins (Atdtis ViteUvus)^ 

Apr.-Dec. who defeated Otho in the neighborhood of Cremona^ 
entered Rome and made the city the scene of his senseless 
gluttony and extravagance. (Tac. Hist. II., III.) 

69-'96- The three Flavian emperors. 

69-79* Vespasianus {Titiis Flavitcs Vespasiantis) 

proclaimed imperator through the influence of Licinius Mud- 
anus, governor of Syria, at first in Alexandriaf afterwards by his own 
legions and those of Syria in Palestine, where he was conducting the 
war against the Jews who had been in revolt since 66. Vespasianus 
transferred the military command to his son, Titus, and went to Rome, 
after a long stay at Alexandria, to find that his adherents had already 
put Vitellius to death. Restoration of discipline in the army and 
order in the finances. Reorganization of the senate. 
69-71. Revolt of the Batavians under JuliiiB (dandius?) 

CiviUs (Tac. Hist. IV.), 

one of their leaders of royal descent. The insurgents at first 
declared that they took up arms not against the Roman empire, 
but against VitelUaa, and for Vespaaianua. Thus they gamed 
the assistance of a large part of the Roman soldiers in those parts. 
Claudius CivHia repeatedly defeated the Romans, and, reiniorced 
by Germans from the other side of the Rhine, thirsting for booty, 
he advanced far into Gaul. A great part of the Gallic tribes joined 

^ Bat see Overbeok, Studien z. Oetch. d. alien Kirche, Pt 1, p. 93 foil. 

152 Ancient History. ▲. d. 

him, and for a moment he dreamed of founding an independent 
Gallic Empire. When once Vespasian's power in Kome wajs secure, 
however, Cerealis, favored hy the qiuirrels which had hroken out 
between the allied Batavians, Gauls, and Germans, put an end to 
the revolt, and again reduced all Gaul under the Roman supremacy. 
70. Capture of Jerusalem by Titus (p. 12). Triumphal arch of 
Titus in Rome. Erection of the Amphitheatrum Flavium (Col- 

78. Agricda, father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, made prepara- 

tions for the complete subjugation of Britain. Yespasianus 
was succeeded by nis son, 

79-81. Titus {TUu8 Flavins Vespasianus), 

called, because of his admirable qualities, amor et ddicuB gen- 
eris humani. Punishment of informers. 

79. Eruption of Vesuvius. Herculanewn buried by lava, Pompeii by 

ashes and mud. Death of the elder Plinius, the leader of the 
Roman fleet at Misenum. 

80. Fire and plague in Rome. Titus was succeeded by his brother, 

81-96. Doznitianus (Titus Flavins Domitianus), 

a cowardly, cruel despot. He undertook a campaign against 
the Chatti (83), but returned without having seen a foe, notwithstand- 
ing which he celebrated a triumph. During his reign the construc- 
tion of the Roman boundary wall between the Rhine and the Danube 
was coDunenced. It was guarded by soldiers, who were settled 
upon public land along its course (agri decumates). 
81-84. Successful campaigns of Agricola in Britain, whereby the 

Roman power was extended as far as Scotland. Agricola 

recalled by Domitian through envy. 
86-90. Unsuccessful wars against the Dacians. Domitian bought 

peace of Decebalus by a yearly tribute. 
93. Death of Agricola (poisoned by order of Domitian ?). Cruel 

persecution of the Jews, Christians, and philosophers, 
96. Domitianus murdered by the freedman Stephanus, the empress, 

who was in fear of her own life, and the pnefectus prsetorio, 

Petronius Secundus, being cognizant of the crime. 

96-192. Nerva and his adopted family. 
96-98. Nerva (Marcus Cocceius Nerva), 

a senator 64 years of age, was raised to the throne by the mur- 
derers of Domitian. He repealed the law of treason, re- 
called the exiles, and reduced the taxes. He adopted and 
appointed as his successor 

98-117. Trajan (Marcus Ulpiics Traiaims), 

governor of the province of Germania inferior, bom in the 
Roman colony of Italica in Spain, the first occupant of the 
tlirone of the Caesars who was not an Italian. Excellent 
ruler and general. Magnificent buildings in Rome (Forvm 
Traianum) and throughout the empire. 

A. D. Roman IRstory. 153 

101-102. First war against the Dacians, in conseqnence of Trajan's 
refusal to pay the tribute promised by Domitian. Trajan 
crossed the Danube, captured the fortress of the king Decehor- 
lus and forced him to make peace and cede a portion of his 
105-107. In the second war against the Daoians Trajan built a 
stone bridge across the Danube (at Tumu Severinu), crossed 
the stream, defeated and subdued the Dacians. Decebalns 
killed himself. Magnificent games at Rome, wherein 10,000 
gladiators are said to have appeared. 
DacSi, that is Wallachiaf MMau, Eastern Hungary, and Transyl- 
vania {SiehenbiXrgen), made a Roman provinoe. Settlement of nu- 
merous colonists in Dacia, from whom the present Roumanians de- 
rive their descent. It would be more correct to say their language 
only, the Roumanian or Daoo-Romanio, which prevails in \Val- 
lachia, Moldau and a part of Transylvania. The colnmn of Trajan 
at Rome completed in 113. 

The governor of Syria took possession (105) of the region E. and 
S. of Damascus and of Judcea to the northern end of the Red Sea, 
as the Roman province of Arabia.^ 

114-116. Wars of Trajan with the Parthians. ChosroSs, nephew of 
the Parthian kms;, driven from Armenia. Armeniay Meso- 
potamia, Assyria, including Babylonia, made Roman provinces. 
Trajan, favored, as it seems, by internal troubles in the Parthian 
monarchy, conquered Seleucia and Ctesiphon on the Tigris, and sailed 
down the river to the Persian Gulf. Trajan, having appointed a king 
over the Parthians, started upon his return, but died at Sdinus 
(Trajanopolis) in CUicia, 

117-138. Hadrian (Fublius jEUus Hadrianus)^ 

adopted by Trajan (?). A lover of peace, an excellent ad- 
ministrator, learned ana vain. Hadrian abandoned the new provinces 
of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria, so that the Euphrates formed 
the eastern boundary of the Roman empire. He restored quiet in 
McBsia, and strenfi^hened his power by the execution of those who 
conspired against him. 

120. Hadrian began his progress through aU the provinces of the em- 
pire, with a visit to Gaul. 

Magnificent buildings : in Rome the Moles Hadriani, on the site 
of the present Castle of St. Angelo, and the double temple of Venus 
and the goddess Roma, and the AthencBum; in Athens, the city of 
Hadrian (the Olympieum completed). Magnificent villa at Tibur 

In Britain a wall of defence was built against the Picts and Scots. 
Collection of the edicts of the praetors (edictum perpetuxm) com- 
menced by the jurist Salvius Julianus. 

132-135. Revolt of the Jews on account of the foundation of the 
colony of jElia Capitolina (p. 12). 

Hadrian had adopted, during a fit of sickness, L. ^lius Verus, and 

1 That is, Arabia Petrasa, so called from its capital, Petra, not the whole 
peninsula of Arabia. Kiepert, AUas. AnL Tab. Xil. 

154 Ancient History, A. D. 

appointed him Cctsar (p. 147) ; but as Yenis died before him he 
adopted 7*. Aurelius Antoninus under the condition that the latter 
, should adopt in place of a son his nephew, the young Af. Annius 
Vents f under the name of Marcus Aurelius, and X. Commodus Verus, 
the son of the deceased Csesar, ^lius Verus, 

138-161- Antoninus Pius {Titus Aurelius Antoninus 

Peaceable rcig^, during which the borders were, however, 
vigorously defended against the attacks of the barbarians. 
Antoninus had his adopted son, M, Aurelius, educated by phil- 
osophers of the Stoic schooL 

161-180* Maxous Aurelius {Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)^ 

a wise and active sovereign, highly educated (pupil of Corne- 
lius Fronto^. a Stoic philosopher. Until 169 he reigned in 
common with his brother by adoption, the dissipated Lncius 

162-165. War against the Parthians under the command of L, Verus, 
who, however, soon gave himself up to dissipation in Antiochia, 
while his legatees carried on the war with success, conquered 
Artaxata, appointed a king in Armenia, and burned Seleucia 
and Ctesiphon. A part of Mesopotamia was again made a 
Roman province. 

166. Plague and famine in Italy. 

166-180. War with the Marcommani and Quadi. Marcus Aurelius 
fought with various fortune against the barbarians, who con- 
stantly made new attacks. During a short peace with the bar- 
barians, conquest of the rebel Avidius Cassius in Syria, 175. 
Triumph in Rome, 176. The senate erected an equestrian 
statue in his honor, which still adorns the Capitol. Before 
he had succeeded in making the boundaries of the empire 
along the Danube secure, he died in Vindobona (Vienna). He 
was succeeded by his degenerate son 

180-192. CommoduB, 

who bought peace of the Grermans at the price of a tribute, 
entrusted the government for the most part to the prsefectus pnetorio, 
abandoned himself to his inclination for dissipation and cruelty, and 
was finally murdered by his intimates. 

193-284. Imperatora for the most part appointed by the 

193. PertinajL, strict and economical, murdered after three 

months by the pnetorians, who placed on the throne in his 

193. Didius Julianus, who, among all competitors, promised 
them the largest present. The lUyrian legions proclaimed 

193-211. Septimius Severus, 

who was recognized by the senate and maintained himself 

A. D. Eoman History. 155 

a^inst the other pretenders (Pescennius Niger in the East, Clodius 
Albinus in Gaul). Successful campaigns in Mesopotamia. Improye- 
ments in the administration of justice through the jurist Papinianus. 
In 208 expedition to Britain against the Scots. Restoration of the 
Roman wall, which had been partially destroyed. Septimius Sev- 
erus died in Eboracum (York). His son, 

211-217. Caracalla (ArUonius Bassianus) 

murdered his half-brother and co-regent Geta along with 

thousands of his adherents, among whom was Papinianus, By 

the CanstihUio ArUoniana Roman citizenship was conferred upon all 

inhabitants of the provinces, /or the sake of the higher taxation which 

could then be imposed. 

Systematic plundering of the provinces, unsuccessful wars against the 
Goths (wrongly called GeUx^ in Dacia, cruel treatment of the inhabit- 
ants of AUmmdria. Plimaering expedition against the Parthians. 
Murder of Caracalla. His successor, 

217. Macrinus, 

purchased peace from the Farthians. The soldiers proclaimed 
as imperator the seventeen-year-old 
218-232. ElagabaluB (the form Heliogabalus is a corruption), priest 
of the sun at Emesa in Syria, who was put forward as the son 
of Caracalla, He gave himself up to the most infamous de- 
bauchery ; the government was conducted by his mother and 
grandmother. He adopted his cousin, the young B<xssianus 
Alexianus, who succeeded to the throne after the murder of 
Elagabalus by the prsetorians, under the name of 

222-235. Severus Alexander. 

Excellent ruler, advised by the jurists Domitius Ulpianus and 
Julius PauUus. His strictness with the soldiers led to several 
mutinies, in one of which Ulpianus was murdered. 
226. In consequence of the dissolution of the Parthian monarchy of 
the Arsaddae and the foundation of the new Persian em- 
pire of the Basaanidae by Artakahatr {Artaxares, corrupted into 
Artaxerzea, new Persian, Ardeshir)t a descendant of Sasaan, a new 
war broke out in the East, which Severus Alexander carried on, ac- 
cording to the Roman historian LampridiuSy with success; according to 
the Grecian Herodian, unsuccessfully. At all events there seems to 
have been an armistice in 233. After the murder of Severus Alex- 
ander on the Rhine the soldiers raised to the throne 

235-238. MajdminuB Thrax, 

a Thracian of extraordinary size and strength. Expedition 
across the Rhine ; German townships laid waste. Meanwhile 
the legions in Africa proclaimed the senator, 

237. Gk>rdianu8 1., 

then eighty years old, imperator. He appointed his son, Gor- 
dianns II., co-regent. They were both defeated by the prsefect of 
Mauretania: the son fell in the battle, the father put himself to death. 

156 AncietU Hilary. ▲• d. 

The senate at Rome, which had already taken sides against Jlfaxtmi- 
nus Thraxy elected the senators Pupieniui Mazimiui and Caeliun Bal- 
binuB, Augusti, to whom was added, at the people's demand, the 
thirteen-year-old grandson of Gordianus I, Maximinus Thrax was 
killed hy his own soldiers at the siege of Acpiileia. The pnetorians 
at Rome murdered the two imperators appomted hy the senate, Pvr 
pienus and BaUnnuSy so that the young 

238-244. Gordianus m. 

was left sole imperator. A new war with the Persians (241). 
The young imperator married the daughter of the veteran Misitheus 
{TiTM8itheus)f whom he made pnefectus pnetorio, and whose guidance 
he followed. After the death of his father-in-law Gordianus was 
murdered hy the new pnefectus prsetorio^ 

244-249. PhiUppus Arabs* 

whom he had heen ohliged to accept as co-regent in 243 at the 
demand of the soldiers. Peace with Persia. Philippus returned to 
Rome (hecame a Christian in secret ?). 

248. Celehration of the thousandth anniversary of the foundation 
of Rome. 
Revolt of the Mcesian and Pannonian legions, which proclaimed one 
of their officers imperator. 

24&-251. Deoiiis, 

whom Philippus sent to quell the mutiny, was compelled hy 
the legions to assume the title of imperator. He defeated and 
killed Philippus in the hattle of Verona. 

250. General persecntion of the Christians. 

Mart3rTdom of FabianuSf hishop of Rome. Decius defeated 
the GothSy who were plundering Thrace, hut fell in hattle after 
he had followed them across the Danube. The legions elected 

251-253. GaUus, 

who soon had his co-regent, HostilianuSy son of Decius, put to 
death. Destructive pestilence in almost all parts of the em- 
pire. Gallus was deposed hy the conqueror oi the Groths, 

253. .^milianus, 

who after four months was killed hy the soldiers. He was 
succeeded by 

253-260. Valerianus, 

the general of the legions in Gaul and Grermania. He ap- 
pointed his son, Gkdlienus, co-regent, and both carried on the war with 
the German bands, who were constantly making new inroads, espe- 
cially the Franks in Gaul, the Alamanniy who invaded northern Italy 
but were driven back at Medidanum, and the Goths on the Danube. 
Unsuccessful expedition of Valerianus against the Persians ; defeated 
at Edessa, he was captured, and at the age of seventy carried about 
as the slave of King Artaxerxes. Win reign and that of his son, 

A. D. Baman History, 157 

260-268. GaUienus, 

was disturbed by the appearance of a great number of pretend- 
ers to the throne, and by the invasions of the barbarians, particularly 
of the Goths, who came in ships from the Black Sea. Confusion 
throughout the empire ; the so-called " time of the thirty tyrants." 
Two pretenders only maintained themselves for any length of time, 
TetriouB in Ga\d and Spain, and Odenathus (of Palmyra) in Syria. 
The latter wrested Mesopotamia from Persia, and was recognized by 
Grallienus as co-regent for the East. After the murder of Odenathus 
(267) his consort, Zenobia, ruled in Palmyra. Gallienus laid siege 
to M!ediolanum, which had been occupied by the pretender Aureolus, 
and was there murdered by contrivance of the laUer. Aureolus was 
put to death by 

268-270. Claudius 11., 

whom the soldiers raised to the throne. He defeated the AI»- 
manni and the Goths, and waa succeeded by 

270-275. Aurelianus. 

He concluded peace with the Groths by the sacrifice of the 
province of Dacia. The Danube was henceforward the boundary of 
the empire ; the greater part of the Roman colonists were transported 
to McestOy a part of which was now called Dacia (Aureliana). Aure- 
lian repulsea the Aiamanni and Marcomanni, who had made an inroad 
into Italy (victory on the Metaurus), and beg^ the erection of a new 
wall around Rome, which included the enlarged imperial city (271, 
completed in 276). He defeated Zenobia in two batUes, at Antiochia 
and at Edessa, subdued Syria, besieged and destroyed Palmyra, cap- 
tured Zenobia, and reconquered Egypt (273). Having thus subdued 
the East, he turned against Tetricus in Gaul, whom he defeated 
and captured at Chalons (274). Aurelian, rightly called ** Restorer 
of the universal Empire'' (Restitutor Orbis), was murdered on an 
expedition against the Persians. At the request of the army the 
senate elected the senator 

275. Tacitus 

imperator. He defeated the Alani, who bad invaded Asia 
Minor, but died after three months. His brother Florianus, 
who attempted to secure the succession, was defeated by 

276-282. ProbuB, 

who drove back the Franks, Burgundians, Aiamanni and Van" 
dais, entered Grermany, and strengthened the wall between the Rhine 
and Danube (p. 152). He enrolled a large number of Germans as 
mercenaries in the Roman army^ and employed the soldiers in drain- 
ing swamps and building canals and roads, for which reason he was 
murdered by them. The prsefectus prsetorio, 

282-283. Caxus, 

succeeded. He appointed his sons Carinus and Numerianus 
CsBsais, and afterwards Augusti, conquered the Sarmatians, and pez^ 

158 Ancient History. a. d. 

ished (struck by lightniog ?) on an expedition against the Persians, 
after having captured Ctesiphon. 
284. NumerianuB, 

who had accompanied his father to the East, was murdered by 

his father-in-law. 

284. Caxinus, 

who had remained in the West, fought at first with success 

284-305. Diocletianus» 

who had been proclaimed imperator by the soldiers. Garinus 
was ultimately murdered by his own troops. Diocletian, who 
created an oriental court at Nicomedia in Bithynia, and thence 
ruled the E<x8t, entrusted the administration of a^airs in the 

285. West to the brave Mazimianus, as his co-regent or Augustus, 
who took up his residence for the most part in Mediolanum 

293. Diocletian appointed two more Cassars : 1. ConstantiuB 
ChloruB, who was obliged to divorce his wife Helena and marry 
the step-daughter of Maximianus, received the government of 
Gauly Britain f and Spain, and dwelt commonly in Augusta 
Trevirorum (Trier), while Maximianus was appointed to the 

fovemment of Italy and Africa. 2. Galerius, who became 
Kocletian's son-in-law, and received tlie government of lUyrir 
cum, including Macedonia and Greece. 
296. Diocletian subdued the revolt of Egypt, ConatantiuB sup- 
pressed a revolt in Britain, Oalerius fought against the 
Persians, unsuccessfully in the first year, but in the second (297) he 
gained an important victory, and extended the frontiers to the Tigris 
again. MaarJinianua suppressed an insurrection in Africa, Con- 
stantiuB defeated the Alamanni, 
303. General persecution of the Christians, 

which Constantius discouraged in his province. 
305. Diocletian abdicated and retired to SaUmm in Dalmatia, after 
he liad obliged Maximianus also to resign his dignity. 
Constantius and Galerius were raised to Augusti. At the desire 
of Gralerius, the claims of Constantinus, son of Constantius, and of 
Maxentius, son of Maximianus, being passed over, 

Severus and Maximinus were appointed Csesars, the first receiv- 
ing Italy and Africa, the second Syria and Egypt, 
3GN6. After the death of Constantius in Britam, his son (by Helena), 
Constantius, assumed the administration of his father's prov- 
inces, Gaid, Spain, and Britain, with the title of Csesar. He 
fought successfully with the Franks and Bructeri, Meanwhile 
the prsetorians at Rome chose* Maxentius imperator, where- 
upon his father, Maximianus, reassnmcd the dignity he had 
unwillingly resigned. The empire had thus six rulers, three 
Augiisti and three Csesars. 
307. Tlie Csesar Sevenis, having been created Augustus by Gale- 
rius, went to Italy to attack Maxentius, but was deserted by 
his soldiers tind put to death at Ravenna, Galerius appointed laicin- 

A. D. Roman History, 159 

ills co-regent and Augustus in his stead, and Constantine therefore 

assumed the same title, so that there were now six Augusti in the 


310. In the struggle that followed, the aged Maximianiis was cap- 
tured in Massilia and put to death by command of Constantine. 
GkUerins died of disease (311). 

War between Maxentius and Constaivtine, The latter issued edicts 
in favor of the Christians. Mazentius was defeated at Turin 

312. and at Saxa rubra, four miles from Rome, by Constantine 
(Hoc signo vinces /), and perished by drowning as he attempted 
to cross the Tiber. 

Constantine became the protector of the Christians, but re- 
mained up to his death a catechumen, 

313. Alliance between Constantine and Licinius, who married 
Constantine's sister. Constantine took the field against the 
Franks, Licinius against Maadminus, who was defeated, and 
killed himself in Tarsus ; so that now 

313-^23. Constantine and Licinius were the only rulers in the 
empire, the former in the West, the latter in the East. In 314, 
however, they were embroiled in conflict. Licinius, defeated 
in two encounters, was obliged to cede lUyricum, Macedonia, 
and Achaia to Constantine. 

323. Second war between Constantine and Licinius. The latter, de- 
feated at Adrianople and Chalcedon, surrendered in Nicomedia, 
and was executed (324) by Constautine's command. 

323-337. Constantine (the Great) sole ruler. 

Christianity recognized by the State and favored at the 

expense of paganism. 
325. First general (cecumenic) Council of the Church at Nicsea, 

in Bithynia. Arianism, i. e. the doctrine of Arius ("Aptios), 
formerly a presbyter in Alexandria, according to which Christ was 
not of the same nature, but of like nature only {dftoio^ios), with God 
the Father, was rejected, and the doctrine of Athanasius of Alexandria, 
according to which Christ was of the same nature (6fioo6<riovs, consub~ 
stanlialis) with God the Father, was declared a dogma of the Church 
by the Symbolum Nicamum, 
200, Constantine selected Byzantium (Nova Roma, Constantino- 

polis) for the capital. The empire was redistrictpd. The 
four great prefectures, Oriens, lllyricum orientale, Italia, Gallia, were 
divided into 13 dioceses, these into 116 provinces.* New hierarchy 
of officials, 7 superior court offices. Council of state (consistoriumprin- 
cipis). New arrangement of the taxes. 

Cruelty of Constantine in his family. His eldest son, Crispus, and 
one of his nephews executed through the plots of his wife, Fausta, who 
was herself put to death. 

Constantine, before his death, divided the administration of the 
empire among his tliree sons as Augusti, and two nephews as Cassars. 
After his death, in Bithynia, the two Caesars were put to death by 
Constantius. The three sons of Constantine redivided the empire at 

^ Kiepert, At lag Antiquu*^ Tab. Xll. 

160 Ancietit History, A. D. 

337-^340. Constantinus II. received the West (the prefec- 
tures of Italia, Gallia^ and a part of Africa), 

337-361* Constantius received the East, the prefecture 


337-350. Gonstcuis received the prefectures of lUyricum 
orientate and a part of Africa, 

Constantius carried on a long and indecisive war with the Persians. 
Constantinus II, attacked his brother Constans, and fell at Aquileia. In 
350 Constans also died, so that Constantius, after the conquest of the 
usurper Magnentius (353), again united the whole empire. JuHanus^ 
a cousin of the emperor, who was appointed Csesar, fought success- 
fully with the Alamanni and Ripuarian Franks, and assigned the 
Salian Franks lands in northern Graul. Constantius died on an expe- 
dition against 

361-363. Julianus, 

who had been proclaimed Augustus by the legions. He is 
known as the apostate (apostata), because he was an adherent of the 
heathen philosophy and abandoned Christianity, hoping to bring about 
a reactioh in favor of the heathen cult, which he wished restored in a 
purified form. Julianus defeated the Alamanni and the Franks, re- 
stored the fortresses which had been erected against them along the 
frontier, and defeated the Persians at Ctesiphon, but died of a wound 
on his return. The soldiers raised the Christian 

363^64. Jovianus, 

to the throne. He ceded the greater part of Mesopotamia to 
the Persians. Christianity reinstated in the privileges which Con- 
stantine had granted. After the sudden death of Jovianus the legions 

364-375. Valentimanus I. 

to the throne. He appointed as co-regent first his brother, 

364^78. Valens, 

an Arian, who governed the East from Constantinople, and 
af<^rwards, for the West, his son, 

367-^83. Gratianus, 

who, upon his father's death, acknowledged as co-regent for 
the administration of the West his four-year-old half-brother, 

375^92. Valentinian H., 

who had been proclaimed imperator by the soldiers. 

375- Beginningr of the migrations of the Teutonic 
tribes (p. 170). 

After the death of Valens at Adrianople in battle against the 
West Goths, Gratianus created the heathen 

A. D. Roman History • 161 

379-^395. TheodoBius 

co-regent, and entrosted him with the admimstration of the 
East. Theodosius became a Christian after his recovery from a severe 
illness, fooght successfully against the West Goths, but was obliged 
to accept them as allies {/oederaH) in their abodes in Mcesia and 
Thrace, Gralianus fell in battle against the imperator proclaimed 
by the legions in Britain, 

383-388. Clemens Maximus, 

whom Theodosius recognized as co-regent under the condition 
that he should leave Italy in the hands of tne young Valentinian IL 
In 387 Maximus drove ValerUinian from Italy. He fled to Theodo- 
sius, who, returning with him, captured Clemens Maximus at Aqui- 
leia, and executed him. 
390. Insurrection in Thessalonica, cruelly punished by Theodosius 

(7000 executions). On this account bishop AmbroBiua of 
Milan, eight months later, excluded the emperor from Christian com- 
munion, until he had done penance. 
392. After the murder of Valentinian II. by Arhogastes^ and after 

the new imperator, Eugenius, whom Arbogastes set up, had 
394. fallen at Aquileia in battle with Theodosius, and Arbogastes 

had put himself to death, the whole empire was, for the last 

time, reunited under 

394-395. Theodosius, 

After his death the division of administration into an eastern 
and a western section, which had existed for a hundred years, became 
a permanent division of the empire. 

395-145'3. Arcadius received the Ecustem empire, also 
called the Byzantine or Grecian empire. Imperial 
vicar, Rufinus, Capital Byzantium or Constantinople. 

395-476. Western empire, capital Rome, Ravenna im- 
perial residence after 402, mider 

395-423. Honorius. 

Guardian and chancellor, the Vandal StUicOf murdered in 408 
by command of Honorius to whom he had been defamed. After 
the death of Honorius the usurper 

424. Joannes reigned for a short time, but was finally over- 
thrown with the assistance of the Eastern empire and the six- 

425-455. Valentinian m. 

made imperator, tlie government being conducted at first by 
his mother Pladda, sister of Honorius, in his name. Yalen- 
tittian was murdered by 

455. Petronius Ma,ximus, 

who married Eudoxia, widow of Valentinian, but was killed 
shortly before the capture of Rome by the Vandals (p. 173). 

162 Ancient History. a. d. 

The throne was usniped by 

455-556. Avitus 

who was soon deposed by Reoimir, a military leader of the 
German mercenaries in the Roman army. Becimir phu)ed upon 
the throne 

457-461. Majorianus, 

whom he afterwards deposed in favor of 

461-465. Libius Severus, 

after whose deposition (?) 
465467. Recimir conducted the goYomment without the pretence 
of an imperial figure-head until 467 when he placed 

467-472. AnthemiTis 

upon the throne, who was succeeded by 

472. OlybriTiB. 

Recimir and his sovereign dying this year, the Eastern court 
interposed and placed 

473. Qlycerius 

on the throne of the West, who was succeeded by 

473-475. Julius Nepos, 

also by appointm'^nt of the emperor of the East. In 475 
Orestes f a leader the mercenaries, placed his son 

475-476. Bomulus Augrustulus 

upon the throne, who, combining in his name that of Rome's 
first king and first emperor, became the last of the imperial 
line in the West, being deposed by 

476. OdovaJcer ((Odoacer), 

military leader of the Heruli and Rugiij who made himself 

ruler (not hing) of Italy, and was recognized by the Eastern 

emperor Zeno as patricius of Rome and prefect of Italy 

(p. 173). 

§ 4. TEUTONS. Aryan, 

Geography: The Teutonic race has occupied three regions in 

I. Germany comprises Central Europe, the slope from the Alps 
N. to the sea. It may be roughly bounded as follows : N. German 
Ocearif Baltic ; E. a vague line indicated by the Vistula, and the Car- 
pathian Mts, ; S. the Alps ; W. the Rhine. Tliis region falls into three 
physical divisions : 1. The broad and lofty chain of the Alps divided 
mto the Swiss Alps on the W. and the Tyrolese Alps on the E., whose 
deep valleys fostered the rise of small independent communities (p. 
245 ). Afont Blanc (14,748 ft.), Monte Rosa, Jungfrau, etc.. Lake 
Geneva, Lake Constance, Lake of Lucerne ( Vierwaldstdttersee), etc. 2. 
A broad upland extending two thirds of the way from the Alps to the 
soa, and embracing tlio j)resent Wiirtemberg, Bavaria, Bohemia, Sax- 

B. c.-A. D. Teutons. 163 

onyf Saxon duchies, Hesse, etc. 3. A low plain reaching to the sea, 
and including the present Holland, Hanover, Prussia, etc. Modem 
Germany comprises 2 and 3. The peninsula of Denmark has belonged, 
in historic times, politically to Scandinavia and Germany. 

Through the middle of Germany a range of low mountains extends 
from S.t. to N.W. from the Jura in Fi-ance to the Carpathians in 
Hungary. This range, known to the Romans as Hercynia siloa, in- 
cludes the Jura, Vosges, Schwarzrcald (Black Forest) Taunus, Thuringer 
Wald, Erz Gehirge, Riesen Gehirge, Sudeten, and forms an arc whose 
convex side is turned toward the W. and N. The valley of the Dan- 
ube S. of this range, and the depression on its northern base extend- 
ing from the Lahn to the middle Elbe (the old commercial route be- 
tween Frankfort o. M. and Leipsic), are the two natural roads which 
give the East access to western Europe. Other mountain groups : 
Bohemian Forest, forming the S.E. bolder of Bohemia, Harz, N. of 
the Frankfort road. Rivers : S. the Danube, flowing into the Black 
Sea ; N. the Rhine, with its branches Neckar, Alain, etc.. Ems, 
Weser, Elbe, flowing into the German Ocean ; Oder, Vistula flowing 
into the Baltic. 

The Roman provinces Rcetia, Vindelicia, Noricum, Pannonia, occu- 
pied the Alps and the southern bank of the Danube. Germania 
superior and inferior were Gallic provinces on the left bank of the 
Upper and Lower Rhine. To Germany proper, which was never a 
province of the empire, the Romans applied the name, Germania 

II. Scandinavia, the great peninsula jutting E. and S. from the 
north of Europe. It falls into two divisions : 1. A rugged, moun- 
tainous region on the W., with deeply indented coasts (Norway). 
2. On the E. a less mountainous region with numerous rivers 
flowing into the Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia (Sweden). The 
southern part of Scandinavia was known to the Romans under the 
name Scandia, and was thought to be an island. 

III. The British Isles. See pp. 36 and 176. 

Ethnology : I. According to the theory of the Asiatic origin of 
the Aryans, the Teutonic mig^tion followed the Celtic and preceded 
that of the Slavs. The Teutons, or Germans, appear to have taken 
the northern route and to have first settled alongthe coast, on the 

?lain, and in the northern portion of the plateau. TThe valley of the 
>anube and Bohemia were early occupied by Celtic tribes, and it 
was only gradually that these were dispossessed by the invading Grer- 
mans. Whether the Teutons entered Germany in two bands, is not 
clear ; certain it is that from a very early time a radical difference 
has existed in language and customs among the Germans, whereby 
they are divided into High Germans, inhabiting the inland plateau, 
and Low Germans, dwelling on the coast. 

The Romans divided the Germans (Germani)^ either into two sec- 
tions, the Sueui and the non^Suevi (Csesar), or into three branches 
which were named after the sons of " Mannus, the son of the earth-bom 
god Tuisco,*^ Istcevones, Ingucevones, Herminones, The former division 

1 The nri;;!n of this name is doubtfal. See the disputed passage in Taoitos, 
Gtniidnia, 2. 

164 Ancie7it History. »• c.-A. d. 

ifl thonght to correspond to that of High (Sueoi) and Low Crermans ; 
the latter answers territorially to the fusions of tribes which later 
formed the Franksy Saxons^ and Thuringians. Of the separate tribes 
may be mentioned: I. Non-Suevi: Istsevones, Ubiiy Usipiiy Tencterii^ 
Sugambn, Marsi, on the right bank of the Rhine where we find Uter 
the Alamanni and Ripuarian Franks; Ingiuevones, BcUavians, Fri- 
sians, Saxonsy Chauciy Cimbri, along the coast from the Rhine to the 
right bank of the Elbe. II. Suevi, Chatti, in Hessen, Cherusci on 
the Upper Weser, Hermunduri in Thuringia, extending as far as the 
Damibe (these three were included under the Hermmones), Marc- 
omanni in Bohemia (see below), Quadi on the Danube, Semnones, the 
centre of what seems to have been a very loose political organization 
of the Suevi, between the £lbe and Oder, Langobardi, Rugii in the 
northeast toward the Vistula, Burgundiones on the Oder, GutUmes 
(later Goths) extending beyond the Vistula, Vandali, Alani (?). 

In Denxnark dwelt the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, until the fifth 
century a. d., when a large part of these tribes migrated to England, 
and their place was taken by Danes from the islands on the £. 

II. Soandinavia was occupied by Finnish tribes {Sitones), from 
the N., and by invading Germans from the S. at an unknown time : 
GautcB (Goths), Sueones (Swedes) in Sweden ; Northmen in Norway. 

III. British Islea. See pp. 36 and 176. 

Religion : The religion of the Teutonic race was a pantheistic 
nature worship. I. Germans : Beyond the unsatisfactory passages 
in Caesar (Bell. GcUl. VI. 21) and Tacitus (Germania 9, 10, etc.), all 
our knowledge of the ancient religion of the Germans before the 
introduction of Roman civilization and of Christianity is derived 
by inference from later sources, or from the younger but much fuller 
mythology of Scandinavia. Among the g^at gods (Ases") of the 
Germans were : "Woden (Odin in the north), the " all-iather " ; 
Donar (Tkor), his son, at once the storm-god, and the god of agri- 
culture ; Zio or Thin (Tyr) also a son of Woden, god of war ; Pro 
(Freyr), god of love ; Paltar (Baldur), god of justice ; Nerthus 
or Hertha (Frau Bertha), the earth ; Frau'wa (Freya), sister of 
Pro ; Prlga (Fria), wife of Woden ; Helia (Hel) goddess of the 
lower regions. Below the Ases were the Giants, the Normes or fates, 
the Walkyres or messengers of the gods. In the realm of lower 
mythology the German imagination was remarkably fertile. Fairies, 
cobolds, elves, nixes, abounded, and still live in childrcns' tales, and the 
many popular fancies which the modem study of folk lore has revealed. 

The Germans had no corporation of priests like that of the Druids, 
though the priests and priestesses of certain divinities stood in high 
honor. Their worship consisted in the repetition of formal invocations, 
and in the offering of sacrifices, prisoners being often immolated to 
the gods. Woods and trees were held in special reverence and often 
devoted to the performance of worship l)eneath their branches. Cer- 
tain days were set apart for the worship of certain deities, whose 
names have come down to us in the names of the days of the week. 
Tuesday (Thiu'sdag), Wednesday (Woden'sdag), Thursday (Thor*s- 
dag, Donnerstag), Friday (Freya'sdag). Some of the customs of 

B. c.-A. D. Teutons. 165 

these recurring festdTities were afterwards impressed into the service 
of Christianity. Such was the decoration of trees with flower- 
wreaths and candles, now a part of Christmas rites,^ and such the 
colored eggs in a <* hare's nest," now an Easter custom, but originally 
an offering to some heathen divinity. Divinations by flight of birds, 
neighing of horses, throwing sticks, etc. 

II. Scandinavia : The faith of the northern Teutons was one of 
the most remarkable of the heathen religions, and one of the last in 
Europe to yield to Christianity. After being long transmitted by 
hearsay the northern mythology was first committed to writing in 
the poem of the Elder Edda in the twelfth, or as some scholars hold, 
in the thirteenth century. The poem is supplemented by the com- 
mentary known as the Younger Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson 

In the beginning existed the All-Father. In cliaos (^Ginungagap) 
he created two worlds, Niflheim, the ice-world, in the north, and 
Muspelheinif the fire-world, where sat Surt with the flaming sword, 
in the south. Midway of the two their opposing influences produced 
the giant Ytner, who became the progenitor of the evil race of frost- 
giants (HrynUhurses). Ymer was fed by the milk of the cow Aud~ 
humbrOf who licked the ice-blocks and set free the god BurCf to whom 
a giant's daughter bore three sons, Odin, Vile, and Ve. These three 
slew Ymer, in the deluge of whose blood perished all the frost-giants, 
save two, who became the ancestors of a new race of frost-giants. Of 
the body of Ymer the gods formed the universe, the earth, the sky and 
the stars. Dwarfs were the earliest inhabitants of the earth. After- 
wards the first man and woman were created from two trees. 

The universe thus formed comprised nine worlds. Of these the 
highest was Muspelheim, in whose highest part was Gimley the abode 
of the blest. Below Muspelheim was Asaheim, or Godheim, where 
dwelt the great gods (Asa) in their capital, Asgard, with its lofty 
halU, the fairest of which was Valhal, the hall of Odin. Below 
Godheim was Marmaheim, or Midgard, the earth, a disk of land sur- 
rounded by the ocean and held together by the Midgard-serpent 
which lay at the bottom of the ocean, its tail between its jaws. 
Across the ocean was Jottmheim, the world 6i the giants, whose one 
purpose was the annoyance of mankind, on which account they were 
perpetually at war with man's defenders, the gods of Godheim. Be- 
low the earth was Helheim, the world of the dead, and, lowest of all, 
Niflhemiy with the fomitain Hvergelmer. Bifroust, the bridge between 
Godheim and Mannaheim, GJallar-Mdge between Helheim, Jotun- 
heim and the worlds above. 

These worlds were, in the fancy of the north, surrounded and 
united by a mighty ash-tree, YggdrasU, with three roots reaching to 
Godheim, Jotunheim, and Nijlheim. 

The great gods were Odin and his sons : Thor, Vali, Haimdall, 

Vidar, Baldur, Braga, Tyr, Hddur, besides Aller, Forsete, and Nj&rd, 

1 In Grermany the tree is simply decorated, the presents to be exchanged are 
piled around the Hupport of the tree or placed on an adjacent table. The ex- 
change of gifts was not a part of the old German custom, but is perhaps a sur- 
vival of a practice observed by the Romans during the Saturnalia (p. o5)« 

166 Ancient History, B. c.-A. D. 

Freyrf sea ^ods, and Loke. Of the goddesses the chief were Frigffa^ 
wife of Odiii, Freyja, goddess of love, Saga^ goddess of history. 
Above all the gods were the Nomesy or fates. Below the gods were 
elves, trolls, witches, etc. Exploits of the gods. Especially faiuous 
were the dealings of Thor with the giants. After the creation fol- 
lowed a golden age when all was wefi in Godheim, but after a time 
evil crept in personified as Loke. Death of Baldur, killed through 
the contrivance of Loke by his brother Hodur with a sprig of mistle- 
toe, Frigga having bound all other created things not to hurt Baldur. 
Loke*8 cluldren were the Fenris^wolf, chained until the coming of 
Ragnarok, the Midgard-serperUy and Hd, Binding of Loke. Finally 
comes the end of the world, Ragnarok, the Twuight of the Gods. 
Battle of the Asa-gods with the Midgard-serpent, Loke, and the 
Fenris-wolf , who have broken their chains. The good and the bad 
alike perish in the combat. Surt consumes Yggdrasil and the whole 
world in flames. Yidar, Vale, Hodur, Baldur, and the sons of Thor 
survive. A new earth and a new heaven are created. 

According to the belief of the Northmen, all good men and all who 
died in battle crossed over the bridge Bifroust (the rainbow) to 
Valhal, where they spent their days feasting and fighting, until 
Ragnarok when they passed to GinUe, Cowards and evil-doers were 
punished in Helheim, and after Ragnarok in Naostrand.^ 

CiTilization : It is probable that the Germans had not completed 
the transition from a pastoral to an agricultural people, when they 
arrived in central Europe. They were certainly in a low stage of 
civilization when they became known to the Romans, a stage not un- 
like tliat reached by the most advanced of the American Indians, the 
Iroquois. Cities were unknown to them ; they seem to have settled 
for the most part each individual apart, each tribe separated from 
the other by a broad strip of mark-land.^ Orders : 1. Nobles, who 
derived their descent from the gods, but were entitled to no political 
privileges because, of their nobility. 2. Freefnen, that is, land-owners, 
men born to arms, the work upon whose land was done by their 
bondmen; out of this class developed later the lower nobility. 3. 
Freedmen {lid, lassen), or half-freemen, renters bound to military 
service, but excluded from the ownership of land, from the popular 
assembly, and from the courts. 4. Servants or bondmen, m part 
serfs bound to the soil (glebce adscripti), in part actual slaves. The 
latter two classes formed the majority of the population. 

Custom of oomradealiip (gasindi leudes), out of which the feudal 
system developed after the occupation of the Roman provinces and 
the division of land among the faithful (fideles^, and under the in- 
fluence of the Christian reugion. Feudal superior (suzerain). Vas- 
sen, vassals, or men ; fief (feudum or benefcium^, held on tenure of 
service, distinct from allodium, property in fee simple. 

I The relation of these myths to Christianity, the extent to which they have 
been influenced by acquaintance with the Scriptures, is a subject of active in- 
quiry, but nothinc; can as yet be said to be definitely determined. See Bu4Sge, 
Entltehung der Ndrditchen Gutter. 

- Whoever desires to become involved in that most hopeless of all historical 
gueslimis, the social and political orpranization of the ancient (icrmans, is re- 
lerred to Waita, VerfassunffSf/t^chichle, where references will be found. 

B. c.-A. D. Teutons. 167 

History : I. The date of the first arrival of Teutons in Europe is 
wholly unknown. Pytheas of Massalia, who visited the amber coasts 
of the Baltic about 350 B. c, met with German tribes. From that 
time on only the bare introduction of the word Germani in the Roman 
annals for 225 B. c. hints at any knowledge of the Teutons until the 
close of the second century B. c, when the tribes of the Cimbri and 
Teutones left their homes at the base of the Danish peninsula (driven 
from them by a flood?) and, after humiliating the Roman arms in 
Gaul, found their death on the fields of Aquse Sextiffi and VerceUsB 
(102, 101, B. c, p. 127). The terrors of the invasion died away, 
but the Romans did not come again into contact with the Germans 
until Csesar's invasion of Gaul brought on a contest with the Suevian 
prince Ariovistxis which ended in the latter's defeat (58 B. c). Sub- 
jugation of the Germans on the left bank of the Rhine. Csesar's two 
expeditions across the Rhine (58, 55, p. 139). 

Under Augustus, systematic attempt to subjugate Crermania magna. 
Conquest of Rcetia and Noricum by Drusus (15), of Pannonia and 
Vinddida. Expeditions of Drusus from the Rhine : 1. With the 
fleet on the Ems (12) ; 2. Against the Cherusci on the Wesevy foun- 
dation of the citadel Aliso (11) ; 3. Along the Main to the Werra 
and EWe (9). Legend of the *' white woman." Death of Drusus. 
His successor Tibenus, reduced all the tribes between the Rhine and 
the Elbe to submission and began the active construction of fortresses 
and colonies. The folly of "Hberius' successor. Varus, alienated the 
Germans and led to revolt. Under Arminius, one of the nobles of the 
Cherusci, three Roman legions were annihilated in the three days' 
battle in the Teutcburg Forest ^ (9 a. d. ?). Augustus gave up the 
hope of subjugating the Germans, and later emperors did not revive it. 
Expeditions of Gennanicus in revenge for the Teutoburg massacre, 14, 
15, 16. Thenceforward the Romans were contented with maintain- 
ing their borders against the free tribes, and with colonizing the 
land south of the Mam and the Danube. Line of fortifications from 
Aschaffenburg, on the Main, to Regensburg, on the Danube (Pfdhl' 
graben, Teufelsmauer), Along this Ime Roman soldiers were settled on 
land for the rent oi which they paid a tenth of the produce, hence 
agri decumates. Foundation of colonies : Curia Rcelorum (Chur) in 
Rpetia ; Juvenum (Salsburg) in Noricum ; Vindobonum (Viennal in 
Pannonia ; Au^ta Vinddicorum (Augsburg), Castra regina (Re- 
gensburg) in Vmdelicia. Active intercourse between Rome and Ger- 
many. Germans served both as privates and as of&cers in the Roman 
army (so Arminiusy Traffic in amber. 

Of the internal affairs of the free Grermans we are but scantily 
informed. Li the first century B. c. a portion of the Hermunduri, the 
Marcomanniy had invaded Bohemia^ driven out the Celtic Boii (who 
took refuge in Pannonia, where they were gradually exterminated by 
the Roman arms) and established a state which, under Marhod 
(^Marobodwis)f grew to formidable proportions. Intended expedi- 
tion of Tiberius against Marbod frustrated by the Pannouian revolt 
(8). Feuds between the German tribes fostered by the Romans. 
Arminius expelled Marbod from his kingdom, but was himself mur- 

1 The locality has not been satisfactorily made out. 

168 Ancient History. b. c.-a. d. 

dered under suspicion of aiming at supreme power. The Cherusci, 
Hermunduri and Bructeri were nearly exterminated in internecine 
strife. Revolt of the Bataviaus under CivUis (p. 151). War of 
Marcus Aurelius with the Marcomanni (p. 154). 

In process of time a change came over the political organization of 
the Gemmns. The multitude of small tribes disappeared and we 
find in their stead a smaller number of more extensive tribes. At the 
same time the Slavs began to press upon the eastern Germans and 
urge them westward. The Germans increased in power and popular 
tion, and became better and better trained in the arts of war and 
political intrigue as they came more and more into intimate connec- 
tion with Rome. The provincial armies were largely German ; Ger- 
man officers rose to high distinction and great mnuence in Rome. 
So Rome grew weaker and her foes stronger until at least the im- 
pulse of the invading Huns in the east set all the tribes in motion. 

II. Scandinavia : Northern annalists present an historical Odin, 
probably no less mythical than Odin the god. According to these 
tales (which, like some other mythical history, may have greater his- 
torical value than the present credits them with), Odin was the 
leader of the Asas who dwelt in Asia between the Black Sea and the 
Caspian. Attracted to the falling fortunes of Mithridates, he was 
driven from his kingdom by Pompeius. He conducted the Asas 
westward to Scandinavia where he subdued Denmark, Sweden and 
Norway, and gave these countries to his sons ; Denmark to Skjold, 
Sweden to ingavty Norway to Seeming, Odin ended his days in 

The history of Scandinavia as far as ascertained belongs to the 
next period, and will be found on page 207. 

III. British Isles. For the Instory of the Teutonic invasion of 
England see p. 176. 


These closely related peoples belong to the northern branch of the 
European Aryans, and their westward migration followed that of the 

The Slavs were known to the late Roman geographers under the 
name VenedcR (hence Wends) as inhabiting the region beyond the 
Vistula, which bore the general name of Sarmatia, from the nomadic 
Sarmatians who inhabited it, interspersed with the Slavs, from whom 
they differed in language and descent. 

In the fifth century a. d. the Slavs occupied the country between 
the Baltic and the Black Sea, between the Carpathians and the Don. 
They dwelt in the steppes of Russia as far north as Novgorod on the 
Volg^ and their westernmost limit lay between the Vistula and 
the Oder. In the sixth century the Slavs began to extend them- 
selves south and west, a movement which resulted in the permanent 
occupation of Bohemia and of the Balkan peninsula, while their 
settlement extended east to Tyrol. In 623 a. d. temporary formation 
of a Slavic monarchy of great extent under Samo in Bohemia, which 
endured thirty-five years. The conquests of the Slavs came to an 
end with the seventh century, and the separate kingdoms of Poland, 
Bohemia, Russia, were gradually formed. 

A. D. Slavs and Lithuanians. 169 

Of the religion of the Slavs little is known with certainty, owing 
to the diversity of nomenclature among the various divisions of this 
wide-spread people, and to the lack of trustworthy authorities. Among 
the Slavs of the Baltic, who had a class of priests and huilt temples, 
occur the names Svatovit or Svantovity god of light or of the air, with 
a temple at Arkana ; Triglath, the three-headed god, worshipped in 
Pomerania (Stettin) ; Radigost, Rugevit or RanovU (in Kiieen), 
Jaravit, all gods of war ; Zcemeboh, " the black god," an evil deity. 
The Russians worshipped Kkors, Volos, or Veles, god of the herds 
(St. Blaise) ; Kotqxdo, god of the harvest ; Jarylo, ^>d of generation ; 
Stribog, god of the winds ; Lada, goddess of love and passion. The 
gods were worshipped by offerings of fruit and animals, seldom by 
human sacrifices. 

The Slavs were a pastoral and agricultural people. All inhab- 
itants of the same district were kinsmen, bearing a common name, liv- 
ing under the rule of an elected elder, and holding property in com- 
mon. A union of such districts formed a tribe ; a union of tribes 
formed a people. 

The Uthuanians play*no part in history before the thirteenth 
century. In the wider sense tne name includes the Letts and the 
ancient Prussians, who were known to the Romans as JEstui, In the 
narrower sense it is limited to the inhabitants of the region between 
the Memel and the Finnish Esthonians. 





Habitatdons of the Oermanic tribes in the fourth centary a. d. 

Alaniy whose German descent is, however, not certain, on the lower 
Volga ; East Goths in southern Russia ; West Goths in Dacia {eastern 
Hungary, Roumania); Vandals in Fannonia (southwestern Hune^ary); 
Suem in Moravia, Bohemia, and Bavaria; Burgundians on the Neckar 
and the Rhine, with Worms as their capital 7 compare p. 164) ; Alor 
manni (or Alemanm) on the Rhine, between the Main and the Alps, 
partly along the Roman boundary wall (agri decunuUes); Ripuarian 
ihinks on ooth sides of the lower Rhine (capital at CoUmia Agrip- 
pina); Salic Franks on the mouths of the Khme (in Meergau, "dis- 
trict on the sea," the MerutoCy hence Merowingians ;) ^ Saxons from 
the Elbe almost to the Rhine ; Thuringians soutn of the Saxons ; iLan- 
gobards on the lower Elbe. 

The peoples which appear in the so-called migrations of the peoples , 
were generally heterogeneous armed bands under the command of a 
leader or king chosen for his military prowess (Jleerkdnig), 

375* Beginning of the migration of the Teutonic 

Period of migrationa and invaaiona. 

The Huns, a Mongolian race, crossed VolgGu 

The Huns, joined by the Alani, whom they had defeated, fell upon 
the East Goths (kin? Ermanaric or Hermanric, of the family 
of the Amaei)y and, m union with these, upon the West Goths. 

That part of the West Grothic race which had remained heathen 
took refuge in the Carpathians ; the Christians,* and those who 

1 AMwriaTiTi^ Getchickte des dfitteldlteraj 2d edition, by B. Meyer. 

s According to other scholars the name was a patronymic. 

B A Gothic bishop (Theophilus) took part in the council of Nicsea (825). 
'Wulfila (Ulfilas), bishop of the West Goths (34^-388), translator of the Bible; 
of. Dahn, Die KSnigt der Germaneriy YI. 41. 

A. D. Migrations of the Northern Peoples, 171 

were just on the point of accepting Christianity (in the form 
of Arianism), were allotted habitations in Moesia by the em- 
peror VcUens. Disputes with the Roman officials at the pas- 
sage of the Danube {Fridigem, leader of the West Goths) led 
to war, and the Goths advanced, ravaging as they went. 

378. Battle of Adrianople. Yalens defeated and slain. His 

successor, TheodosiuSf made peace with the West Goths, who, 

for pay and the gift of a dwelling-place, were to protect the 

frontiers of the Boman Empire asJmiercUi. 
Alarlc, leader of the West Goths, belonging to the family of the 
Bcdthi (i. e. '' bold '*) enraged at not receiving pay from Arcadius, laid 
waste Macedonia, lllyria, and Greece (ddS*), and advanced into Pelo- 
ponnesus. SttUcho, magister utriusque mUttice of the Western Empire 
(p. 161), came to the assistance of the Eastern court. Landing with 
an army at Corinth he surrotmded the West Goths, but allowed them 
to escape. Alaric went to lllyria, and compelled the court at Byzan- 
tium to recognize him as dux in lUyricum orientale. 
400 (401 ?). Alaxio's first invasion of Italy. After a victory at 

Aquileia he crossed the Fo. Stilicho hastened from R«Btia to 

meet him. 
402. Drawn battle at PoUentla. Alaric made another attempt to 

advance southward, but was compelled to return to lllyria by 

disease, hunger, and desertion. 
404-406. German bands under Radagais invaded Italy, but were 

defeated by Stilicho at FasuUe, and annihilated by continued 

fighting and by hunger. 
406-409. Bands of Vandals, Bnevl, and Alani left the regions 

along the Danube, crossed the Bhine, sustained great loss in 

contests with the Franks, and finally (409) invaded Spain. 

Foundation of Teutonlo monarohies in Romem territory. 

The Saliem Franks g^radually occupied northern Gaul. The 
Bnrgiindians settled (406-413) on the middle Bhine (Worms), 
40B. Stilicho murdered by the command of the -emperor Honorius 
(p. 161). 
Alaric's second invasion of Italy. He besieged Bome, but retired 
on receipt of a ransom. The court at Bavenna refusing to grant 
Alaric's request that the Goths should be assigned lands for a per- 
manent settlement in northern Italy, Alario again advanced upon 
Bome, and forced the senate to appoint Attains, prefect of the city, 
emperor. Alario besieged Honorius in Ravenna without success, 
quarrelled with Attalus, whom he deposed, and advanced for the third 
time upon Bome. 

410* Capture and sack of Rome by Alaric. Alaric went 
to Lower Italy with the intention of crossing to Sicily, and 
thence to Africa, but died at the close of 410, at Cosenza, and 
was buried beneath the Busento. 

410-415. Athaulf, brother of Alaric's wife, led the West Goths to 
Gaul, though whether in fulfilment of a treaty with Honorius 

172 Mediceval History, A. D- 

to resist the Romans, who had forced their way into the proyince, or 
of his own accord, is uncertain. Ue cai'ricd with him the sister of 
Honorius, who was detained as a hostage in the Gothic camp, and mar- 
ried her in Narboniie (414). The proposed treaty with the imperial 
court was not, however, concluded. Atliaulf, hard pressed by the im- 
perial general Corustantius, went to Spain, conquered BarceUnuiy and 
was murdered (415). After the murder of his successor, Sigric, 

415-419. "Walja became king of the West Goths. He concluded a 
treaty with Honorius, and fought for Rome against Vandals, 
Alani, and Suevi. lie received a grant of southern Gaul under 
Roman supremacy. Walja was the founder of the 

415-507. West Gtothio (Visigothio) kingdom of To- 

losa, with its capital at Tolosa (Toulouse), wliich soon became 
429. King G^enserio (Gevteric) conducted the Vandals and a portion 
of the Alani to Africa, at the invitation, as the stoiy goes,^ of the 
Roman governor Boni/acius. The latter was slandered at court 
by Aetius, and accused of treason, but, making his peace with 
Placidiay the mother and guardian of the Emperor Valeria 
tinian III,, he fought unsuccessfully against Crenseric, who, 
after a short peace with the Romans (435), conquered Car- 
thage (439). 

429-534. Kingdom of the Vandals in Africa. Capital, 
Cartilage (S, Augustituis, bishop of Hippo Regius t430). 

440. The Vandals, having created a great naval power, plundered 
the coasts of Sicily and lower Italy, by their fleets. 

443. The Bargundians settled on the upper Rhdne and on the 
Sadne ; the Alamanni extended themselves over the Roman 
province of Germania superior (hence called Alsace), and 
also occupied a part of Switzerland, east of the Burgundian 

449. The Angles and Sazons, long known as pirates along the 
coasts of the German Ocean, and having settlements on the 
coast of Flanders (litus Saxonicum 8), were called in by the Brit- 
<mSy after the withdrawal of the Roman legions from Britain, 
to assist them in repelling the robber tribes of the north- 
em mountains, the Ficts and Scots. The Saxons and Angles 
crossed to Britain (according to tradition, the first bands were 
led by Hengist and Horsa), and founded in the course of time 
8 states : Kentf Sussex^ Wessex, Essex, East Anglia, Merda, 
DeirOf Bemicia, The last two were later united to form 
Northumhria (north of the Humber); hence the number of 
states was then 7 (heptarchy). 
The Britons for the most part migrated to Wales, and to Ar- 

monia in Gaul, which was hence called Bretagne (Brittany). 
For the details of the settlements, see p. 176. 

1 Cf. Dahn, Die KSnige der Germanen, Ft. V. 
^ This ifl denied by the more receDt authorities. 
■ See, however, p. 38. 

A. D. Migrations of the Northern Peoples. 1 73 

451. Attaa (Etzel, « Scourge of God "), king of the Hona (in his 

train armed hands of Germanic peoples, whom he had suh- 
jected, East Goths, Gepidce, etc.), mvaded and ravaged Gaul. 
He hesieged Orleans in vain. 

Battle on the Catalaunian fields (near Chdlons-sur-Mame; the 
hattle-field itself was at Troyes), Attila defeated hy Aetius, 
the Roman governor of the small district around Lutetia, which 
alone remained in possession of the Romans, and the West 
Gotlis (with the aid of auxiliaries from the Franks, Burgundians, 
etc.). Theodoric /., king of the West Goths, fell in the battle. 

452. Attila went to Italy, destroyed Aquileia. Venice founded 

by Italian fugitives. Rome saved by Bishop Leo (?). 
After the death of Attila (453) the monarchy of the 
Huns fell asunder. 

Not only the Qerman tribes which had been subjugated by the 
Huns became free (the GepidcB were the first to shake olf the yoke) ; 
the Slavic peoples also reg^ned their liberty. During the folloMring 
centuries these latter tribes extended themselves throughout the east- 
ern parts of Germany. 

455. Rome, after the murder of Valentinian HI., by Maximus, 
plundered for 14 days by the Vandals, who had been called in 
by Eudoxia, widow of Valentinian. 
The Vandals controlled the entire northern coast of Africa as far 
as Gyrene, and the islands of the western Mediterranean. 

476. Odovakar (Odoacer), leader of Herulian and other 
Grerman bands in the pay of Rome, became ruler in 
Italy, after the deposition of the last emperor of the 
West (p. 162). 

There was no conquest of the western empire by Odovakar, but 
the line of Emperors in the "West came to an end in consequence 
of domestic revolution, and thereby the last bond was broken which had 
united the provinces, long since occupied by the barbarians, who, 
however, had usually nominally recognized the supremacy of the 
Imperator or Augustus in Ravenna. 

486. Battle of Soissons. The Mcrowingian Chlodwig 
(Chlodowech, Clovis, 481-511), lea<ler of the Salic 
Franks, defeated the Roman governor Syagrius, tlie 
successor of Aetius. 

Elingdom of the Frajiks in northern (jraul. Chlodwig 
by cruelty and deceit made himself sole ruler of all 
the Franks. 

496. Victory of Chlodwig over the Alamannl (not at Tolbiacum 
or Ziilpich).^ Conversion of Clilodwig and the Franks to 
Catholic Christianity. Chlodwig baptized by Remigius^ 

1 Assmann, I. 53. 

174 MedicBval Hittory. A. d. 

bishop of Rheims {MUis depone coUa Sigamber^ adora quod 
incendistiy incende quod adorasti), 

493. Theodorio the Great (493-526), after having de- 
feated Odovakar, with whom he had been at war since 
489, founded the 

493-555. Kingdom of the East Qoths (Ostrogoths) in 

Residence Ravenna, at times Verona, hence in the hero romances : 
Dietrich von Bern, The historian Cassiodoms, Boethius (de conf 
solaiione philosophioB), and Symmachus, executed (525). 
500. Chlodwig, king of the Franks, attacked the Bur^undians, to 
revenge himself on Oundobad, the uncle of his wife ChlotUde, 
for the murder of her father, defeated them at Dijon, and 
made them tributary to the Franks. 
507. Chlodwig defeated the West Goths at Vouille, or Vonlon,^ 
on the Clain, a branch of the Vienne, in the vicinity of 

The West Goths, assisted by the East (xoths, defeated the Franks 
at Aries, and maintained their control of Septimania (the coast be- 
tween the Rhdne and Pyrenees). 

Theodoric the Great united a part of southern Gaul to the king- 
dom of the East Goths, and undertook the TOvemment of that part 
which the West Goths retained, as well as of the Spanish possessions 
of that people, as the guardian of their king, his grandson Ama- 
lario, a minor (eon of Alaric II.), and retained it till his death (526), 
which first severed the connection of the two Gotliic kingdoms. 

507 (526)-711. West Gtothio (Visigothic) Kingdom in 
Spain, with its capital at Toledo. 

526. After the death of Theodoric, his daughter Amalasuniha be- 
came regent in the East Gothic kingdom for her son Athalaric. 
The latter died young (534), and his mother associated with 
herself as co-regent her cousin Theodahad (Theodat), who 
murdered her, thereby causing 

535--555. War between the East Goths and the Eajitem Empire. 

533-534. Belisarius, general of Justinian, Emperor of the 
East (527-665), destroyed the Vandal power in Africa. 

Decay of the kingdom of the Vandals after the death of 
Genseric (477). llilderic deposed by Gelimer, whom Beli- 
sarius captured. 

Brilliant campaign of Belisarius against Vitiges, king of the 
540. East Goths, whom he carried captive to Constantinople. 

Belisarius, after he had declined the Italian crown, offered 
him by the East Goths, was dispatched by Justinian against 
the Persians, 

During his absence the East Goths, under their new king 
TatUa, reconquered the greater part of Italy. 

1 Dahn, Die Kdnige d. Germ. Y. 109. 

A. D. Migrations of the Northern Peoples* 175 

544-549. Belisarius, sent again to Italy, foneht with varying suo- 
cess, bat with increasing fame, against Totila. He recaptured 
Rome. After Belisarius had been again recalled, Rome was a 
second time taken by Totila. 

562. Naraes, the successor of Belisarius, defeated Totila at Tagince 

or Biutta GcUlorum. Totila fell on the field. 
553. The last kin^ of the East Goths, Tefa, fell in the battle of 

Mons tactanus (near Vesuvius). 
555. ITarsea destroyed the kingdom of the East Goths. Ez- 


568-774. Elingdom of the Langobards (Lombardfl) in 
Italy. Alboin. 

Alboin,'with the help of the Avars (on the lower Danube), de- 
stroyed the kingdom of the Gepidos and married Rasamunday the 
daughter of the king of the GrepidsB. At the head of his Lango- 
bar£, with the aid of Saxons and Slavs, he conquered Italy as far 
south as the Tiber. Capital of the kingdom of the Langobards, 
Pavia (Papia). The Langobards conquered almost the entire Ex- 
archate of Uie Byzantines, who retained only Venice, Ravenna, Naples, 
and Calabria. Rome (ducatus Romai) became gradually indepen- 

After Alboin had been murdered by Rosamund, because, as the 
story goes, he attempted, during a carouse, to force her to drink 
from her Other's skull, his successor Cleph pushed his conquests to 
lower Italy, where independent Lanffobardian duchies, like Bene- 
yentum, were established. After an mterregnum of ten years his 
son Autharl was recognized as king. Through the influence of his 
wife, Theoddinde, a Bavarian princess, the conversion of the Lango- 
bards to Christianity was begun. 

Among the successors of Authari the following deserve mention : 
Rotharl, in whose reign the famous code of laws of the Lan^bards 
appeared (644) ; GrSnoald, duke of Beneventnm, who violently 
usurped the throne and completed the conversion of the Langobards ; 
Idntprand (717-744), who made further additions to the code of 
the Langobards; and Aistulf (750-756), whose attempt to conquer 
Rome was frustrated by Fipin, king of the Franks (p. 184). 

585. Kingdom of the Suevi in Spain united with that of the West 
Groths, who, like all the barbarians that had adopted Aiianism, 
were converted to the Roman Catholic church (587). 

590-604. Ghregory I. (the Great), bishop of Rome. Beginning of 
the Papacy (Pdpa Ilddnraf, i. e. father, formerly the title of 
every Christian oishop, soon applied exclusively to the succes- 
sor of St Peter). 

176 Medi^Bvcd History. A. d. 


From the first invasions to the supremacy of Eogrberht 

449 (?)-82a 

Roman Britain. 

Politioal divialona: 1. Britannia prima, S. of the Thames and 
the Severn (Cantil, Regni, Belgse, Atrebates, Durotriges, Domnonii). 
2. Britannia secunda, Wales (Silures, Demetse, Ordovices). 3. Flavia 
Cccsariensisy between the Thames, Severn, and Humber (Trinobantes, 
Caytieuchlani, Iceni, Dobuni, Coritavi, Cornavii). 4. Maxiina Ccesa- 
riensis, between the Humber and the Tyne (Pansii, Brigantes). 6. 
VaUntiaf between the Tyne and the Forth (Otadeni, Gadeni, SelgovsB, 

FortificationB : In the N. wall of Agricola (81) or Lollius Urbi- 
cus, between Uie Friths of Forth and Clyde ; wall of Hadrian (122) 
between the Solway Frith and a point on the opposite coast near New- 
castle-on-Tyne (replaced in the third century by the wall of Severus). 
In the S. the strongholds Burgh Castle, Reculver, Riehborough, Lym- 
ne, Pevensey, along the Saxon shore. (Compare the Cinque Ports,) 

Towns : Camulodunum (Colchester), Ulevwn (Gloucester), Lin- 
dum (Lincoln), Deva (Chester), Eburacum (York), Londinium 

Roada : Wading Street from Kent to the Forth, Hemdn Street from 
Sussex coast to Humber, Foss Way from Cornwall to Lincoln, Ikenild 
Street from Caistor to Dorchester.^ 

The Teutonic Invaders. 

After the withdrawal of the Roman legions (about 410) the Brit- 
ons suffered severely from the ravages of the Scots (Irish) on the 
W. and the Picts (Gaels) on the N., which they resisted unaided for 
several decades. About the middle of the fifth centurv the Britons 
were overwhelmed from another quarter. Bands of Low Germans 
from the coast of Europe, west of the Baltic, whose piratical expedi- 
tions had long been the terror of southeastern Britam, began to set- 
tle in the island and conquer themselves homes and kingdoms. That 
they came at first to aid the Britons against their other foes is not 
impossible ; but little faith, however, can be placed in the story of 
Vortigem and Rowena. 

The invaders came principally from three Teutonic tribes : Jates, 
inhabiting the northern part of Denmark (Jutland) ; Angles or En- 
gle from modem Schleswig, south of the Jutes; Saxons, a more nu- 
merous people, living south of Schlesmg along the Elbe and westward 
on the coast Of the Jutes and Saxons only a portion emigrated; the 
Angles seem to have gone en masse. 

Religion : The new settlers were pagans, sharing the faith of the 

1 Ghreen. The more usual but incorrect routes assif^ed these roads are: 
Wailinq^ Kent to Cardigan Bay; Hermin, St. Davids to Southampton; Fou^ 
Cornwall lo Liacola; Ikenild^ St. Davids to Tynemouth. See Bcarth, Human 
Britain, p. 116. 

A. D. Teutonic Kingdoms in Britain. 177 

continental Grermans (p. 1G4). Each man was priest in bis household, 
and political rulers exercised also priestly functions for the regions 
under their control. 

Civilization : The invaders were rude warriors, cultivators of the 
soil, but fond of the hunt and still more fond of war. They settled 
in villages, the dwellers in each village being kinsmen, who often gave 
their family name to the place of their abode. In each village all 
were united by a bond of mutual protection and responsibility. Around 
the house-lots and garden-plots, which were for the most part practi- 
cally private property, extended the common land, the " mark, com- 
prising tilled land, pasture and woodland, which also served to isolate 
one vUlage from another. The people were divided into four orders: 
athel, nobles ; ceorl, free landownei's ; laets, tenants owing service 
to their landlords ; slaves, generally captives taken in war. Whether 
either of the invading tribes were under kings at home is unknown ; 
their leaders during the invasion were war-chiefs, ealdormen, whose 
power was frequently prolonged and concentrated by the military ne- 
cessities of their new conditions, imtil it became royal and they took 
the title of king. Each village had its governor and its council, the 
latter composed of all freemen in the village ; each aggregate of vil- 
lages (the hundred) had its governor and council ; the aggregate of 
hundreds which made up the tribe had its king and its great council 
{icitan)f which elected the king, generally out of some one noble fam- 
ily, and was consulted by him. The witan was in theory composed of 
all freemen in the tribe, but it soon became practically limited to the 
more wealthy and powerful among them. Each ealdorman, perhaps 
every man of note, had a personal following of companions {thegns)^ 
who had devoted themselves to his service and were supported by 
him. The development of monarchy caused a corresponding develop- 
ment of this institution. Powerful men were proud to be thegus of 
the king, and thus the number and power of the king's military house- 
hold constantly increased. 

Jutes (Kent). 

449 (?).^ Landing of the chiefs Hengist and Horsa in Thanet 
(then an ishtnd). Gradual conquest of the country between 
the Thames and the Andredsweald (p. 36). East and West 

South Saxons {Sussex). 

^11, ^lle, a Saxon ealderman, with his sons Cymen, Wlencing, and 
Cissa, landed at Cissanceaster and conquered the region 8. of 
the Andredsweald. 

491. Storm of Anderida. Massacre of the inhabitants. 

1 The date is variouRly ^v^n, but 449 is the year most commonly accepted. 
I have followed throughout the conservative scholars. The ultra-skepticism 
which would limit our knowledge* "f the 5th and 6th centuries in Britain to 
what can be guessed from the condition of things there in the 7th, 8th, and 9th 
centuries seems to me to be based on hypercriticism. 


178 Mediaval Mitory. a. d. 

West Saxons (Wessex). 

A more important settlement was that began by the Saxons, 

under the ealdormen 
4d5. Cerdio and Cynrio, on the soathem coast, W. of the Andreds- 

weald. The formation of the country directed their line of 

extension W. and N., thus bringing them into contact with the 

great body of westeioi Cymry. 
517. Cerdic and Cynric assumed the royal title. 

At tiie beginning of the second decade of the sixth century the 
Saxon advance was so sternly checked that fifty years elapsed before 
it was again resumed. Battle of Moms Badonicus (520). The Cym- 
ric traditions of Arthur,^ king of the SilureSy to whom this repulse 
of the pagan invaders is attributed, are probably founded in truth. 

Cynric (534r-556) conquered modem Berkshire. Ceawlin (556- 
591 [3]) raised Wessex to such power that later years entitled him 
the second Bretwalda of Britain (the first being jEIU), The meaning 
of this title is not clear. By the 

577. Battle of Deorham Ceawlin extended his power to the Severn 
and separated the Cymry of Cornwall (^Deuraint) from those 
of West Wales. 

East Sazona {Essex), 

During the latter half of the fifth century Saxons settled north of 
the Thames. Sack of Camulodunum. Establishment of a small 
kingdom under the shadow of the great forest which then reached to 
the Wash (Ercenwin, 527 ?). 

Middle Sazona {Middlesex). 

A small division of the East Saxons, dwelling about London. 

East Angles (Bast Anglia). 

While the East Saxons were making their settlements, Angles were 
occupying the region to the N., between the sea, tiie great fens about 
the Wash (Uffa, 575 ?), and the forest. Norfolk^ Suffolk, 

North Angles {Northumbria), 

Deira, Early in the sixth century settlements of Angles north of 
the Humber. Conquest of central Yorkshire. 

Bemicia. At the same time other Angles were settling along the Frith 
of Forth, where they may have found a Jutish colony already 

547. established. Under Ida, " the flame bearer," as the Cymry 
called him, the Angles pushed their conquests to the Esk.* 
Bemicia thus comprised the Lowlands of Scotland, a region 
which still contains the purest type of tlie Teutonic con- 
querors of Britain. Saxon and Gael. 

1 The northern Cj'mrj' seem also to have had traditions of an Arthur. Later 
fugitives to Breta^ne carried the memory of Arthur with them; there bis 
name was connected with the French Icj^end of the Holy Grail, and woven 
into the romances which make up the Arthurian cycle. 

'^ The Htubbom resistance of the C^'mry here as' well as in the south has been 
attributed to Arthur. 

A. D. Teutonic Kingdoms in Britain. 179 

Itfiddle Angles (Misrcta). 

Early in the sixth century scattered bands of Angles occupied the 

? resent counties of Lincoln, Nottingham^ Leicester, Wanotck, and 
Northampton, The small kingdoms and lordships thus founded 
(LindesfaraSf Gainas, MagesoUas, Hwiccas) were at a later time 
united m the great kingdom of Mercia (Cridda, 582 ?). 

Thus Britain south of the Firth at the close of the third quarter of 
the sixth century was divided between Cymry and Teutons oy a line 
drawn nearly if, and S. midway of the breadth of the land. Teuton 
and Celt, pagan and Christian, faced one another throughout the 
length of the island. As far as it went, the conquest was thorough. 
Not that the Cymxy were exterminated ; many remained within the 
Saxon lines, and traces of Celtic, and of still older blood, are not in- 
frequent in the most Teutonic parts of England to-day. Though 
the subjugated Cymry, however, might retam their Celtic blood, in 
all else they were soon assimilated with the conquerors. Temporary 
halt in the work of conquest. 

Wars of the invaders among themselves. 

588. Formation of the kingdom of Northimibria by the enforced union 

of Bemida and Deira under iBthelrlc, king of Bemicia, 
590-616. Supremacy of .Sthelbert, king of Kent, afterwards called 

the third Bretuxdda, over Essex, East Anglia, Middle Britain. 

His wife was the Catholic Christian princess Bertha, daughter 

of Charibert, king of the Franks. 
597. Arrival of Augustine, legate of Pope Gregory the Great. 

Conversion of Kent. Quarrel between the British church and 
Augustine (date of Easter, form of the tonsure). Conversion of 
the East Saxons. Laws of ^thelbert An attempt to convert the 
East Angles led to the revolt and 

About 610>617. Supremacy of Rsedwald, of East Anglia, over 
Middle Britain. He was afterwards called the fourth Bret' 
walda. In the N. ^thelfritii of Northumbria defeated the Cymry of 
Strathdyde in the great 

607. Battle of Chester, and extended his realm to the sea, cutting 
off Strathdyde from Wales, as Wales had been severed from 
Cornwall by the iMittle of Deorham (p. 178). ^thelfrith defeated 
and slain in the battle of the Idle by Roedwaldf who had taken up the 
claims of Eadwine, sou of jElla, formerly king of Deira. 

617-633. Supremacy of Badwlne of Northimibria, called the 
fifth Breitoalda. His overlordship was more comprehensive 
than that of any of his predecessors, smce, after the conquest of 
Wessex (526), it included all Teutonic Britain except Kent, Conver- 
sion of Northumbria (627). Revolt of the Mercians under 
Penda (627-655), who, in alliance with Cadioallon of Wales, de- 
feated Eadunne in the battle of Heathfield (633). Death of Ead- 

633-655. Supremacy of Penda of Meroia over Middle Britain, 
Essex, and East Anglia. 

180 MediiBval History, A. D. 

635. Defeat of CadtodUon by Oswald of Bemicia, in the battle of 
the Hevenfdd. Conquest of Deira. 

635-642. Supremacy of Oswald of Nozthnmbria, afterwards 
called the sixth Bretwalda, over Wessexj Sussex, Essex, Kent. 
Conversion of Northurribria (where many people had lelapsed into 
paganism) by Irish (not Roman) missionanes. Conversion of WeS" 
sex. In the contest over £a8t Anglia Osvoald was defeated by Penda, 
and slain in the 

642. Battle of the Maaerfeld. Penda's sovereignty extended over 

Wessex, East Anglia, Deira. 
655. Battle of the "Winwaed. Penda defeated by Oswiu, brother of 

Oswald, and his successor in Bemicia, and slain. 
655-659. Supremacy of Oswiu of Northuxnbria, called the sev- 
enth Bretwalda, over all Teutonic Britain except Wessex, 
Kent, and Sussex. 
659. Revolt of Mercia under Wulfhere, Henceforward the kings of 
Northumbria were sovereipis of merely local power. 
Rivalry between the Irish missionaries and Rome. A council con- 
vened by Oswiu, decided in favor of Rome. Theodore of Tarsus, 
archbishop of Canterbury (609), undertook the organization of the 
English church. 

688-726. Ine, king of Weasez. Conquest of Kent (694). Wars 

with the Cyrmy of Cornwall (710). Laws of Ine, ^e oldest 

West Saxon code. Abdication of Ine (726). 

Willibrod, missionary to the Frisians. Boniface (Winfrith), 

apostle of the Germans. "Wilftlth, bishop of York. Cuthbert, 

of Lindisfame. Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth. Ca&d- 

mon. Beeda (672-735) ; Historia ecclesiasUca gentis Anglarum. 

733-752. Supremacy of .Sthelbald of Mercia over all England 

S. of the Humber. 
752. Battle of Burford (Oxfordshire). Defeat of ^thelbald of 

Meroia by the West Saxon, Cuthred. 

Henceforward Teutonic Britain remained divided between 
the three great kingdoms, Northumbria, Wessex, Mercia. 

756. Strathclyde subjected to Northumbria by Badberht. 

756-794. Offa, king of Mercia. 

Conquest of Oxfordshire from Wessex (777 ?). Conquest of the 
Welsh kingdom of Powys, W. of the Severn. Offals Dyke from the 
mouth of the Wye to that of the Dee. Friendship between Offa and 
Charles the Great. Irfiws of Oflfa. 

789. First recorded landing of Northmen in Britain on the coast of 

802-837. Bcgberht, king of Wessex, being elected to suc^ 
ceed Bearhtric after thirteen years' exile spent in the kingdom 
of the West Franks. Cornwall made tributary. Defeat of 
Beomwulfoi Mercia, at the battle of Ellandune (825). Sub- 
mission of all England S. of the Thames, and of Essex. 
Ecgherht overlord of Mercia and Northumbria (828). Subiiii>- 
sion of Wales (828). 

A. D. Kingdom of the Franks under the Merowingians, 181 

All England south of the Forth, with the possible exception 
of Strathclyde, united under Ecgberht. 

834. The Northmen ravaged Sheppey. Ecgherht defeated by the 

Danes (825). 
836. Battle of Hengestesdun. Victory of Ecgherht over Welsh 
and Danes. Death of Ecgherht (837). 


hll. After the death of Chlodwig the first division of the kingdom 
of the Franks. According to this division, which was not 
strictly territorial, the four sons of Chlodwig, Theoderic I. 
(Thieriy) (511-533). Chlodomer (Chlodomir, 511^24), Chil- 
d^ert L r511^568), Chhtar L (Clotaire 511-561) ruled the 
kingdom irom the four court-camps of Meiz, OrUans, Paris 
and Soissons, 
530-532. The kingdom of the Thuringiaiis conquered by the eldest 
of the brothers (Theoderic). The two younger brothers sub- 
jugated the BurgundianB. 
The northern part of Thuringia, as far south as the Unstrut, fell to 
the Saxons, the allies of the 1? ranks in the war. The southern part 
(to the Danube) became Frankish territory, but the name of Franco- 
nia was given to the region south of the Thuringian forest; the dis- 
trict between the Unstrut, the Thuringian forest, and the Saale con- 
tinued to be called Thuringia. 

Acquisition of Provence (536) and the supremacy over Swabia and 
Bavana on the fall of the kingdom of the East Groths. 
558-i561. The whole Frankish kingdom again united under Chlo- 

tar I., who outlived his three brothers. After his death 
561. A second division of the kingdom among the grandsons of 
Chlodwig, Guntram (561-593), Charibert L (561-567), Sigi- 
hert I. (561-567), and ChUperic L (561-584), into four, later 
(567) into three parts : Auatrasia, with the capital at Rheims, 
and a population chiefly German ; Neustria, with the capital 
at Soissons ; Borgiindy, with Orleans as capital ; in both of 
which later divisions the mass of the population was Romano- 
Celtic or Romance.^ 
Family divisions and wars full of horrors. Feud of Brunhilde 
(Brunichildis) of Austrasia, a daughter of Athauagild, king of the 
Visigoths, and Fredegunde (Fredegundis) of Neustria (f 597), slave, 
and afterwards wife, of Chilperic X. 

613. Second union of the entire kingdom of the Franks under 
Chlotar II. of Neustria, great-grandson of Chlodwig. 
Brunhilde captured, tortured, and dragged to death by a 
wild horse. 

Origin of the power of the majoreB domus (Hausmeier, mayors of 

1 Charibert received the territory around Paris, but after his early death this 
"WW equally divided among his brothers, and the triple division alone was hence- 
forth of importance. [Traks.] 

182 MeduEvcd History. A. d. 

the palace), who were at first superintendents of the rovftl household, 
afterwards leaders of the feudal retainers (leudes). The race of the 
Pipina (afterwards called Carolingians), of pure German blood,^ ac- 
quired an hereditary claim to the office of major domus, in Austrasia 
first, and af terwardjs in Neustria. 

622-678. Third division of the kingdom of the Franks (interrupted, 
however, by several temporary unions) into the two parts into 
which it had meanwhile separated : 

1. Austrasia (principally German), separated by the Schelde 
from 2. Neustria (Romance, northern France to the Loire, not reck- 
oning Bretagne which was independent) and Burgundy. The duchies 
of Aquitauia and Vaaoonia TGuyenne and Gascogne), between the 
Loire and the Pyrenees, were almost independent. 


622. Mohammed's flight (Hegira) from Mecca to Medina. 

16 July. Mohammed (i. e. he who is g^atly praised), bom at Mecca, 
571, of the family of Hashem, a merchant, husband of the 
wealthy Chadija, acquainted from his journeys with ike Jewish and the 
Christian religions, proclaimed himself a prophet among the tribe of 
the Koreishites, Islam (i. e. a submission to the will of God conse- 
quent on belief). One God (Allah) and Mohammed his prophet. 
Moslems (the believers). Victories of Mohammed in Arabia (629) ; 
preparation for conquests in Syria. Mahommed died 632. 
Caliphs (i. e. successors) : 

632-634. Ahu-bekr, father-in-law of the prophet. Collection of the 
Koran (Quran), later enlarged by the transcription of an oral 
tradition, the Soona. Separation of the believers into Soonees, 
who recognized this addition, and Sheeah, who rejected it, and 
regarded All, the son-in-law of Mohammed, as his only right- 
ful successor. Wars with the Eastern Empire and the Persians. 

634-644. Omar, founder of the Arabian supremacy in the East. 
He assumed the title of Emir-al-Mumenin (" Prince of the 
faithful"), which waa afterwards borne by all the caliphs. 
Conquest of Syria (Damascus 635), Palestine, Phcenicia. De- 
struction of the empire of the Sassanidai (the New Persians) 
by the battle of Nehavend (642). Conquest of Egypt by 
Omar's general Amroo. Capture of Alexandria. 

644r-656. Othmami (Osman). Conquest of northern Africa. Cap- 
ture of Rhodes. Murder of Othman during an insurrection. 

65^-661. All, husband of Fatima, Mohammed's daughter, not uni- 
versally recognized. Muawwiyah proclaims himself caliph in 
Syria. After bloody civil wars and after the murder of Ali, 
the Sooneite 

661-750. Ommiads obtained the caliphate. 

661-680. Muawunyah /., great-grandson of Omeyyah. He tran&- 
fen-cd tlie residence of the caliphs from Medma to Damascus. 

I Bonnell, Die. Anfanyt dcs KaroUngischen Hausis^ 1866. 

A. D. Kingdom of the Franks under the Carolingians, 183 

The caliphate was made hereditary. 
Ahout 700 the governor Musa completed the conquest of Byzantine 
Africa as far as the Atlantic Ocean. The Berbers, who ac- 
cepted Islam, together with the inhabitants of Punic, Greek, 
and Roman descent, became amalgamated with the Arabians 
under the name of Moors. Tank,^ one of Mu8a*8 generals, 
crossed from northern Africa to Spain, and in the 

711« Battle of Xeres de la Frontera (plains of the Guadal- 
quivir) destroyed the kingdom of the Visigoths. 

From this time on there coexisted in Spain: 1. the province of the 
caliphate, which became, at a later date (75C), the separate caliphate 
of Cordova; 2. the Christian kingdom of Asturia, founded by Pelagius, 
afterwards the kingdom of Leon, 

The Arabians penetrated the passes in the country of the Basques 
and invaded Gatd. Here a limit was set to their conquests by the 

732. Battle between Tooib and PoitlerB, where they were defeated 
by CharloB Martel. 

Under the last of the Ommiads the caliphate reached its greatest 
extent, embracing southwestern Asia from the Gulf of Arabia and 
the Indxis to the Mediterranean and the Caucasus, the entire northern 
coast of Africa, a great part of the Spanish peninsula, and in southern 
France the county of Narbona, besides Sardinia, Corsica, and the 
Balearic Isles, 

In the caliphate declining vigor; constant wars with the followers 
of Ali. Abut Abbas, great-grandson of an uncle of the prophet, over- 
threw the last Omlniad caliph, Merwan II, 

750-1258. Rule of the Abbasides. Residence at Bagdad. 

Treacherous murder of all the Ommiad princes (90). 

One only, 
Abd-er-Rahman, escaped to Spain, and founded there the 
756. caliphate of Cordova. 


687. Pipin of Heristal, major domus (mayor of the palace) 
of Austrasia, became by the victory of Testri (not far from 
St. Quentin) over the major domus of Soissons (Neustria) sole 
major domus of the whole kingdom of the Franks, and called 
himself in future dux et princeps Francorum, 
Eudes, duke of Aquitainc, defeated by the Arabian invaders, 
sought help from Charles, the son and successor of the major 
domus Pipin of Heristal. 

732. Battle between Tours and Poitiers. Victory of 

1 From him comes the name Gibel or J ebel-al-Tarik (Gibraltar), i. e. moun- 
tain of Tarik, near which he landed. It would appear that the story of Tarik's 
having been summoned by the Visigothic count Ju/ian, is mythical. Cf. Dahn, 
Km. d. Germ. V. 227. 

184 Mediaval History. A. D. 

Charles Martel (major domus 714-741) over the 

751.' With Pipin the SmaU (741-768), Charles MarteFs 
son, the Carolinglans became kings of the Franks. 

The last king of the Merowingian line {les rois faineants), ChUde- 
ric III., was deposed with the consent of Pope Zaeliarias and placed 
in a monastery. Pipin was raised upon the shield on the field of 
Mars at SoLssons, as king of the Franks. In 754 Pope Stephen III., 
who had come to France to seek help, anointed Pipin and Ins sous 
Charles and Karlmann as kings of the Franks. For the future Pipin 
styled himself " king by the grace of God,** 

In requital of this ser^nce Pipin drove back Aisttdf, Idns of the 
Langobards, who was threatening the Pope (p. 175). Gift of the 
Exarchate of Ravenna and the Pentapolis \Ancona, Sinigaglia, FanOf 
Pesaro, Rimini), the territory of Bologna and Ferrara, to the Pope, 
and thereby the first foundation of the Papal States. Pipin patricius 
of Rome, that city not being included in the gift to the Pope.^ 

BonifaciuB (the Anglo-Saxon Benedictine monk Winfried, named 
Bonifacius bv Pope Gregory II.), the apostle of the Germans (about 
680-754). He preached Christianity in the country of the East Franks, 
in Thuringia, Hesse, and Friesland. Bishop since 722, archbishop 
since 732 without a settled bishopric, he brought all newly founded 
bishoprics and monasteries into strict dependence upon the Papal 
cliair. In 742 Concilium Germanicum, recognition of the Pope as head 
of the Church. In 748 Bonifacius became the first archbishop of 
Maim ; in 754 he was killed by the heathen Friesians. 

768-814. Charles the Great {Charlemagne) , 

since the death of his brother Karlmann (771), sole ruler. Earl- 
mann's sons took refuge with Desiderius, king of the Lango- 
bards, whose daughter Charles had married, but afterwards 

773-774. Destruction of the kingdom of the Langobcurds. 

The Pope having refused to crown the sons of Karlmann, Desi- 
derius occupied the Pentapolis and threatened Rome. Charles came 
to the assistance of the Pope, ex officio, as patricius of Rome. Capture 
of Pavia after a six months' siege, during which Charles had visited 
Rome and renewed his alliance with the Pope. Desiderius placed in 
a monastery. Charles, king of Italy, by which is meant the kingdom 
of the Langobards, northern and central Italy. The larger part of 
southern Italy remained in the possession of the Eastern Empire. 

772-804. War with the Saxons. 

The country of the Saxons was divided as follows. West- 
phalia, on the Sieg, Ruhr, and Lippe, and on both sides of the Ems ; 

1 See the proof in G. Biohter, Annalen d. deuttchen Geschichte im MiUelal- 
ter, I. p. 216. 

3 See, however, Oelsner, Jahrb. d. frank. Beichs unter Konii? Pippin, Chap. 
IX. p. 129 foil. 

A. D. Kingdom of the Franks under the Carolingianst, 185 

Engem, on both sides of the Weser as far as the Leine ; Eaatphalia, 
as far as the Elbe; Northalbingla, N. of the lower Elbe to the 

The Saxon war was resolved upon in the assembly (May-field) at 
Worms (772). 

772. Capture of the Ereshurg, destruction of the Irminaul, 775. 
Capture of Sigiburg. Subju^tion of the Saxons W. of the Elbe. 
The Saxons destroyed the Eresburg, but were subjugated anew. 
776-777. First May-Jield in the land of the Saxons, at Paderbom. 
New insurrection of the Saxons upon receipt of the news of Charles's 
defeat in the Pyrenees, 778; subdued by the army of the east Franks 
and Alam&nni. 779, Charles gained a victory at BochoU on the Aa. 
780, Submission of the Saxons ; acceptance of Christianity. 

After a new and general revolt headed by Widukind or Witte- 
kind, and a defeat of the Prankish army, Charles took the field in 
person with success. 782, Slaughter of 4500 Saxons on the Aller. 
783, A new and terrible uprising, the result of this massacre. Charles 
victorious first at Detmold, then on the Hose. 785, After a two years' 
resistance Wittekind submitted and became a Christian. 

778. Wars of Charles in Spain. 

Conquest of Saragossa. Return by RoncevauXf and defeat of 
the Prankish rearguard. Death of the hero Roland, margrave 
of the Breton coast, a pretended nephew of Charles, whose 
deeds are celebrated in a series of romances. The Spanish 
mark ^ was of later foundation, and was strengthened by Lud- 
wig, son of Charles (800). 

788. Abolition of the duchy of the Bajuvaries (Bavarians), after 
the second revolt of duke Tassilo. 

Wars with the Northmen (the common name of the Germans 
of the Scandinavian north), and with the Slavs. Charles de- 
feated the Wiltzi and advanced to the Peene (789). 

791-799. War with the Avars (who had aided Tassilo, duke of Ba^- 
varia) conducted principally by Charles' son Pipin. 796. 
Storm of the King's Ring (the cliief camp of the Avars) 
between the Danube and the Theiss. The country between 
the Ems and the Raab was annexed to the Prankish empire 
and occupied by German colonists, especially by Bavarians. 
(Soon after, complete ruin of the kingdom of the Avars.) 

800. Chsffles revived the office of Emperor of the West. 

Pope Leo III., ill-treated by the relatives of his predecessor 
in an insurrection, and expelled from the city (799), sought 
Charles' camp at Paderbom. Restored by Chanes to Rome, 
he crowned him emperor on Christmas-<lay, 800. 
793-804. New revolts among the Saxons particularly in the N., led 
to a war with the Danes, with whom the Saxons had taken ref- 
uge. Grottfried, king of Denmark, invaded the Prankish mark; 
his ships harassed the coasts of the Grerman Ocean. 

1 Mark : a strip of land on the border of a country, where the military 
power wafl enpeeially well kept up, under a Markgraf (border-count), who was 
responsible for the safety of the border. — TiiAHS. 

186 Mediaved History, ▲. d. 

808. The Danes, defeated by Charles, the eldest son of the emperor, 

retired beyond the Eider. 
810. The emperor was obliged to take the field against Gottfried in 

person. The Danish king was murdered by his own servants. 
Peace with his successors. Saxony north of the Elbe remained a part 
of the Prankish kingdom. Boundaries of the kingdom : Ehro^ Baabf 
Eider, Garigliano. The Wends were again subjugated. 

Charles resided in Aachen in Austrasia (Aix-la^Chapelle) prin- 
cipally on account of its warm springs, or in the County Palatine on 
the Rhine, at IngelheiiUf or in Nymwegen, Capitularii, imperial re- 
scripts. Assemblies composed of all men of rank, both churchmen 
and laymen (" in quo placito generalitajs uniyersorum maiorum, tarn 
clericorum quam laicorum couveniebat "). Levy of troops (Heer- 
ban). Governors of counties (Gaugrafen), counts of the border dis- 
tricts {camites Tnarchicgf Markgrafeu), imperial messengers (missi regiSf 
Sendgrafen), who made periodical circuits in different parts of the 
empire, heaid complaints and reported the same with other observa- 
tions and suggestions to the emperor. The Anglo-Saxon scholar 
Alcuin, the Langobard Pauly son of Wamefrid (Patdus Diaconus), 
called to the impenal court, where intellectual pursuits were favored 
and shared by the emperor. Schools for the education of the clergy, at 
Tours and raris. Einhard (Eginhard), the favorite secretary of 
Charles (author of the Vila Caroli Imperatoris). Charles the Great 
became the centre of the most important series of romances of the 
Middle Age. 

786-^809. In the East Cliarles found a friend and admirer in Har- 
oun-al-Rashid, Caliph of Bagdad. His reign and that of 
his son Mamun cover the most fruitful period of science, art, 
and manufactures among the Arabs. 

The elder sons of Cliarles the Great, Charles and Pipin, dying 
before their father, he was succeeded by his yoimgest son, 

814-840. Ludwig the Pious. (Louis le Debonnaire). 

Ludwig's nephew, Bernhardt Pipin's son, according to Charles' 
decree, king of Italy under the supremacy of his uncle, re- 
belled against the latter, was defeated, captured, and killed. 
Ludwig had 4 sons : Lothar, Pipin, Ludwig, Charles the Bald (the 
latter by Judith, his second wife, of the noble Alamannian family of 
the Weifs). In 829 Lewis substituted a new division of the empire, 
whereby his youngest son, Karl, received Alamamiia and the royal 
title for the division made in 817, under which Lothar held the larger 
part of the empire and the imperial crown, Pipin had Aquitania, and 
Ludwig, Bavana. The three elder sons at once revolted, and civil war 
broke out. On the Field of Lies, near Colmar in Alsace, Ludwig, the 
father, was deserted by his troops (833). He was taken prisoner 
(public penance in the church at Soissons), but soon released by his 
repentant son Ludwig, and replaced upon the throne (834). Pipin 
died in 838, and his share of the empite was divided between Lothar 
and Charles, which caused a new rebellion on the part of Ludwig. In 
840 Ludwig the Pious died on an island in the Rhme, near Ingelheim. 
Ludwic; and Charles in alliance defeated Lothar at Fonianeium (Fon" 
tenaiUe or Fontenay ?) in 841. 

A. D. New Persian Empire of the Sassanidce, 187 

843. Treaty of Verdun. Division of the empire among 
Aug. the brothers as follows : 

1. Lothar : Centre of the Frankish lauds, i. e. Ausirasia, Fries- 
land , the Alamannian lands on the left bank of the Rhine, the 
greater |>art of Burgutidy, Provence^ a part of Languedoc; in 
general, a region bounded by the Sckelde, Meuse, Saone, Rhoney 
in the west, by the Rhine and Alps m the east, and Frankish 

2. Ludwig the German : The eastern part of the Frankish lands, 
i. e. all those parts of the empire lying on the right bank of the 
Rhine, except Friesland ; the diocese of Mamzy Worms, and 
Speier on the left bank (in general a region lying between the 
Rhine and the Elbe). 

3. Charles the Bald : The western part of the Frankish lands, 
i. e. Neustria, Aguitania, the northern part of Bur gundy, Sepd- 
marda, the Spanish Mark. 

Lothar retained the imperial dignity which his father had given 
him. His kingdom, which lacked natural boundaries and comprised 
various nationalities, contained within itself the germ of rapid disso- 

The Treaty of Verdun was originally merely ^family contract, made 
without regard to national differences. In Ludwifi^'s kingdom, how- 
ever, the German element was in the majority ; in that of Charles the 
Romance element prevailed. Thus there developed, in the course of 
the following centuries, from the East Frankish element the German, 
from the West Frankish the French nationality. The East Franks 
called their lang^ge, in contrast to the Latin used by the educated 
clergy, the deutsche, i. e. the language of the people, and gradually 
(since Henry I.?) those who spoke Deutsche came to be called 



226-240. Artaserxes I. (Artahshatr), 

son, not of Sasan, but of Papak, probably king of Persia 
proper, revolted against Artabanus, the last king of Par- 
thia (p. 30), whom he defeated and slew in the battle of 

Contest of Artaxerzes with the Arsacid kings of Bactria and Arme- 
nia. The claim preferred by Artaxerxes to all Asia as far as the 
^gean involved him in a war with Rome. Defeat of Alexander 
Severus, followed by peace. Subjugation of Armenia. Restoration 
of the religion of Zoroaster. CoUection of the text of the Zend Avesta. 
Artaxerxes was succeeded by his son, 

240-271. Sapor I. (Shahpuhri). 

Wars with Rome. I. (241-244.) The Romans were suc- 

1 V. GHetebreoht, Gesch. d. deulschen Kaiserzeit, I. 4th ed. p. 149. 

2 Bawllnson, Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy. 

188 MedicBval History, A« D. 

cessfiil under GordianuSf but his successor, Philippus, concluded peace 
with Sapor, leaving Ariueiiia in his hands, but retaining Mesopotamia. 
II. (258-260.) A glorious war for Persia. Nisibis, Edessa, Antioch 
fell into their hands, and the Roman emperor Valerianua was cap- 
tured and remained a prisoner until his death (265 or 266). Defeat 
of Persians by Odenathus of Palmyra (p. 157). Erection of many 
buildings and engineering works in Persia. Mani, or Manea, a 
teacher of a new form of religion compounded of Christianity and 
Zoroasterianism (Manicheism), expelled from Persia. 

Sapor was succeeded by his son, Hormiadafl I. {Aukrmazdi)y who 
reigned one year and ten days (271-272) and was followed by his 
brotlier, Varahran I. (272-275). Execution of Mani, Aid sent to 
Zenohia (p. 157). Tlie murder of Aurdianus (275) put an end to his 
expedition against Varahran^ who was succeeded in the same year by 
his son Varahran n. (275-292?). His reign is marked chiefly by the 
war with Rome (283), which was closed by the mysterious death of 
Cams (283-284). Revolt of Tiridates of Armenia, aided by Rome. 
Varahran m., son of Varahran II., reigned four mouths, and was 
f oUowed by his brother, 

292-301. Names, 

who after defeating his brother and rival, Harmisdas, drove 
Tiridates from Armenia (296). War with Rome. Galerius, at first 
unsuccessful in Mesopotamia, finally defeated Narses. Peace (297): 
1. Persia ceded five provinces beyond the Tigris to Rome. 2. The 
Tigris recognized as the general boundary between Persia and Rome.^ 
3. Cession oi & lajcge -psirt oi Media to Armenia. 4. Persia surrendered 
to Rome her supremacy over Iberia (Georgia). 

Abdication of Narses and accession of his son, Hormisdaa IL 
(301-309), whose reign covers little of importance. At his death the 
nobles set aside his son Hormisdas, and conferred the crown upon his 
unborn child. A boy was born, who received the name 

309-379 (?). Sapor n. 

During his minority the country suffered from invasions of the 
Arabs, but on arriving at his seventeenth year Sapor assumed the 
government, and inflicted a terrible punishment on Arabia. Persecu- 
tion of Christians (about 325). First war with Rome (337-350). 
Defeat of Constantius at Singara (348). Nisibis in Mesopotamia thrice 
besieged by Sapor in vain (338, 340, 350). War of Sapor with Tatar 
tribes in the E. (351-359) and extension of Persian power in tliis 
direction. Armenia went over to Rome. Second war with Rome 
(359-363). Invasion of Syria. Capture of Amida after a desperate 
resistance. Julianas, empei'or of Rome, invaded Persia, and defeated 
the Persians before Ctesiphon (362), but immediately begfan a retreat, 
in the course of which he died. His successor, Jovian, concluded 
peace with Sapor for thirty years (363) : 1. Restoration of the five 
provinces ceded by Narses. 2. Surrender of Nisibis and Singara to 
Persia. 3. Rome to give up all connection with Armenia. Conquest 
of Armenia by Sapor. Third war with Rome (371-376), carried 
on without en?rgy and concluded by an obscure peace. 

1 Bawlinson, Seventh Monarchy ^ 128 foil., diHcusses the conditions. 

A. D. New Persian Empire of the SassantdcB. 189 

The brilliant reign of Sapor was followed by a time of quiet. 
Artaxerxes n. (379-383.) Sapor HI. (383-388.) Division of 
Armenia between Persia and Rome, — Persia receiving the lar^r 
part. Varahran IV. (388-399) deposed Chosro^, king of Persian 
Armenia, and placed hia own brother on the throne (391). Varahran 
was murdered during a mutiny, and succeeded by his son Isdigerd I. 
(Izdikerti) (399-419 [420]), whose peaceful reign is remarkable for 
little, except a persecution of the Christians in Persia and Armenia. 
He was succeeaed by his son, 

419 (420)-440. Varahran V., 

who, having put down Chosro^s, a pretender to the throne, re- 
newed the persecution of the Christians, and began war vdth Rome. 
Meeting with no success, he concluded peace (422), and agreed to stop 
the persecution. (Charity of Acacius, bishop of Amida, who ransomed 
7000 Persian cimtives.) Beginning of Persia's wars with the Ephthi- 
alites (Pers. Haithal\ a people dwelling beyond the Oxus^ and prob- 
ably of " Thibetic or Turkish stock " (not Huns). Surprise, defeat, and 
death of the invading Khan. The Persians crossed the Oxus and 
chastised the Tatars in their own territory. Varahran was succeeded 
by his son, • 

440-457. Isdigerd II., 

who at once declared war upon Rome, but as hastily concluded 
peace. Nine years* war with the EpthialUes, ending with their defeat 
m their own country. The attempt of Isdigerd to convert Armenia 
to Zoroastrianism brought on a religious war, wherein the Christians 
were defeated (455 or 450). Forcible conversion of Armenia. To- 
ward the close of his reign Isdigerd was defeated by the Ephthialites. 
After his death civil war between his sons Perezes and Hormisdas, 
ending in the victory of 
459-483 (?). PerozeB. 

Great famine in the seventh year of his reign (?). Unsuccess- 
ful war and disgraceful peace with the Ephthialites (404-406). Re- 
volt of Armenia under Vahan, which was still unsubaued when Pero- 
zes again attacked the Ephthialites, at whose hands he suffered 
a severe defeat, falling in the battle. He was succeeded by his 
brother (?) 
483(?)-487. BalHB (Pers. Valakhesh or Volgases), 

under whom Persia probably paid tribute to Khush-^neioaz, the 
Ephthialite Khan. Pacification of Armenia. Edict of toleration. 
Destruction of fire-altars. Balas was succeeded by 
487(?)-498. Kobad, (first reign) 

son of PerozeSf who had been in hiding among the Ephthi- 
alites. Successful war with the Ehazars, a people of uncei*tain race 
(Turkish or Caucasian?), dwelling between the Volga and the Don. 
Communistic and ascetic doctrines of Mazdak, a high priest of Zoro- 
aster, to which many converts were made, the kuig being of the 
number. Consequent disturbances in Persia and Armenia resulting 
in the deposition of Kobad and the accession of his brother, 
498^501. Zamaap. 

Kobad, however, soon escaped to the Ephthialites and returned 

190 Medi<Bval Bigtory, a. d. 

at the head of an army, whereupon Zamasp yolantarily resigned the 


501-531. Kobad (second reign). 

Withdrawal of support from Masdak, The refusal of the 
Eastern Empire to fulfil its agreement to contribute to the defence of 
the pass of Derhend m the Caucasus, which was the usual route of 
the nomadic tribes in their invasions of Persia or the Eastern Empire, 
caused Kobad to declare war. Sack of Amida (502). An Ephthi- 
alite invasion induced peace in 507. Erection of the fortress of 
DaraSf twelve miles from Nisibis by AnastasiuSy emperor of the East. 
Second war with the Eastern Empire (524-531), wherein the Per- 
sians, at first successful, were defeated by Beliaaritui in the battle of 
Daras (528). Kobad was succeeded by his sop, 

531-679. Ohosroes I. Anushinmn (" The Just ") per- 
haps the greatest of the Sassanid kings. 

Peace with Rome (533) : 1. Rome paid 11,000 lbs. of g^ld toward 
the fortification of the Caucasus. 2. Daras retained its fortifica- 
tions, but was not to be the Roman headauarters. 3. Reciprocal sur- 
render of recent conquests. 4. Eternal friendship and alliance, whence 
this peace is known as the " endless peace." It endured for seven 
years, at the end of which time ChosroeSf jealous of the great victo- 
ries of Justinian in the West, listened to the prayers of the East 
Goths and declared war. 
540. Capture of Antloch. 

Chosroes extorted ransom from the principal cities of west- 
em Asia Minor ; returned home. A truce, concluded in 545, was 
broken in 549 by Rome, who sent assistance to the Lazi (inhabitants 
of ancieut Colchis) in their war with Persia. 
551. Capture of Petra by the Romans and Lazi. 
663. Definite peace between Persia and Rome. 

1. Lazica ceded to Rome. 2. Rome to make a yearly pay- 
ment to Persia. 3. Exercise of their faith secured to the Christians 
in Persia. 4. Commercial intercourse between the empires restricted 
to certain roads and marts. 5. Free diplomatic intercourse. 6. 
Daras to retain its fortifications. 7. Disputes to be settled by arbi- 
tration. 8. Allies of either party included in the peace. 9. Persia 
undertook the maintenance of the Caspian Gates alone. 10. The 
peace was concluded for fifty years. 

Successful wars with the Ephthialites and Khazars. 
562. Expedition of Chosroes to Arabia, against the Christian king- 
dom founded there by Abyssinians early in the sixth century. 
Chosroes expelled the Abyssinians and left the country under the 
control of Salf, leader of the native Homerites ; after his murder 
Arabia was made a Persian province. 

The expedition to India ascribed to Chosroes is doubtful. Dezabul, 
Khan of the Turks, who had recently subjugated the Ephthialites 
and entered into alliance with the Eastern Empire, invaded Persia, 
but met with no success. 

572. Justin, Emperor of the East« declared war on Persia. Chos- 
roes ravaged Syria. Fall of Daras (573). 

A. D. New Persian Empire of the Sassanidce. 191 

ChosroSs died, 579, in Mesopotamia. 

Improved administration in Persia under Chosroes. Empire di- 
vided into four governments : East, Khorassan^ Seistan, Kirman ; 
North, Armenia, Azerbizariy GhUan, Koum, Isfahan; South, Fars, 
Ahwaz ; West, Irak, or Babylonia, Assyria, Mesopotamia. Frequent 
progresses of the king. Substitution of a fixed land tax for the for- 
mer variable tax on produce. Tax collectors placed under the super- 
vision of the priests. Reform in the army. Improved irrigation. 
Protection of foreigners. Encouragement of learning. Laws of 
Artaxerxes revised. Collection of the Shah-^na-meh, or Book of the 
Kings, the basis of Firdusi's epic. Introduction of the Fables of 
PUpay, and of the game of chess from India. Toleration extended to 
Christians. Chosroes was succeeded by his son, 
579-589. Hormisdas IV. (Hormazd). 

At first a wise ruler, afterwards the worst of Persian kings. 
579. Invasion of Persia by the Eastern Emperor Maurice. 
581. Defeat of the Persians at Constantia. The war continued with 

alternate defeat and victory until in 
589. Persia was invaded by Arabs, Khazars, and above all by the 

great Khan of the Turks. He was defeated by the Persian 
general Bahram and fell in the battle. In the same year Hormisdas 
provoked a war with Rome by invading Lazica. Bahram was de- 
teated on the Araxes. An insult offered him by the king caused his 
revolt and the deposition and murder of Hormisdas, who was suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

689-628. Chosroes II., Eherwiz, 

who was at once involved in war with Bahram, who drove him 
from the kingdom and assumed the crown. The rei^ of Bahram 
(Varahran VI.^ was short (590-^591). Chosroes had taken refuge 
at Constantinople, and a Roman force restored him to his throne. 
Bahram, defeated, fled to the Turks. 

The second reign of Chosrods II. was marked by a wonderful in- 
crease of Persia's power, and by its sudden fall. 
603-610. War with Phocas, murderer of Maurice, Capture of 

Daras, Syria, Armenia, Galatia, Phrygia, ravaged. Sack of 
Antioch. The accession of Heracliiui to the throne of the Eastern 
Empire did not end the war. 
612. Invasion of Cappadocia. 

614. Capture of Damascus. 

615. Sack of Jerusalem. 

616. Capture of Pelusium and Alexandria by the Persian general 

Shahr-Barz, Submission of Egypt. 

617. Fall of Chalcedon. The Persians encamped within a mile of 

620. Capture of Ancyra and of Rhodes. Persia restored to the 
limits which it attained under Darius I. 
So nearly had Chosroes driven Heraclius to despair that he pre- 
pared to take refuge in Carthage, but his design was prevented by 
. the citizens of Constantinople. Thus driven to bay, the emperor 
formed the desperate resolve of attacking his enemy in his own 

192 Mediaeval History. a. d. 

622. Landing of the Romans in the Gulf of Issia, Defeat of 


623. Heraclius sailed to Lazica, and invaded Armenia Chosro^ re^ 

treated, and the Romans wintered in Albania. 

625. Battle of the Sartui. Defeat of Shahr-barz. ChosroSs al- 
lied himself with the Avars^ and placed two armies in the field: 

one against Heraclius in Asia Minor, one destined for a direct 

attack on Constantinople. The latter attempt failed, Constantinople 

held out, although attacked also by hosts of Bulgarians and other 

barbarians from the west. 

Winter campaign of Heraclius. 

627. Dec. 12. Battle of Nineveh. Defeat of the Persians. Flight 
of Chosro^s. Heraclius advanced to Ctesiphon, but returned 
without assaulting the city. 
Mutiny of the Persian troops at Ctesiphon under two of the 

king's sons. Seizure and murder of ChasroSs. He was succeeded 

by his son, 

628-629 (?). Kobad n. {Siro^\ 

who concluded peace witn Rome on a basis of exchange of 

conquests and captives. Death of Kobad (of the plague ?). Usnr- 

Sation of Shahr-baras, who before two months were over was mur- 
ered by his own troops. Reigns of Purandocht and Azerml- 
docht, daughters of Chosro^s II., followed by a period of anarchy, 
during which nine or ten nobles held the throne successively. 

632-^41 (651). Isdigrerd, grandson of Chosroes II., last 
Sassanid king of Persia. 

His whole reign was a struggle against the growing power of the 
Caliphs Ahi-Bekr and Omar (p. 182). 

633. Ejroedition of Kaled (the " sword of God '') to Hira. Defeat 
of the Persians. The whole region west of the Euphrates 
fell into the hands of the Arabs, who, however, suffered a temporary 
check by the loss of the <' Battle of the Bridge." Their ravages 
were soon renewed, and extended throughout Mesopotamia. Great 
exertions of the Persians. Levy of an army of 120,000 men, which 
was defeated in the four days' 

636. Battle of Cadesla, 

by Sa'ad Ibu Abi "Wakas. Loss of the Durafsh^vxmiy or 
royal standard of Persia. 

637. Invasion of Mesopotamia by Sa^ad. Capture of Ctesiphon. 

Defeat of the Persians in the battle of Jalula. 
639. Invasion of Susiana and Persia proper by the Arabs. Capture 

of Hormuzan^ a Persian general, who, being brought before 
Omar, asked for a cup of water, which he hesitated to taste until as- 
sured by the Caliph that he should not be harmed until he had drunk 
the water, whereupon he dashed the water on the g^und before the 
astonished Caliph, who respected his promise and spared the Persian's 

The recall of Sa^ad emboldened Isdigerd to make a final effort. 
Collection of an army of 150,000 men, which was totally defeated in 

A. D. Italy and Germany. 193 

641. Battle of Nehavend ("victory of victories"). Fall 
of the Sassanid power. Persia henceforward governed 
by the caliphs. ladigerd HI, lived for ten years a 
fugitive, and was at last murdered (651). 



CRUSADES ,(843-1096). 


843-875. Carolingiaiis in Italy. 

After the death ttf two sons of Lothar I., Ludwig the German 
and Charles the Bald divided Liothar's inheritance by the treaty of 
Mersen on the Meuse (870). The German portion {Priesland, Lothon 
rinffia or Lothringen (Lorraine), so called after Lothar II.) was an- 
nexed to the kingdom of the East Franks, the Romance portion 
(Burgundy, Provence) to the kingdom of the West Franks. Boun- 
dary, the Meuse. 

After the death of Ludwig 11., who was the eldest son of Lothar L 
(875), Charles the Bald became Emperor (f 877). 

843-911. Carolingians in Germany. 
843-^76. Ludwig the Gterman. 

Wars with the Slavs, with Charles the Bald, and especially 
with the Northmen, i. e. the Scandinavian sea warriors (Vikings), 
by whose ferocious energy the west of Europe was during this 
epoch harassed almost beyond belief. In 845 simultaneous attack by 
the Northmen upon all three of the Prankish kingdoms. Ludwig the 
German's son, 

876-887. Charles the Fat, 

at first in conjunction with his brothers, Karlmann (f 880) and 
Ludwig (f 882). Successful resistance to the claims of Charles the 
Bald on the Rhine (battle of Andemach, 876) and Italy. Charles 
the Fat became Emperor in 881, and in 884 was elected king of the 
West Franks, He united once more under one sceptre the Mon- 
archy of Charles the Great, with the exception of cisjurane 
Burgundy (Dauphin^ Provence, part of Languedoc), which became 
a separate kingdom under Boso. Charles the Fat was deposed by 
East and West Franks on account of his cowardice (Hiege of Paris 
by the Northmen), abdicated the throne at Tribur (887), and died 
almost immediately thereafter. The East Franks elected 

887-899. Amulf of Carinthia, grandson of Lndwig the 
German^ illegitimate son of Karlmann. He defeated the 
Northmen upon the Dyle (at Lihoen, 891), and in alliance with the 
Magyars, a nomadic Finnish tribe, which had gradually made its 
way from the Ural region towards Europe, and under guidance of 


194 MedtcBval History. A. d. 

Arpad had invaded Hungary, con<}uered Svatopluk II. (893), the 
founder of the kingdom of Moravia, Amulf went twice to Italy, 
and was crowned Emperor (896). His son, 

899-911. Ludwig the ChUd (six years old), 

was completely under the influence of Hatto^ archbishop of 
Mainz. Terrible devastation of Grermany by the Maoyars, In 908 
they traversed Bavaria, Franconia, and penetrated mto Thuringia 
and Saxony. Lewis, defeated in the neighborhood of the Lech (910), 
was obliged to pay them tribute. Internecine feuds in Franconia : 
Adalbert of Bahenherg against Rudolf, bishop of Wiirzburg, of the 
family of Conrad of Hesse. Victory of the Conradines, Adalbert 
executed in front of his castle. Weakness of the young king, llie 
monarchy seemed about to break up into ducliies : Saxony, Fran- 
conia, Bavaria, S^vabia, Iiotharingia. After Ludwig's death the 
aged Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, refused the crown, and se- 
cured the election of 

911-918. Ck>nrad I. of Franconia, 

by the nobles. Invasions of Danes, Slavs, and Magyars. 
Conrad was constantly at war with the West Franks and with his 
own subjects in a vain endeavor to obtain recognition of his sover- 
eignty, especially from Henry, son of Otto the Illustrious and duke 
of Saxony, since 912. Lotharingia, with the excepticm of Alsace, 
became a part of the kingdom of the West Franks. 

919-1024. Kings and Emperors of the Saxon house. 

In obedience to the wish of Conrad, expressed on his death- 
bed, and seconded by his brother, Eberhard, the Saxons and Franks 
elected at FrUzlar on the Eder 

919-936. Henry I. the Fowler, founder of the German 

Henry compelled Burhhard, dnke of Alamannia (Swabia), 
and Amulf, duke of Bavaria, to acknowledge bis supremacy. 

924. The Magyars (Hungarians) made a new inroad. Henry con- 

cluded a nine years* truce with them, and secured immunity 
for Saxony and Thuringia by payment of tribute. 

925. Henry regained Lotharingia. 

Enlargement and better fortification of old fortresses (Merse- 
burg) and construction of new ones (Quedlinhurg, Goslar), which at a 
later period became cities. There was no wide-spread founding of 
cities by Henry himself, but in his reign the Saxons were gradually 
accustomed to city life and to cavalry service in war. 

Successful wars with the Wends, against whom a great mark was 
established along the middle Elbe, out of which at a later time (after 
the retirement of margrave (Markgraf) Gero, 963) were formed the 
Altmark or Northrmrk, Meissen, and the Ostmark Oater Mark Lau^ 
siiz), lying l)ctween tlic two. Victory at Lenzm (929). Wars with 
the Bohemians (recognition of the duty of feudal service), and with 
the Danes (Gorrn the Old). Creation of a mark between the Eider 
and Sley (9;M), afterwards called Mark Schleswig, 

A. D. Italy and Germany, 195 

Henry refused to pay the promised tribute to the Magyars, who 
thereupon made a new inroad. 

933. Victory of Henry over the Hungarians (on the Un- 
strut ?). ^ Heinrich died in 936. He was succeeded by his 
eldest son by Mathilda, 

936-973. Otto I., the Great, 

who was elected by Saxons and Franks, and crowned at 
Aachen by the archbishop of MaJnz. Homage of the princes of all 
the Grerman races (^Stamme). First appearance of the four court 
ofBces : duke of Lotharingia, Chamberlain ; duke of Franconia, Steto- 
ard ; duke of Swabia, Cup-bearer ; duke of Bavaria, Marshal. 

Countless swarms of Hungarians crossed Franconia (937), to in- 
vade Saxony. Defeated and pursued by Otto, they took a western 
direction, and ravaged France as far as the Loire. 

Otto defeated the rebellious duke of Bavaria, and drove him from 
his duchy, and subdued a revolt of Eberhard, duke of Franconia, and 
his own half-brother, Thankmar, who fell in the battle on the Eres- 
burg (938). Henry, Otto's younger brother, rebelled, and was de- 
feated by Otto along with his ally Giselbert, duke of Lotharingia, at 
Birthenf on the Rhine ; the rebels, with whom Eberhard made com- 
mon cause, called in the assistance of the French. Eberhard fell at 
Andemach, Giselbert was drowned on his flight, Henry fled to 
France (939). A murderous assault which Heniy made upon his 
brother after he had received forgiveness failed ; Henry threw him- 
self upon the king's mercy, received forgiveness a second time (941), 
and became henceforward, with his brother Bruno, archbishop of 
Cologne (since 953), the king's chief reliance. Otto gave Lotha^ 
ringia in 944 to (Jonrad the Ked, the ancestor of the Franco-Salic 
royal house, who four years afterwards became his son-in-law. Otto 
made his brother Henry duke of Bavaria (946). 

Wars with the Wends, conducted by margrave Gero, with the 
Danes, under Otto himself, who advanced to Jutland (Mark Schleswig 
given to Hermann Billung), with Boleslav, duke of Bohemia (950), 
who became a vassal of the empire, and with the Hungarians, princi- 
pally under the command of Henry. 

948. Otto appointed his son Liudolf (by Editha) duke of Swabia. 
946-950. Otto interfered in the French wars. He protected King 
Zou» IV. against Hugo, count of Fi-ance, both of whom were 
his brothers-in-law. 
951. First expedition of Otto's to Italy against Berengar II. of Ivrea. 
Otto released and married Adelheid, the widow of King 
Lothar (of the house of Burgundy), and then nineteen years 
of age. Berengar submitted to Otto as his suzerain (952). 

953. Lmdolf, Otto's son, and Cmrad, duke of Lotharingia, Otto's son- 

in-law, rebelled against the king. 

954. New inroad of the Hungarians, who swept through Germany, 

ravaging as they went, to France ; the rebels were in alliance 

» Prohablv not at Merseburg. See V. Oiesebreoht, Gesch. dtr Dtutschtn 
Kaimrzeil, 1.S 232. 

196 MedicBval History > A. D. 

with them. After a seyere struggle and several fruitless at- 
tempts at reconciliation, Liudolf and Conrad submitted. They 
were forgiven, but deprived of their duchies. Archbishop 
Bruno received Lotharingia; duke Burkhard, Swabia, BavariOy 
still in revolt, w^as subjugated by Otto and his brother Henry. 
New inroad of the Iluugai'ians. 

955. Victory over the Hungraiians on the Lechfeld 

Aug. 10. (Augsburg). Conrad fell in the battle. The Bavarian 
Ostmari, which was afterwards transformed into the duchy of 
Austria (Oesterreich), reestabUslied. Victorious expedition 
against the Wends, whom Otto defeated on the Rekenitz, 

957. Liudolf died in arms against Berengar, who was in rebellion. 

981. Second expedition of Otto's to Italy, Pope John XII. having im- 
plored his assistance against Berengar. Otto hastened to Rome, 
where he 

962. Renewed the imperial office. Holy Roman Em- 
Feb. pire of the Gherman Nation. 

While Otto was engaged in the war with Berengar in Lom- 
bardy, John XII. endeavored to free himself from the impe- 

963. rial protection and allied himself with Otto's foes. The em- 
Nov. peror advanced upon Rome and captured the city ; John fled. 

The Romans were obliged to promise never to elect another 
Pope without the consent of the emperor. John was deposed 
by a synod in Rome, and Leo YIII. elected Pope. 

964. A revolt of the Romans qiuckly suppressed. While Otto 
Jan. was again absent in northern Italy, where Berengar had, 

meantmie, been obliged to surrender (lie died as prisoner in 
Bamberg), Leo was expelled by the Romans, and John returned, 
but soon died in consequence of his dissipation. The Ro- 
mans choose Benedict Pope. Otto captured Rome the second 
time, deposed Benedict, and reinstated Leo. 
966-967. Thii-d expedition to Italy. Otto's son. Otto II., already 
crowned as German king, received the imperial crown at Rome. 
Otto I. died at Mefnleben, near Merseburg. His sepulchre is 
in the cathedral of the bishopric of Magddmrg, which he had 

973-983. Otto II., highly gifted, bat passionate, husband of 
the Grecian princess Theophxino, 

976. Otto's cousin, Henry the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria, insti- 
gated a conspiracy against the emperor, was conquered and 
deposed. Bavaria given to OUo of Stoabiay son of Liudolf. 
Carinthia separated from Bavaria and made a duchy. Luit- 
pold o/Bab^erg received the (Bavarian) Eastmark. 

978. Otto surprised by Lothar, king of France, escaped with diffi- 
culty, reconquered Lotharingia, invaded France, and besieged 
Pans, but without success. 

980-983. Wars in Italy. The emperor crossed the Alps, to Rome, 
981. advanced into southern Italy, defeated the Greeks and Sara- 

A. D. Italy and Germany. 197 

982. cens at Colonne, south of Cotrone, but was afterwards defeated 
by them further south on the Calahrian coast ^ where his army 
was amiihilated. 

983. Victorious advance of the Danes and Wends ; destruction of the 

bishoprics of Havelberg and Brandenburg. Otto II. died in 

983-1002. Otto m., three years old. 

Henry the Quarrelsome's chiim to the guardianship, and to 
the crown itself, was denied, but Bavaria, without Carinthia, 
was returned to him. Otto's mother, the Grecian Theophano, 
conducted the regency in Germany, his grandmother, Adelheid, 
in Italy ; after the death of Theophano (991), Adelheid and 
WiUigis, archbishop of Mainz, conducted the government until 
the young prince took the reins in 995. From his great intel- 
lectual enciowments known as the " Wonder of the World/* 
he was dreamy and unpractical. Three Roman expeditions. 

996. On the first expedition Otto was crowned by Gregory V. 

998-999. On the second his teacher Gerhert was elected pope as 
Sylvester II. Attempt of Crescentius to throw ofl the German 
yoke and restore the ancient republic. He was defeated and 
executed. It was Otto's design to make '* golden Rome " the 
imperial residence and centre of a new universal empire. 

1000. Journey through Germany, pilgrimage to the grave of St. 
Adalbert, foundation of the archbishopric of Gnesen. A wide- 
spread belief that this year would bring the end of the world 
and the coming of the Kingdom of Heaven led thousands of 
people to undertake a pilgrimage to Rome. 

1001. During his third visit to Italy, revolt of the Romans. Otto 
died in the castle of Patemo at the foot of Soracte. 

1002-1024. Henry U. (the Saint), 

son of Henry the Quarrelsome of Bavaria, grandson of King 
Henry I., was elected king at Mainz, after his rival, Eckard, margrave 
of Miiissen, had been murdered. Henry II. enforced the a^jknowl- 
edgment of his sovereignty, particularly from Hermann^ duke of 


1004. First expedition to Italy against Ardoin of Ivrea ; Henry 

crowned king of Italy in Pavia. 
1004-1018. Wars with Boleslav, king of Poland, who was compelled 

to give up Bohemia, but retained Lusatia. 
Foundation of the bishopric of Bamberg (1007). Increase in the 
power of the church. Reform of the monasteries. Energetic en- 
forcement of the public peace. 
1014. Second expedition to Italy. Henry crowned emperor in 

Rome. Ardom gives up his resistance (died in a monastery, 

1016-1018. Henry went to war to secure his inheritance in B«r- 

1 The baftlefield is unknown ; it wa« not at Basentello. See V. Qiesebeoht, 
Gesch, d. deuUchtn Kaiterzeit^ 1.* 5<J7. 

198 MeditBval History, a. d. 

gundy, which had been resigned in his favor by the last Vin g 
of Burgundy,! Rudolf III. Q016) . 
1022. On the third expedition to Italy, Henry fought with the Gre- 
cians in lower Italy, with the assistance of the Normans who 
had settled there in 1016. Henry died July 15, 1024. 

1024-1125. Frankish or Salian Emperors. 

Election held at Oppenheim between Mainz and Worms, — 
the first election in which princes of all the tribes had partici- 
After hesitating a short time between the two Conrads, cousins, 
the princes chose the elder, the son of the Frankish count Henry, 
eldest son of Otto of Carinthia, over the younger, the son of Conrad, 
younger son of Otto of Carinthia. 

1024-1039. CJonrad U. (the Salian). 

1025-1030. Revolt of the Babenberger, Ernst, duke of Swabia, step- 
. son of Conrad, son of his wife Gisela, residting from the con- 
flicting claims of the enrperor and of Ernst as the personal 
heir of Henry II., upon Burgundy (Aries). Ernst fell in bat- 
tle in 1030. 
1026. Expedition to Italy. Conrad crowned king of Italy in Milan, 
but obliged to bring Pavia and Ravenna to submission by force 
of arms. Crowned emperor, 1027, in the presence of Cnut the Great, 
king of England and Denmark, and Rudolf III. of Burgundy (Aries). 
The Eider made the boundary between Germany and i>enmark, 
Schleswig, therefore, was abandoned to the Danes. 

Invasion of Germany by the Poles under Mieczeslav II., where they 
ravaged the country to the Saale, and carried 10,000 prisoners to 
Poland. Conrad hastened from the Rhine, and provided defences 
against a new inroad, but attacked the Himgarians, though without 
success (1030). In 1031 Conrad attacked the Poles, forced them to 
surrender their prisoners, and restored Lusatia to the empire. MieO' 
zeslav became the Emperor's vassal (1032). 

After the death of Rudolf III. (1032), Burgundy, that is, the 
kingdom of Aries, which was formed in 933, by the union of cisjur- 
ane and transjurane Burgundy (p. 193), was, in three campaigns, 
wrested from the hands of Odo, Count of Champagne, who claimed it 
as heir of Henry II. and united with the empire. At a later time, 
however, the Romance portions of Burgundy, the lands along the 
Rhone, Saone, Isere, and Durance, fell to ^^^uice ; the Alamannian por- 
tions (Franche Comte, Switzerland) remained a part of the empire. In 
Italy the small fiefs were made legally hereditary, and tliis became 
the common custom in Grermany. To counterbalance this tendency 
Conrad seems to have designed doing away with ducal oiBces, and 
making the royal supremacy immediate and hereditary throughout all 
German lands. 

1036. On his return from a second expedition to Italy, Conrad 
1039. died at Utrecht. His son had been crowned at Aachen in 
June 4th his boyhood, and now succeeded to the throne as 

1 Otherwise known as the kin;;(lom of Aries. — Trans. 

A, D. Italy and Germany, 199 

1039-1056. Henry in. (caUed '' the Black '')• The imperial 
power at its highest point. 

King Henry was for a time, also, duke of Bavaria, Svfabia, and 
Franconia, The ducal throne in CarirUhia was long vacant. 
1042-1044. In Hungary the king, Peter, whom Henry had rein- 
stated at the expense of three campaigns, became a vassal of 
the empire. Extension of the Bavarian £astmark to the 
Tedious wars with the unruly Godfrey the Bearded, duke of upper 
Lotharingia, which was at last (1049) e^ven to the Alsacian count 
Gerhard, the ancestor of the house of Lorraine.^ Grodfrey went to 
Italy (1054), where he married Beatrix of Tuscany. Henry favored 
the attempt to introduce the Treuga Dei (p. 203). Proclamation of 
a general king's peace in the empire. 

1040-1047. First expedition to Rome. Henry caused a synod to 
depose the three rival Popes (Sylvester III., Benedict IX., 
Gregory VI), each of whom was accused of simony, and appointed 
a German, Suidger, bishop of Bamberg, Pope, as dement II., who 
crowned him emperor (Christmas, lOSS). After Clement, Ileury 
appointed three German Popes in succession. He invested Drogo, son 
of the Norman Tancred of HautevUle, with Apidia. 

1055. Second Roman expedition. Henry died at Gozlar, Oct. 28, 
1056. He was succeeded by his son, 

1066^1106. Henry IV., six years old, • 

who had been crowned king at the age of four. Spoiled in his 
youth, he grew to manhood, passionate but weak. His mother, Agnes 
of Poitou, the regent, gave JBavaria to the Saxon count Otto of Nord- 
keim, Carintbia to Berwold of Zdhringen, Swabia to her son-in-law, 
Rudolf of Rheinf eld. Abduction of the young king from Kaiserstnert 
to Cologne (1062) by Archbishop Anno, who was soon obliged to share 
the administration of the empire with Adalbert, the ambitious arch- 
bishop of Bremen (1065). Conspiracy of the princes against Adal- 
bert of Bremen. Imperial Diet at Tnour (1066). Adalbert banished 
from court for three years (f 1072). 

Otto of Nordheim deposed from the dukedom of Bavaria, which 
was given to his son-in-law, Welf, son of the margrave Azioof Este. 
(The house of Welf was extinct in the male line.) Magnus, duke of 
Saxony, kept in confinement. Revolt of the Saxons, whom Henry had 
displeased by the erection of numerous fortresses in their land. 
Flight of Henry from the Harzburg (1073), humiliating peace, de- 
struction of the Harzburg. Henry defeated the Saxons on the Unstrut 
(1075). Contest with Pope 

1073-1085. Gregory VH. (Hildebrand), 

descended from a family having a small estate in southern 
Tuscany. He was educated at the monastery of Cluny, He had, as 

1 In poMession of Lorrdoe down to 1737. See Modem History, Second 
Period, § 3. 

200 Medi€Bval History. A. d. 

cardmal-snbdeacon, afterwards as archdeacon and chancellor, con- 
ducted the temporal affairs of the papacy under jffv^ Popes; 

Strict enforcement of the celibacy of the clergy, war against simony 
(Acts viii. 18), and lay investitures, whereby is meant the investi- 
ture of clergy with the secular estates and rights of their spiritual 
benefices by the temporal power, by means of the ring and staff, 

Gregory in alliance with Robert Guiscard, duke of the Normans, 
and with the dissatisfied princes in Germany. Henry excommuni- 
cated (1076); suspended from his royal office by the Diet at Tribur 
(Oct. 1076), and the ultimate decision referred to a Diet to be held at 
Augsburg in February, 1077. A few days before Christmas Henry 
left Speier in secret with his wife, son, and one attendant; crossing 
the Alps under great hardship, 

1077. Henry humbled himself before the Pope at Ca- 
Jan. 25-28. nossa, 

a castle belonging to the Pope's firm friend, the powerful 
Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany. After three days' delay, passed 
by Henry in the rarb of a penitent in the snow-covered castle court, 
Gregory admitted him to his pressnce, and gave him a conditional 

Fortune turned in Henry's favor. Rudolf of Swabia, whom the 
malcontents in Germany had elected king (March, 107*^ at Forch- 
heim, was defeated and mortally woimded in the battle on the Elster 
(1080). Swabia given to Frederic of Hohenstaufen^ Henry's son-in- 
law (1079). 

Henry, a second time excommunicated (1080), went to Italy, cap- 
tured Kome, and was crowned by Clement III., a Pope of his own 
creation. Gregory VII,, besieged in the castle of St. Angelo, was re- 
leased by the Norman, Robert Guiscard, and died (1085^ at Salerno. 
(Dilexi justitiam et odi iniquitatem, propterea morior in exilw). 

The influence of Gregory VII. had been felt in all parts of the 
Christian world. It was under his auspices, some have claimed at 
Ids suggestion, that William of Normandy undertook the conquest of 

Henry was involved in a contest with a new king set up by the Sax- 
ons, Hermann of Salm, son of the count of Luxemburg. Hermann, 
liowever, abdicated in 1088, and died the same year. Submission of 
the Saxons upon receiving assurance that their ancient privileges 
should be respected. 

The church was still hostile. Marriage of Matilda of Tuscany 
with Welf v., son of duke Welf of Bavaria. 

1089-1097. Third expedition to Italy. Henry captured Manttta 
after a siege of eleven months, but was in general unsuccess- 
ful. Revolt of his son Conrad (1092). Henry returned to 
Germany in 1097, in which year the bands of the first cru- 
saders, under Walter of Perejo and Peter the Hermit, crossed 
Germany. War vrith Conrad (died 1101), and afterwards with 
Henry's other son, Henry, who imprisoned his father. Flight 
of the emperor to Liiltich, where he died Aug. 7, 1106. He 
was succeeded by his younger son. 

A. D. France, 201 

1106-1125. Henry V. 

The king went to Rome, took Pope Paschal II. prisoner, and 
forced him to perform the coronation and acknowledge the imperial 
right of investiture (1111). As soon as the emperor had left Italy 
the Lateran Council declared the concessions invalid as having been 
extorted by force, and a second council at Vienna excommunicated 

Wars with Grerman princes who were in revolt, especially with 
Lothar of Saxony, and the archbishops of Mainz and Cologne. Vic- 
tory of the Saxons at Welfeshclze^ near Mansfeld (1115). The war 
of the inveatitare was ended, after a long contest with CcUixtus IL, 
by the 

1122. Ck>noordat of Worms. 

Election of bishops and abbots in Germany to take place in 
the presence of the emperor or his representatives; investiture by the 
emperor must precede consecration, but was to be conferred not with 
the ring and stafP, but with the sceptre. In Italy and Burgundy in- 
vestiture was to follow canonical election and consecration. Ecclesi- 
astics holding secular benefices were bound to perform the feudal 

§ 2. FRANCE. 

843-987. Caxolingian kings of the Franks, 

&43-877. Charles the Bald. 

His rule was limited to the neighborhood of Loon; Brittany and 
Seplimania were independent ; his supremacy in Aquitania was but 
nominal. Ravages of the Nortiimen incessant, daring, terrible. Sack 
of Sarnies, Limoges, Bordeaux, Tours, Rouen, Orleans, Toulouse, Ba- 
yeux, Evreux, Nantes, Some quarters of Paris, even, were ravaged. 
Lotharingia divided between 1 ranee and Germany by the treaty of 
Meuthe (870). Outhe, Meuse, Jura, the boundary between Grermany 
and France. Charles wasted his energy striving for the imperial 

Fiefs proclaimed hereditary at the diet of Chiersi (877). Charles 
died on Mont Cenis, returning from an unsuccessful expedition to 
Italy. Rise of scholasticism. Joannes Scotus Erigena. Hincmar of 
Rheims. Charles was succeeded by his son, 
877--879. Ludwig the Stammerer (Louis le B^gue). 
879-882. Ludwig II. in the north of France. 

879-884. Karlmann in Aquitaine, and over the whole kingdom after 
882. The ravages of the ISorthmen increased in frequency and dura- 
tion in spite of Ludwig's victory at Saucourt in 881 (Ludmg- 
slied). Revolt of Boso, duke of cisjnrane Burgundy (879). The 
heir of Ludwig II,, Charles, being but five years old, the nobles chose 
884-887. Charles the Fat of Germany, 

king, thus uniting the whole empire once more in one hand. 
Siege of Paris by the Northmen imder Rollo (Hrolf) in 885. 
Heroic defence by Eades (Odo), count of Paris. Charles, consent- 
ing to buy the retreat of the Northmen, was deposed in 887. (Died 
in 888 in Germany.) 

202 MedtcBval History. A. D, 

The empire of Charles reduced to six clearly distinct states : Italy, 
Germany, Lorraine, Provence, Transjiirane Burgimdy (formed by 
the union of western Switzerland and Franche Comt^, under Rudolf 
/., nephew of Eudes), France. In Fnuce the nobles passed over 
the infant Charles, and elected 
888-898. Eudes, count of Paris, son of Robert the Strong. The 

opposition party among the nobles advocated the claims of 
893-923. Charles III., the Simple, who was not generally acknowl- 
edged until after the death of Eudes. In hiB reign the 

911 (?)• Northmen gained a permanent foothold on the 
Seine TNormandy), under Rolf (RoUo), the first duke of Nor- 
mandy, with feudal sovereignty over Bretagne, Treaty of St. Claire 
sur Epte, near Ghisors. Baptism of Rollo under the name of Robert. 
Revolts against Charles. Robert, duke of France, brother of Eudes^ 
proclaimed king, but slain in the battle of Soissons (823). His place 
was filled by his son-in-law, Rudolf oi Burgundy. Charles treacher- 
ously seized by Herbert of Vermandois and imprisoned (died in 929). 
His wife, Eadffyfu (Edwina), fled to her brother ^tkdstane, king of 
England, with her three-year-old son Ludwig IV., hence called d* Outre 
Mer (Beyond Seas). Rudolf dying in 936 without issue, the nobles, 
Hugh the White, duke of France (t 950), Herbert of Vermandois, and 
William Longsword of Normandy, recalled 

936-954. Ludwig from Beyond Seas {Louis d'Outremer), 

in whose rei^ the country was torn with civil war between 
the king, Hugh the White, or Great, and Otto, king of Grermany (east 
Franks). Ludwig was succeeded by his son, 

954r-986. Lothar, 

who was under the influence of Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the 
Great. An unsuccessful actcmpt to acquire Lorraine brought on an 
invasion of France by Otto II. of Grermany. Lothar was succeeded 
by his son, 

986-987. Ludwig V. (le Faineant), who, after a short and stormy 
reign, died suddenly (987), without issue. The direct line of 
Charles the Great was extinct. The only man who had a 
claim to the succession was the uncle of Ludvdg, Charles, duke 
of Lorraine, a v«issal of the emperor. 

987-1328. Oapetian dynaaty, direct line. 

987-996. Hugh Capet 

was chosen king, but was powerless to resist the great feudal 
nobles, each of whom sui'passed the king in military power and ex- 
tent of territory (dukes of Normandy, Brittany, Burgundy, Aquitaine; 
counts of Flanders, Chcmipagne, VermandoU). T)xe royal domain 
reached from the Somme to the Loire, with Normandy and Anjou on 
the west and Champagne on the east. Paris in the centre was the 
capital of the new French monarchy, as Laon had been the capital 
of the old Gherman kingdom. Capture of Cliarles the Carolingian. 
G^rbert, archbishop of Kheims, afterwards Pope Sylvester 11. Un- 
der Hugh's son, 

A. D. England. 203 

996-1031. Robert, the royal power was wasted to a shadow. The 
king, pious, weak, and absurd, was involved in domestic trdiible 
and in constant wars with the nobles. Rising of the serfs (997). 
Famine (1030-1032). The Vexin on the Seine given to Normandy. 
Robert's son, 
1031-1060. Henry I., 

retained scarcely a trace of power, beyond the nomination of 
the bishops. 

Introduction of the "Truce of Ood'* (Treuga Dei) by the clergy 
(at first [1031] in Guienne^, whereby a cessation of all feuds was en- 
joined by the church durmg church festivals and from Wednesday 
evening to Monday morning in every toeek (only 80 days in a year avail- 
able for warfare). The crown having now become hereditary, Henry 
was succeeded quietly by his son, 
1060-1108. Philip I., 

whose long reig^, distinguished by no deeds of his own, is re- 
markable for two important events : the conquest of England by the 
Normans (1066), and the first crusade (1096). 


828-1066. England under the West Saxon kings. 
828-837. Bogberht, king of Wessex (p. 180), ruler of Sussex, Kent, 
Essex, overlord of Mercia, East Anglia, Northumbria, Wales, 
and StnUhclyde. 

Ravages of the Northmen. Pouring in swarms from the northern 
kingdoms of Denmark and Scandinavia, these pirates, the vikings, 
harassed England and the continent almost beyond belief. The Eng- 
lish called the Northmen '* Danes," although not all their assailants 
came from that kingdom. The Northmen were still heathens. The 
epoch of their invasions falls into three divisions : I. (789-866^ 
Period of invasion and ravage without settlement. II. (866-1003) 
Period of settlement and conquest in various parts of the country. 
III. (1003-1066) Period of political conquest. The first recorded 
attack was in 789 (p. 189). In 834 Sheppey was ravaged. Defeat 
of the Danes at Hengestesdun (836). 

Ecgberht was succeeded by his son 2]theliiviilf (837-858). In 851 
the Danes took London and Canterbury; in 855 they wintered for the 
first time in Sheppey. ^thdtoulf maxried Judith, daughter of Charles 
the Bald, king of the West Franks. He was succeeded by his son 
2Ithelbald (858-860), who married his father's widow. On his 
death Judith returned to the continent and married Baldunn, after- 
wards coimt of Flanders. From this union descended Matilda, wife 
of William the Conqueror, ^thelbald was succeeded by his brother 
2}tbelberht (860-866), who was followed by his brother, 

866-871. mthelred I. 

Settlement of the Danes in Northumbria (romance of Ragnar 
Lodbrog). The Danes in East Anglia (866)^ in Mercia (868V 
870. East Anglia conquered and settled by the Danes. Mart^raom 
of St. Mdmund,ldn^ of the East Angles. 

204 Jjifedicsval History, A. d. 

Sack of Peterborough and Crowland, Danes in Wessex (871). Nine 
battles were fought with the invaders this year. At jEscesdun the 
Danes were defeated by jElhelred and Alfred his brother. 

871-901. -Alfred the Great. 

In the earlier years of his reign Wessez was at peace, but the 
other parts of England still suffered from Danish inroads. In 876 
Danes settled in Northumbria, and GtUkomif Danish king in East 
Auglia, entered Wessex. In 877 lands in Mercia were divided among 
the Danes. 
878. The Danes ravaged Wessez. 

.Alfred took refuge in the forest. Erection of the fortress of 
AtJielney. Defeat of the Danes at Ethandun, Treaty of Wedmore, 
between jElfred and Outhorm. The Danes left Wessex, but East 
Anglia and a part of Mercia were given up to them. London, how- 
ever, was retained by -Wilfred. The country of the Danes, Danelagh^ 
as it came to be called, now embraced the larger part of England. 

880-893. Peace in Wessex. 

Alfred was a skilful warrior but no lover of war. His genius 
was for civil government. Revision of the laws; separation of the 
judicial from the executive department. Trial by jury was not intro- 
duced by .Alfred; that institution was of Norman origin, a develop- 
ment of principles of old Prankish law. Creation of a fleet (882). 
Submission of several Welsh provinces. Encouragement of learning. 
Bteda's Ecclesiastical History, Orosius' History, and Boethius' Consola- 
tion of Philosophy, translated into Anglo-Saxon by JClfred. Voyages 
of Othhere and iVtUfhere along the northern shores of Europe mider- 
taken at iElf red's request. Asser, The Anglo-Saxon Chroniole 
probably put into shape in this reign. 

The Danish war broke out again in 893 with an invasion of Kent. 
Defeat of the Danes at Buttdngton. In 901 Alfred died. lie 
left five children : two sons, Ead'ward and jEthdweard, and three 
daughters, .SSthelflaed the ** Lady of the Mercians," wife of jEthelred, 
ealdorman of West Saxon Mercia, jEthelgifu, abbess of Shaftesbury, 
jElfthryth, wife of Baldwin II., count of Flanders, son of Baldtoin and 
Judith (p. 203). Of this marriage wsus bom Matilda, wife of William 
the Conqueror. 

901-925. Badward the ZSlder. 

Erection of fortresses aloiig the Mercian frontier by Eadtoard 
and ^thelflced. Conquest of the Five Boroughs {Derby, Lincoln, Leices- 
ter, Stamford, Nottingham) by -^thelflaed. Annexation of Mercia to 
Wessex. Conquest of East Anglia and Essex. Submission of Strath- 
Clyde and all the Scots (824). Badward lord of all Britain. Wes- 
sex, Kent, Sussex, he ruled by inheritance; Mercia, Essex, East Anglia, 
by conquest from the Danes; Northumberland, Wales, Scotland, Strath- 
clyde, as overlord. Eadward died in 925, and was succeeded by his 

925-940. .Sthelstan. 

League of Scots, Welsh, and Danes crushed in 926. Again 

A. D England, 205 

renewed, it was again broken np by the defeat of the allies in 

937. Battle of Bninanburh. 

£adward was succeeded by his brother Eadmund (940-946). 
Revolt of Danes and Scots. Reconquest of the Five Boroughs and the 
Danelagh, Cumberland given as a fief to Malcolm, king of Scots. 
Diinatan appointed abbot of Glastonbury. Murder of Eadmund, who 
was succeeded by his son Eadred (946-955). A revolt of the Danes 
was crushed in 954 ; final submission of the Danelagh. Eadwig 
(955-959), nephew of Eadred, quarreUed with Dunstan^ and drove him 
from the country. He was succeeded by his brother, 

959-975. Eadgar, 

the under king of Mercia. Dunstan, recalled in 958, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury 959, was the true ruler. The royal power stood 
high. Revision of the laws. Secular priests were out of favor, and 
monks were installed in many of the wealthiest churches. Mainte- 
nance of a large fleet. Eadgar was followed by his son Eadward 
(the martyr), murdered 978. 
978-1016. .Sthelred II., the Unready,^ son of Eadgar, 

in whose reign the political conquest of England was under- 
taken by the Danish sovereigns (p. 203). Danish invasions began, 
after a long interval, in 980. Death of Dunstan, 988. Battle of 
Maldon against the Danes (991), when Brihtnoth, ealdorman of the 
East Saxons, fell. (Soug of Brihtnoth's Death.) In this year (991) 
the plan of buying off the Danes was adopted, 10,000 pounds being 
paid, which were raised by a special tax {Danegeld). In 994 AnlaJ 
{Olaf Tryggvesson) and Swegen (Svend with the Forked Beard) rav- 
aged Kent, and were paid 16,000 pounds. Ravages of the Northmen 
in 997, 998, 999, 1001, 1002, 1003, 1004, 1006, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1013, 

1002. 24,000 pounds paid to the Northmen. Massacre of all (?) 
Danes in England, upon one day (Nov. 13, Danish Vespers) 
by order of jEthelred. Sw^egen resolves on the conquest of Eng- 
land. Marriage of jEthelred and Emma, daughter of Richard II., 
duke of Normandy. In 1007, 36,000 pounds, in 1012, 48,000 pounds, 
were paid to the Northmen. Death of Swegen (1014). Election of 
his son Cnnt (Canute) to succeed him. The Danes had now recov- 
ered all that part of England which they had acquired by the treaty 
of Wedmore (p. 204) in 978. Upon the death of jEthelred the Danish 
party in England chose Cnut king, but the English party, which 
centred in London, chose Eadmund Ironside (1016), son of yEthel- 
red. He made a brave stand, and many battles were fought this 
year. After the defeat of Eadmund at Assandon peace was con- 
cluded. Eadmund received Wessex, Essex, East Anglia, and Zon- 
don ; Cnut received Northumberland and Mercia, The nominal over- 
lordship of England remained with Eadmund. After the death of 
Eadmund (1016) CniU became king of England. 

1 Such is his conventional title: probably **De»piser of Counsel** would bet- 
ter convey the meaning of '' Red f lest *' 

206 MediijBval History. A. d. 

1016-1042* Dcuiish supremaoy over Enfflaaid. 

1016-1035. Cnut. 

England divided into four goveminentfii : Wesaex, under 
Cnut; Mercia, East Anglia, Northumberland, under Jaris or Earls. 
IluscarlSf Cnut's personal following. CntU in Rome (1027). Laws 
of Cnut (1028^. Subjugation of Malcolm, king of Scots (1031). CmU 
was Bucceedea by his sons Harold (1035-1040) and Harthacnut 
(1040-1012). Godwine, earl of Wessez ; Leofiric, earl of Mercia ; 
Siw^ard, earl of Northumberland. On Harthacnut*s death the son of 

1042-1066. Eadward, the Confessor, 

was elected king. He had been educated at the Norman eonrt, 
and during his reign Norman influence was supreme at the court of 
England. The country was in the hands of the great earls Godteme^ 
Leofric, Siward, In 1051, Godwine, father-in-law of the king, was ex- 
iled. Recalled in 1052 he brought about a general banishment of the 
French. Upon the death of Godwine his power passed to his son 
Harold (1053). In 1055 Harold's brother Tostig succeeded Simurd 
as earl of Northumberland. In 1057 Harold's brother Gyrth was 
made earl in Norfolk and Suffolk, and another brother of Harold, 
Leoftoine, earl of Kent and Essex. Subjugation of Wales by Harold 
(1063). Revolt of Northumberland (10G5). Deposition of Tostigand 
election of MorJcere, grandson of Leojric of Mercia, and brother of 
Edwin, then earl of Mercia. On the death of Eadward^ 

1066. Harold, 

earl of Wessex, was elected king. 

A claim to the succession was immediately advanced by "Wil- 
liaxn, duke of Normandy, upon three grounds. 1. The alleged be- 
quest of Eadward the Confessor. 2. An oath taken by Harold upon 
occasion of his having been shipwrecked on the coast of Normandy 
about 1064, in virtue of which ne had become William's vassal, and 
had promised to marry his daughter and secure him the succession 
after the death of Eadward. 3. The right of his wife, Matilda (p. 
204). The claim being rejected, William at once prepared to assert 
it by arms. 

Invasion of Yorkshire by Harold Hardrada, king of Norway, and 
Tostig, brother of Harold of England. 

Sept. 25. Battle of Stamfordbridge. 

Defeat and death of the invaders. 'Willisun had meantime 
landed at Pevensey. Harold hastened south, but was defeated 
in the 

Oot. 14. Battle of Haatings or Senlao, 

and fell on the field. Eadgar jEtheling, son of Ead- 
ward the Confessor, was chosen king, but soon submitted, 
with all the chief men, to the victor. Election of WUr 

A. D. The North. 207 

§ 4. THE NORTH. 


Northern historians of the Middle Age refer the conquest of the 
North to the Asas under Odin (p. 168), who gave Denmark to his 

After him came Dan the Famous, who gave a name to the king- 
dom. Under Frode the Peaceful, who reigned at the beginning of 
our era, Denmark enjoyed a Golden Age. In the eighth century the 
famous battle of Bravalla was fought between Harold Hildetand, 
king of Denmark, and Sigurd Ring, king of Sweden, and ended in 
favor of the Swedes. 

Thus far all is mythical. The true history of Denmark begins with 
Gorm the Old. It is clear, however, that the Danes had settled in two 
bands : one occupying the peninsula, Jutland, Schletttoig, and HoUtein) 
the other occupying the eastern islands Zealand, Fiinen, etc. Both 
divisions, between which there was scanty intercourse, were ruled by 
numerous petty chiefs (smaa-hmgar), among the most famous of whom 
was the king and high-priest of Lejre in Z^eiland, who was at the head 
of a loose confederacy of the islands. When Jules and Angles in the 
fifth century migrated to Britain (p. 176), Danes from the islands 
seem to have taken their place in the peninsula. 

Godfrey, king of Jutland, was embroiled ¥rith Charles the Great, and 
built a Dannevirk or line of fortresses across the peninsula. Under 
his successor, Hemming, the Eyder was made the boundary between 
Denmark and the Prankish empire. 

In 822 Christianity preached in Denmark by Ebbo, archbishop of 
Rheims. In 826 Ansgarius, " the Apostle of the North," labored in 
Denmark, but without lasting results. 

Gorm the Old (about 860-935), the fir»t king of all Denmark, was 
a devout heathen, who persecuted the new faith until forced to refrain 
by Henry /. of Germany. Erection of the great Dannevirke between 
the Sley and the Eyder. Grorm ruled the peninsula, the islands, and 
Skaania and Bleking, the southern provinces of Sweden. Harold 
Blue-tooth (Blaatand), 935-985. War with Norway. Otto II. of Ger- 
many, in 975, forced Harold to consent to the introduction of Chris- 
tianity in his kingdom. 8 vend Forked Beard (Tveskjoid), 985-1014. 
Successful revolt of the tributary Wends. Svend in England (p. 205). 
Knut the Great (1014-1036), king of Denmark and of England. He 
passed most of his time in England, which led to an attempt on the part 
of Ulf-Jarl to make Hardeknut king in Denmark. It failed, and Knut 
later had Ulf killed. In 1028 Knut was proclaimed king of Norway. 
Hardeknnt (Hathacnut) (1035-1042) succeeded his father in Den- 
mark. Uis war with Magnus of Norway ended in an aereement 
whereby whoever should outlive the other should inherit his kingdom. 
Under this treaty Magnus ruled Denmark, 1042-1047. He was suc- 
ceeded by Svend Estridsen, son of Ulf-Jarl and Estride, sister of 
Knvt (1047-1074). War for seventeen years with Harold Hardrada 
of Norway was brought to a close in 1064. War with the Wends. 
Svend raised Denmark to a position of power, which was lost under 

208 MedicBval History, A. d. 

his five sons who followed him: Harold Heyn (1077-1080), St. 
Knut (1080-1080), Qlaf Hunger (1080-1005), Erik Ejegod (1095- 
1103), Nielfl (1106-1135). 


Sweden was the first of the Scandinavian kingdoms to attain power. 
According to tradition there were two races m the country besides 
the Finns, the (Jota or GatUa (Goths) and the Svea, The Svea traced 
their origin to the followers of Odin. Njord, son of Odin, was the 
first king of Swtden. His son. Prey Yngve, built the temple of 
Uppsala, and founded the line of the Ynglingar, which ruled the Svea 
until Ingjald Ill-raada so angered the petty kings by his cruelty that 
they revolted. The king burned himself and his family, and his son 
Olaf fled to Norway. Ivar Vidfadjne, king of Skaania, which was 
independent before its conquest liy Gorm of Denmark, succeeded Ing- 
jald, This was in the seventh century. 

In the eighth (?) century falls the mythical battle of Bravalla^ where 
Sigurd Ring, king of Sweden, defeated Harold Hildetand of Den- 
mark. Sigurd*s sou, Ragnar Lodbrog, is even more famous in story 
than his father. (Tale of his capture by iElla of Northumberland, and 
of his death in a pit of serpents, which his sons avenged by the 
slaughter of ^lla. See p. 203, where the discrepancy in date is to be 

In the ninth century authentic history begins. Mission of Ansga- 
riu8 (820-865) to Sweden, where his preaching met with great suc- 
cess. Erik EmiindsBon, king of Sweden (died in 885 ?), made im- 
portant conquests in the East. At the same time bands of Swedes 
settled around Novgorod, subjugated the Slavs, and laid the foundation 
of the future empire of Russia (Varinjary Russ.). 

Olaf the Lap-king (993-1024) was the first Christian king of Swe- 
den. War with SL Olaf of Norway. The last king of the Upsala 
line was Edmund Gammed (the Old), who died about 1056. Stenkil 


According to tradition Norwav was first settled by Olaf Trcetdje 
of the Ynglingar line, who fled from Sweden after the death of his 
father Ingjald. The country was governed by numerous petty kings, 
and remained weak and distracted, like Sweden and Denmark, until, 
as in those countries, a process of consolidation set in in the ninth cen- 
tury. Halfdan the Black (841-863) reduced many of the petty kings 
to subjection, and his son, Harald Haarfager (863-932), completed the 
work of conquest and introduced the feudal system. Defeat of the 
Jarls at Hafurstfjord^ 872. These changes, and the repression of free- 
booting which followed them, induced a great migration of the Jarls, 
the most famous of the vikings. Establishment of Northmen under 
Rolf Ganger (RoUo) in Normandy. Conquest of Dublin by Olauf in 
852. Discovery and settlement of Iceland, 861-875, etc. Erik 
Blodoxe (930-934), Hakon (934-961), Harald Graafell, Hakon Jarl 
(988-995). Olaf Tryggvaason (996-1000). He disappeared at the 

A. D. Spanish Peninstda, 209 

battle of Svoid, where he was defeated by Olafthe Lap-king of Nor- 
way, Svend Tveskceg of Denmark, and Erik and Svendf sons of Hakon 
JarL The victors divided Norwav between them. 

Discovery and settlement of Greenland by Erik the Red (983). 
Vinland (America) seen by Bjame, and visited by Leif and others, 
986-1011. See p. 281. 

Norway was again united mider St. Olaf (II.) 1015-1030, in whose 
reign Christianity was introduced. Magnus the Good, sou of Olaf 
(1035-1047), king of Denmark from 104ii to 1047. The Graagaas, 
or book of the law. Harald III., Hardrada^ founded Opslo (Chris- 
tiania), and fell at Stamford Bridge 1066 (p. 206). Magnus II. (1066- 
1069), Olaf (1069-1093), Magnus III. Barfod (1095-1103). Con- 

2uest of the Orkneys and Hebrides ; of Dublin. Death of Magnus in 


756-1031. Caliphate of Cordova, 

founded by the last Ommiade, Abd-er-Rahman (p. 183). Most 
brilliant period of the Moorish civilization, in the ninth and tenth 
centuries. Abd-er-Rahman III., H^kem II., Almazorj his general. 
The populous city of Cordova, the seat of science and arts. 
1031. Dissolution of the caliphate of Cordova into a number of 

small states. The Morabethes or Almoravides ( Yussuf), sum- 
moned from Mauretania, successfully opposed the Christians (1086), 
but made themselves masters of Mohammedan Spain. 

Christian Kingdoms. 

Asturia (Oviedo), since the conquest of the country as far as the 
Duero by Alfonso III. in the tenth century, called the king- 
dom of Iieon, after the new residence, Leon. 

Castile, so called from the castles erected against the Arabs, origi- 
nally a county of Asturia. 

Navarre, a border state in the Pyrenees : first a county under 
French supremacy, then independent. Sancho I. assumed the 
title King of Navarre (905), and subjugated 

Aragon, originally a Frankish county north of Navarre. 

1000-1035. Sancho III. the Great, king of Navarre, and, 
by inheritance, king of Castile, divided at his death his king- 
dom among his tliree sons. As Leon and Castile were soon 
united, there existed henceforward three Christian kingdoms 
in Spain: 1, Castile-Iieon ; 2, Navarre; 3, Aragon. We 
must also reckon the county of Barcelona, which grew out of 
the Spanish mark of Charles the Great, and was independent 
after the time of Charles the Bald. 
Wars of Ruy Diaz, called by the Arabs Cid, i. e. Lord (died 



210 Mediisval History, A. d. 

§ 6. THE EAST. 

Ifauiteni Bmpire. 

527^65. Justinian I., emperor of the East Belisarias. 
Narses (p. 175). 

Codification of the law in the form known as the oorpufl 
juris oi^ilis (Tribonianus)^ comprising : 1. Institutiones, 2. Pandedce 
or Dig&tta, 3. Codex, 4. Novelke, later additions. 

Parties of the circus : GreenSf Blues, Reds, and Whites, Bloody 
contests (« Nika," 632). The church of St, Sophia, built by Con- 
stantine {Hagia Sophia), burnt and rebuilt with great splendor. 

Decline of the empire under Justinian's successors (cruelty, mutila- 
tions). A part of the Asiatic and African provinces conquered by 
the Persians and afterwards by the Arabs, 

72G-842. Contest over images. Image-breakers (ctKoyoicX^oroi, icon- 
oclasts) and image worshippers (ciKoyo8ovAo<). 

717-741. IiBO the Isaurian. Image worship prohibited. 

780-802. Irene, who out of love of power had her own son blinded, 
restored image worship. The accession of a wonuui to the 
imperial throne served as a pretext to legalize the transfer of 
the imperial crown from the JBast to the West. 

842. Theodora fully restored image worship. 

867-1057. Eastern emperors of the Ma.oedonian line. 

Tlie empire, hard pressed by Arabs, Bvlgarians, and Magyars. 
The emperors Nicephorus Phocas and John Zimisces, whom Theophano, 
widow of Romanus II, (died 962), placed on the throne, partially 
reconquered the provinces which the Arabs and Bulgarians had torn 
from the empire. 

Caliphate of Bagdad under the Abbasidee (750-1258). 

Immediately after the reigns of Haroun-al-Raschld and Mamun 

(p. 180), the power of the caliphs began to decline. 

935. Tlie Zhnir al Omra (i. e. prince of princes) received all the 

secular power ; the caliph remained only spiritual head of the 


1058. Seljuk Turks (Togrtd Bey, Alp Arslan, Mdlek Shah) at- 

tained the dignity of Emir al Omra. Seljuk suprenuicy. 
10d2. The empire of the Seljuks separated into a number of small 
sultanates (Iran, Kerman, Aleppo, Damascus, Iconium orRoum). 


The early history is exceedingly uncertain, and the most impor- 
tant events are assigned dates differing from one another by over 
four centuries. The Guptas, who succeeded in power the Sahs of 
Surdshha (60 b. C.-235 a. d.), occupied Kanauj from 319 to about 
470, when tliey were overthrown by Tatar invaders (Huns ?), and 
the Valahhuf, who dwelt in Cntrh and th« northern part of Bombay, 
were the principal power in India, 480-722. 

A. D. The East. 211 

Actual anthentio history begins with the Arabic invasions. Sind 
was the first province to feel the Mohammedan attack. It was con- 
quered in 711, but in 750 a general uprising expelled the victors. 
About 1000-1186. Supremacy of the Sultans of Ghazni. 

The next great attack was made by a Turk, Sultan Mahnrnd 
of Ghazni, (in Kabul), who invaded India seventeen times, and con- 
quered the country to the Ganges. The decisive struggle took place 
at Feaha^var, where Mahmud was victorious. In 1024 famous expe- 
dition to Guzerat, Destruction of the idol pillar filled with jewels. (?) 
Mahmud was succeeded by fourteen rulers of his house, the last of 
whom, Bahram^ was conquered by AUah-ud-din of Ghor, Bahram's 
son, Khusru, founded at Lahore the first Mohammedan dynasty in 
India proper. 

1186-1206. Supremacy of the Afghans of GHior. 

In 1186, Khusru^s son was made captive by Mn hammed Ghori, 
after which the predominance exercised by the Turks of Ghazni 
passed into the hands of the Afghans of Ghor. Muhammed Ghori 
was killed in 1206. 


590-618. Djmaaty of Suy, under whose energetic sway China was 
partially rescued from the confusion of the Three Kingdoms 
(p. 32). 

618-907. "Dynasty of Tang, 

founded by the usurper, Le Yuen, who, as emperor, took the 
name of Kau-tsu. The first part of this period down to 718 was a 
brilliant time for China, and the Golden Age of literature. The 
earlier rulers (Tai-tsung, 627-650 ; Kaou-tsung, 650-683; Woo How, 
683-705, the wife of Kaou-tsung, who usurped the throne on her hus- 
band's death) were valiant warriors and wise rulers, who held the 
Tatars in check, recovered much of the former possessions of China 
in Central Asia, and raised the empire to a commanding position 
amon^ other nations ; 643, embassies from Persia and Constantinople 
in China. 

From 718 the attacks of the Tatars increased in vehemence. From 
763 to 780 their inroads were incessant. 

Under Woo-tsung (841-847) temples were destroyed, monasteries 
and mmneries closed, and all foreign priests (Christian, Persian, Bud- 
dhist) banished. The reaction was, however, short-lived. Inven- 
tion of printing. 

907-960. Five dynasties (Later Leang, Lafer Tang, Later Tsin, 
Later Han, Later Chow) occupied the throne within this 
period, but the power of each was very limited. In Ho-nan, Sze-chuen^ 
and other provinces independent states arose. 

960-976. Chaon-kwang-yin, as emperor, Tai-tsoo, the founder 
of the dynasty of the Later Sung, fought with success against 
the Khitan Tatars, who had occupied the whole of Manchuria, estab- 
lishing there the empii'e of Hia. Siieceodinpf emperors were less for- 
tunate, and paid trioutc tu tho Tatars (1)70-1101). 

212 MedicEval History. A. D. 


From the reign of Ojin (270-310, p. 33) to the close of the sixth 
century, the liistory of Japan is a record of quiet progress in civiliza- 
tion, under the influence of continental intercourse and of increasing 
wealth. Throughout this period, as before, the Mikados were actual 
sovereigns and personal commanders. The close of this epoch saw 
the introduction of Buddhism into Japan and its rapid spread (p. 33). 

The seventh century is of surpa.ssing interest in the history of 
Japan, for then it was that causes long working in silence and un- 
seen resulted in changes subversive of the entire social and political 
life of the Japanese, — elianges which led to the withdrawal of the 
Mikado from personal intercourse with his subjects behind a veil of 
formal etiquette and heightened reverence, and to the predominance 
of the military over the civil power, until the actual government of 
the country passed from its legal sovereign, the Mikado, iuto the 
hands of an usurping military chieftain, thus creating a long-enduring, 
much misunderstood system of dual government, — changes whose 
final outcome was a feudal system corresponding to that known to 
medieval Europe, which, with its legitimate offspring, oppression, 
weakness, anarchy, lasted until 1868. 

These changes were the following : I. The gfrowth of a numerous 
court nobility of imperial, and hence of divine, descent. II. The 
creation of numerous offices of state which became the property of 
the court nobility. III. The division of the male population into an 
agricultural and a military class. IV. The separation of state offices 
into two sections, the civil and the military, and the continuance of 
each in the hands of one group of noble families. 

I. The kug^, or court nobility, owed their numbers to the practice 
of polygamy, which the necessity of providing against the extinction 
of a divine dynastic line imposed on the Mikados. They comprise at 
present one hundred and fifty-five families, which form among them- 
selves larger groups, or clans. Such clans are : the Fujlwara, the 
most famous of all the kuge; the Suga'wara ; the Taira (Heike in 
Chinese characters) ; the Minamoto (G«njl in Chinese charac- 

II. In 603 the requirements of a more extensive empire caused 
the establishment of eight great administrative departments, and of a 
host of smaller offices, which were filled by members of the kugdy and 
gradually became vested in certain families. 

III. Tlie demand of the growing empire for increased military 
efficiency led to the division of the whole male population into two 
classes : 1. the class of agricultural laborers, comprising all who 
were imfit for military service; they w^ere relegated to a life of un- 
broken toil, and were burdened with the aimual payment of a quan- 
tity of rice sufficient for the support of the 2. military class, the 
Samurai, which included all the bravest and most intellectual men in 
Japan. Relieved from the necessity of working by the tax received 
from the first class, and not overburdened with military duties, these 

1 Griffis, The Mikado's Empire. Reed, Japan. Adams, History of Japan, 

A. D. Crusades, 213 

men were free to devote themselves to the pursuit of literature and 
learning, formin? the best element in the nation. 

IV. rhe Fujimaray increasing in power, gradually absorbed all 
dvil offices, while the military oi^ces were iilled from the two families 
of Taira and Minamoto, better known as Hei and Gen. Thus did the 
Fujitcara become enervated by the luxury of palace life ; thus did the 
MikadOy while his office gained in respect and reverence by its envi- 
ronment of titled officials, lose all real power, and sink to a mere pup- 
pet in the hands of intriguing nobles, to be installed and deposed at 
will ; thus did both emperor and cotirt constantly lose ground before 
the growing; influence of those energetic families 4» whom were given 
the active duties of military command. The generals, or ShognnB, 
became the ** Mayors of the Palace'' of Japan. So orig^inated the 
dual government, which was not, as foreigners long thought, a con- 
stitutional institution, whereby the civil and military functions of gov- 
ernment were vested in the ShOgun or temporal emperor (Tycoon), and 
the religious functions in the Alikado or spiritual emperor, but an un- 
constitutional innovation, wherein a subordinate officer had usurped 
that authority which belonged of right to the only emperor, the Mi- 
kado, and whose position that emperor had never recognized. 

The natural result of this state of affairs was the evolution of mili- 
tary feudalism, whose rise is considered in the next period. 

794. The capital of the empire, the home of the Mikado and the 
kuge, permanently fixed at Kioto, near Lake Biwa. 

1156. Outbreak of war between the families of Gen and Hei (^Mina- 
moto and Taira), which had previously shared the militaiy 
offices in peace. 




Cause : The pilgrimages of the Christians to the Holy Sepulchre, 
where St. Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, had built a vault 
for the Sepulchre and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, were inter- 
rupted after the Fatimites, and yet more after the Seljuks came to 
power ; ill-treatment of the pilgrims. 

The hermit Peter of Amiens demanded of the Pope Urban II. 
(1088-1099) assistance in freeing the holy plaees, and preached the 
Crusade in Italy (?) and France.^ Councils of the church at Pia- 
cenza and Clermont in Auvergne (1095). Address by the Pope ; uni- 
versal enthusiasm. (// is the will of God !) 

Tlie undisciplined bands led by Peter, by the French knight Walter 
of Pacy, and his nephew Walter Senzaveir (the Penniless), and others, 
were for the most part, annihilated in Hungary and Bulgaria. 

1 V. Bybel Geach. des eraten KreuzzutjSj 1841, has shown on conclusive 
grounds that the idea of the Crusades originated principally with Pope Urban 
11. It has recently been made doubtful whether Peter of Amiens had been in 
the Holy Land at all before the first Crusade. 

214 Mediceval History, A. D. 

1096-1099. First Cnisade. Kingdom of Jerosalem. 

Leaders of the first Crusade : Godfrey of BouiUonj duke of 
lower Lothariug^ ; his hrothers, Baldwin and Eustach ; Roberty duke 
of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror ; Robert of Flanders ; 
Stephen of Blois ; Raymond I F., count of Toulouse ; Hugo of Ver- 
mandois, brother of Philip I., king of France ; Bohemond of Taren- 
tum, son of Robert Guisgard ; his nephew Tancred, They le<l 200,- 
000 or 300,000 warriors to the East. Bishop Adhemar of Puy, who 
was the first to take the Cross at Clermont, went with the expedition 
as papal legate (died 10d8). No king took part personally in tliis 

The princes went to Constantinople, where all except Raymond 
did feudal homage to the emperor, Alexius Comnenus. Attack upon 
the territory of KUij Arslan, Sultan of leonium (or Romn). 

1097. NicoM surrendered to the Grecian emperor after a siege of 
June, several weeks* duration. Victory of the Crusaders at Dory- 
July 1. loBwn over the Sultan Kilij Arslan, Baldwin^ separated 

from the main army, crossed the Euphrates, and conquered 
a principality for himself in Edessa. 
1097-1008. The main army besieged Antiochia on the Orontes for 
nine months in vain, but finally the city was betrayed to 
Bokemund of Tarentum by the Armenian renegade, Firuz 

1098. (Pyrrhus). Kerboga^ the powerful Emir of Mossid, besieged 
the Crusaders, exhausted through sickness and want, in An- 
tioch, with an immense army. Victorious sally of the Chris- 
tians (the holy lance !) ; the Scljuk army defeated and scat- 
tered. Long rest of the Crusaders in Antioch and quarrels 
among them. 

1099. Expedition along the coast toward Jerusalem. Unsuccessful 
siege of the fortress of Areas. In May they advanced be- 
yond Cnssarea. On the 6th of June the Crusaders, now numbering 
but 21,500 effective men, beheld the Holy City, wliich the Falhnites 
had reconquered from the Seljuks in 1098. After a live weeks' siege, 

1099* Storm of Jerusalem. 

July 15. Terrible massacre ; pilgrimage to the Church of the 

Establishment of a feudal kingdom of Jerusalem, chiefly French, 
with vassal counties : Edessa, Antiochiaf and afterwards Tripolix 
(Assises du royaume de Jerusalem). Three chief o£Bcers : Senechal, 
Conndtable, Marshall. Two patriarchs, at Jerusalem and at Antiochia. 

Godfrey of BouiUon, Protector of the Holy Sepulchre, defeated the 
Sultan of Egypt at Ascalon or Gaza, Godfrey died 1100. His 
brother, Baldwin /., king of Jerusalem. Acre, Trioplis, Berytus 
(Beirut), Sidon, conquered with the aid of Pisa and Genoa. Baldwin 
I. (died 1118) was succeeded by Baldioin II, (died 1131), Fueco of 
Anjou (died 1143), under whom the kingdom of Jerusalem reached 
its greatest eJttcnt, Baldwin III. (died 1162), Amalric (died 1173), 
Baldwin IV, (died 1185), Baldwin V. (not of age, died 1186), Veit 
(^Guy) of Lusigiian. 

A. D. Crusades. 215 

1147-1149. Second Crusade. Without result. 

Cause : Conquest of Edessa by Emadeddin ('Imad-ed-Deen) 
Zenki, Emir of Mossul (1144). Second conquest and destruction of 
the city by his son Naureddin (Noor-ed-Deen) (1146). Bernard^ ab- 
bot of Clairvaux, preached the Crusade. 

Conrad III. of Grermany and Louis VII. of France started for 
Palestine ; the form^ from Regensburg (Ratisbon^, the hitter from 
MetZj somewhat hiter. Both armies passed througn Hungary to Asia 
Minor i the German army, being; far in advance, entered Fhrygia, 
where it was almost annihilated by want and by the opposition of the 
Sultan of Iconium, but few regaining Niciea. With this scanty fol- 
lowing Conrad joined the expedition of the French army along the 
coo^, out returned from Ephesus to Constantinople, on account of 
ill health. Louis and the French nobility took ship from Pamphylia 
for Antiochia. The common soldiery continued oy land to (^ilicia, 
and were completely annihilated by hunger and the enemy. Conrad 
went from Cimstantinople to the Holy Land by sea (1148), and in 
conjunotioii with the l^renoh made an nnsuooessful attack on Da- 

1189-1192. Third Crusade. Conquest of Acre {St. Jean 
d'Acre), or Ptolemais. 

Cause : Capture of Yeit (Guy) of Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, 
at TibericLS on tlie sea of Genezareth. Conquest of Acre and Jerusa- 
lem by Saladln (Salah-ed-Deen) (1187), the founder of the dynasty 
of the Ayoubites in Egypt. H!e treated the Christians magnani- 

The emperor Frederic I., who in his youth had taken part in the 
second Crusade, undertook in his old age an expedition from Regens- 
burg (Ratisbon) in the spring of 1189, passed through Hungary, 
spent the winter in Adriauople, crossed (1190) to Asia Minor, con- 

?uered Icouium, and went to Cilicia, where he was drowned in the 
^alycadnus (Seleph). His son, Frederic of Swabia, led a part of 
the pilgrims, many having turned back, by way of Tarsus, Antiochia, 
and Tyrus to Accon ^Ptolemais, St. Jean d'Acre). He died (1191) 
during the siege of this city, which was conducted by the king Guy 
of Lusignan, who had gained his freedom. 

Richard the Iiion-Hearted (Coeur-de-Lian), king of England, 
but French ux nationality and language, and Philip II., Augustus 
(French Auguste, a title of respect which was given him later), kmg of 
France, went by sea to the Holy Land (1190), — Richard from Mar- 
seilles, Philip from Genoa ; pamcipation of Genoa^ Pisa^ and Venice. 
After a long stay in Sicily and many quarrels the two kingrs reached 
Acre, which Lusignan had already besieged for nearly two years. 
The city was now soon forced to surrender (July, HOI). 

Philip having quarrelled with Richard, returned to France (1191). 
Heroic deeds (and cruelty) of Richard, who, however, was twice 
obliged to turn back from before Jerusalem. Armistice with Saladin. 
The strip of coast from Joppa to Acre riven to the Christians ; pil- 
grimages to the holy places permitted. Richard gave Cyprus, wluch 

216 Mediaval History, A. d. 

he had conquered in 1191, as a fief to Veil (Guy) of Lusignan (au- 
tumn of 1192), who transferred his title of '* King of Jerusalem " to 
Henry of Champagne. 

Richard on his return suffered a shipwreck at Aquileia, was recog- 
nized in Vienna, detained "by Leopold, duke of Austria, at the com- 
mand of the emperor Henry VL, kept a prisoner by the emperor 
thirteen months in Trifels (near Annweiler in the county Palatine) 
and in Worms, and released only upon payment of a ransom and ren- 
dering homage.^ 

1202-1204. Fourth Crusade. Latin empire (1204-1261). 

At the instance of Pope Innocent III. (preaching by FuLco of 
Neuilly) a Crusade directed originally against Egypt was undertaken 
by powerful French barons, assisted by Baldwin, count of Flanders, and 
Boniface, marquis of Montf errat. The Crusaders undertook the siege 
of Zara in Dalmatia, which the king of Hungary liad seized, for the 
Venetians (Doge Henry Dandolo), partly in payment for transport. 
At the urgent request of Alexius, son of the Eastern emperor Isaac 
Angelus, who had been detlironed by his brother, a request strongly 
supported by Philip of Swabia, the Crusaders went to Constantinople 
with the Venetian fleet of 480 sail, captured the city, and replaced 
Alexius and his father on the tlirone (1203). The emperor was un- 
able to fulfill his compact with the Crusaders. (Union of the Greek 
Church with that of Rome ; large payments in money.) Contention, 
during which the city caught fire. Revolt of the Grreek populace. 
(Isaac died.) After the murder of Alexius by the Greeks, second 
capture of the city, pillage, new conflagration, wliich consumed many 
works of ancient literature. 

Establishment of the Zjatin empire (Baldioin, emperor) ; many 
coast districts and islands fell to the Venetians; the marqids of Mout- 
f errat became king of Thessalonica ; French dukes in Athens, Achaia, 
etc. ViUehardouin, historian of the expedition. 

Establishment of a Greek empire at Niccea by Theodore Lascaris, 
and a second, the empire of Trebizond on the coast of the Pontus Eu- 
xinus, by a descendant of the Conmenes. Michael PdUeologus, of the 
Nicsean empire, put an end to the Latin empire in 1261. 

1212. The children's Crusade. Thousands of German and French 
boys started for the Holy Laud. Many died on the way, many 
were sold into slavery. 
1217. Crusade of Andrew IL, king of Hungary, without result. 
1218-1221. Unsuccessful attack upon Egypt under John of Brienne, 
" king of Jerusalem." 

1228-1229. Fifth Crusade. Jerusalem regained for a 
short time. 
Frederic IL, emperor of the West, who was under the papal ban 

^ It Is probable that the story of the Austrian banner having been trodden in 
the filth at Acre bv Richard's command is not a fable (cf. Trceohe, Kaiser 
Hcinrich, YI. pp. 256, 658), but the imprisonment of Richard had doubtless 
higher political motives, and is sufficiently explained by the alliance of Richard 
with the Welfic party in Germany, see p. '223. 

A. D. Crusades, 217 

for not having fulfilled his promise of undertaking a Crusade, went to 
Acre by sea, and received Jerusalem (wliere he crowned himself), 
Nazarethf and a strip of land reaching to the coast, together with 
Sidorif from Sultan Kameel {El Kdmil), on condition of a ten years' 
armistice. Jerusalem was lost again, and finally, 1244. 

1248-1254. Sixth Crusade. Without result 

Louis IX., king of France (St. Louis), went to Cyprus and 
passed the winter there. In order to destroy the Saracen power in 
its stronghold of Egypt, he went in the spring of 1249 to DamieUa 
and captured the city. On the expedition which he undertook in 
November against Cairo, Louis was defeated by the Ayoubite Sultan 
Toordnshdh (Almoadan), cut off from Damietta, and caiptured with 
the entire French army (April, 1250). The execution or the treaty 
of peace, whereby the king was to be liberated on condition of evacu- 
ating Darmietta and paying a heavy ransom, was delayed by the over- 
throw of the Ayoubites by the Mamelukes. Louis coasted along 
Palestine, fortified Acre and other cities of the coast, in the course 
of a residence of almost four years, and returned to France in 1254. 
12C8. Antiochia lost to the Mohammedans. 

1270. Seventh Crusade. Without result 

Louis IX. went to Tunis, where he and the greater part of tho 

aimy were carried off by sickness. 
1291. Acre (Ptolemais) stormed by the Mamelukes ; the Christians 

abandoned their last possessions in Palestine {Tyre, Berytus, 

The Crusades were the greatest events of the Middle Age. In 
spite of the excesses and cruelties of many of the Crusaders they lend 
to the time to which they belong an ideal, a religious character. 

Results of the Crusades : 1. Increased power and authority of the 
Church and the Papacy. 2. Increase of the personal power of princes, 
owing to the reversion of many feudal holdings which became vacant. 
3. Blae of independent communities, who bought their freedom from 
their overlords who needed funds for the pilg^rimage. 4. Devel- 
opment of commerce. The Italian republics at theneightof their 
power. 5. Intellectual g^wth resulting from the new ideas brought 
back from the East ; especial advance in the knowledge of geography 
and natural history. 6. Perfection of the institution of knighthood 
(chivalry) ; the three 

Religions Orders of Knighthood. 

1. Knights of St. John, or Hospitalers; i. e. knights of the hospital 

of St. John in Jerusalem, founded by merchants from Amalfi, 
1018. The brotherhood was enlarged after the first Crusade 
{Gerhard), and converted into an onler of knighthood after the 
manner of the Templars {Raimund Dupuis), J^lack mantle, 
white cross. The order was transferred to Cyprus (1291), to 
Rhodes (1310), whence they were called Knights of Rhodes. 
Rhodes lost, 1522 ; in 1526 the order received a gift of Malta 
from the emperor Charles V., thence called Knights of Malta, 

2. Knights of the Temple or Templars (from the temj^ of Solomon, 

218 Mediceval History, a. d. 

on whose site stood the house of the order in Jerusalem), orig- 
inating in a union of nine French knights in 1118 {Hugo de 
Payens). White mantle, red cross. In 1291 the order was 
transferred to Cyprus; in 1312 dissolved by Pope Clement V. 
at the Council of Vienne. 
3. The Order of Teutonic Knights, originally brotherhood of the 
Grerman hospital founded in 1128 (?) in Jerusalem, raised to an 
order of knighthood by Frederic of Sioahia before Acre, duJ^- 
in^ the third Crusade. White mantle, black cross. Seat of the 
order at Acre, Under the grand mafrter Hermann of Salza 
a band of knights went to Prussia, then occupied by the heathen 
Wends, in 1226. Hermann of Balk, first Landmeister in Prus- 
sia, which was subjugated by bloody wars (1226-1283). In 
1291 the seat of the grand master was tranferred to Venice^ 
1309 to Afarienburg, 1457 to KOnigsberg. The land of the order 
was secularized in 1525. Those knights who remained Catho- 
lic maintained possession of the Grerman estates. Residence 
of the grand master at Mergentheim at Franconia. The or- 
der was dissolved in 1809. In all three orders, knights, priests^ 
brothers in service. 


1125-1137. Lothar of Saxony, 

supported by his son-in-law Henry the Proud, duke of Bavaria, 
of the house of Welf , whom he later appointed duke of Saxony as 
well, and Berthold, duke of Zahringen, Lothar fought (until 1135) 
against the two powerful Hohenstaufens, Frederic, duke of Swabia, 
and Conrad, nephew of the last emperor, Henry V. Their father was 
Frederic of Biiren and Stauf en, son-in-law of the emperor Henry lY . 
(p. 200). 
1132-1133. On his first Roman expedition Lothar was crowned by 

Pope Innocent IL, and accepted the allodial possessions of 

Matilda of Tuscany as a fief irom the Pope. 
1136-1137. On his second Roman expedition Lothar attacked the 

Norman Roger XL, who had assumed the title of king of the 
two Sicilies, and drove him for a short time to SicQy. On his return 
Lotliar died at Breiienwang in upper Bavaria (Dec. S-A, 1137). 

Under Lothar's i^ign German influence made great advances in 
the North and East. The Danish king Magnus recognized anew the 
overlordship of the Emperor ; Bohemia did feudal homage. The Wends 
were driven back, and in increasing numbers converted to Christianity. 
Hotstein given to Adolf, count of Schaumburg, the mar^ravate of -Afew- 
sen to Conrad of Wettin, the Nordmark or AMmark, at the mouth of the 
Havel and on the left bank of the Elbe, to Albert the Bear, of the 
house of BaUenstMt or Askania (1134), who had done Lothar im- 
portant service on the first Roman expedition. Albert crossed the 
Elbe and conquered almost the entire Mittehnark, which then received 
the name of Brandenburg, from its chief city. 

A. D^ Germany and Italy. 219 

1138-1254. House of Hohenstaufen (Staufer),^ so caJled 
from the castle of Staufen in Swabia. 

1138-1152. Conrad III., 

elected by the party opposed to the Saxon house, without par- 
ticipation of the Saxons and Bavarians. 
War of the Qhibellinea (Italian corruption of WaxbUngeny the 
name of a castle of the Hohcnstaufens) and the Welfs, or QueUiEi 
(cf . the genealogical table). 

Conrad put Menry the Proud under the ban, and gave Saxony to 
Albert the Bear, and" Bavaria to Leopold /F., markgraf of Austria. 

1139. During the changing fortunes of the war Henry the Proud 
died. The claims of his ten-year-old son Henry (afterwards 
called the Lion) to Saxony were maintained by the latter's 
mother and grandmother and their connection. Bavaria was 
claimed by Welf VL, brother of Henry the Proud. Welf ad- 
vanced to the relief of the city of Weinsberg, which Conrad 
besieged. In the 

1140. Battle * of Weinsberg Conrad conquered, and the city was com- 
pelled to surrender. (" The Faithful Wives of Weinsberg,** 
poem by Burger.) 

After the death of Leopold of Austria (Oct. 18, 1141), Bavaria 
fell to his brother, Henry Jasomirgott,^ who married Gertrude, Henry 
the Proud's widow (1142). Her son, Henry the Lion, received Saxony. 
Albert the Bear gave up his claim to Saxony ; the mark of Bran- 
denburg, which was a fief held directly from the emperor (Reichsun- 
mittelbar), and his other possessions, which his enemies had occupied, 
were restored to him. 

Conrad's Crusade (p. 215). Conrad, whose eldest son, Henry, who 
bad already been elected king, died before him, appointed as his suc- 
cessor not his second son, a minor, but his nephew, Frederic of Stoabia, 
who was unanimously elected by the princes. Conrad died Feb. 11, 
1152, at Bamberg. 

1152-1190. Frederic I., Barbarossa, 

one of the most heroic figures of the Middle Age. 

Diet at Merseburg. Frederic settled the disputed succession to the 
Danish crown. Suen became king of Denmark as a vassal of the 
empire (1152). 

Frederic's main object was to make good the imperial authority, 
and in particular to restore the imperisd rights in northern Italy, 
which luid become narrowed by neglect. Hence war with the power- 
ful republican cltiea of Lombardy. Six expeditions to Italy. 

1154-1155. First expedition. Frederic destroyed some small places 
which opposed him, and was crowned King of Italy in ravia, 

1 v. Baumer, Gesch. der Uohenstnufenu. ikrer Zeit; JnS4, Geseh. desd. R. 
vnter Konrnd III. ; Prntz, Geschichte Friedrichs I. 

2 Recent investipratore deny that the cry of llit, Wtlfl Hie Waiblingen ! was 
heard here for the first time. 

* So called from his favorite oath. 


Medicsval History, 

A. D. 












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A. D. Germany and Italy. 221 

and emperor at Rome by Hadrian IV., who had appealed to him for 
aid agauist the Romans. Arnold of Brescia, scholar of the schoolman 
Abelard, a popular preacher, who inveighed against the secular power 
of the clergy and possession of estates by the church, was condemned 
and burnt. 
1153. Convention of Constance between Frederic and the Papal See. 

1156. Henry the Lion received Bavaria again. Austria was sep- 
arated from Bavaria, and raised to a duchy, hereditary in the 
female as well as the male line. 

1157. Diet at Wiirzburg. Nearly all the states of the West did 

homage to the imperial power (Holy Roman Empire). In 
Besan^on the Burgundian nobles submitted again to the em- 
pire. The Bohemian duke Yladislav received from Fred- 
eric the royal crown. 
1158-1162. Second expedition to Italy. The Lombard cities, 
including Milan itself, submitted. At the diet on the Ron- 
calian Fields the rights of the emperor were defined as against the 
cities. Jurisdiction in the cities transferred from the consuls to an 
officer of the empire, the Podesta, Prohibition of the right of pri- 
vate war between the cities. The Milanese revolted. Quarrel be- 
tween the Pope and the emperor. Tedious war with Milan, wliich 
surrendered after a two years' siege. At the emperor's command 

1162. Milan "was destroyed by the inhabitants of the neighboring 

1159-1177. SchlBm in the Church. Alexander m. elected by 
the majority of the cardinals, Victor IV. by the minority 
(who favored the emperor), and recogfuized by the council 
which Frederic convened at Favia. Alliance between Alex- 
ander III. and the Lombard cities. 

1163. Third Expedition without an army. After the death of Victor 
III. (April, 1164), a new anti-pope, Paschal III., was elected 
by. the imperial party. New disturbances in Italy soon 
broke out. 

1166-1168. Fourth Expedition. Paschal III. conducted to Rome by 

1167. Lombard Leapcue between the cities of Lombardy {Cremona^ 
Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, and Ferrara) and the cities of the 
Veronese March (Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Trevvto), which had 
united in 1164. Union of Gruelfs with Ghibelins. They re- 
built Milan, built Alessandria (so called after their ally. 
Pope Alexander III.), and occupied the passes of the Alps. 
The emperor, whose army was almost annihilated by a 
plague which broke out in Rome, with difficulty escaped to 
In Germany a great feud had been raging since 1166 between 

Henry the Lion and his enemies, the archbishops of Magdeburg and 

Bremen, Albert the Bear, Otto of Meissen, etc. The emperor put 

an end to the strife at the Diet of Bamberg (1168). Henry the Lion 

undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (1172). 

1174-1177. Fifth Expedition. The emperor entered Lombardy 
over Mont Cenis. He besivgjd Alessandria in vain. Henry 

222 Mediaval History. a. d. 

the Lion deserted him and returned to Germany. The em- 
peror attacked the Lombards, but in spite of his heroic cour- 
age, at the 

1176. Battle of Legnano, was completely defeated. Negotiations 
and armistice with Alexander III. and the Lombard cities. 

1177. Reconciliation between the emperor and the Pope at Venice. 

1183. The definitive peace with the Lombard cities was concluded 
at Constance, The emperor renounced all regal privileges 
which he had hitherto claimed in the towns ; acknowledged 
the right of the confederated cities to levy armies, to fortify 
themselves, and to exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction. 
By the popular nomination the consuls acquired the rights of 
imperial vicars. The extension of the confederacy n>r the 
purpose of maintaining these rights was authorized. The 
citieB agreed to maintain all just rights of the emperor, a 
recognition of the overlordship of the emperor, which, how- 
ever, they were allowed to redeem by an annual payment- 

Henry the Lion humbled in Germany. After his neglect to appear 
at four diets, he was put under the ban of the empire and his fiefs 
declared forfeited (1180). He defended himself bravely and de- 
feated the archbishop of Cologne. Upon the approach of the em- 
peror Henry's vassals gradually deserted him. Henry threw himself 
at the emperor's feet in Erfurt (1181), but was allowed to retain his 
allodial estates only, Braunschweig {Brunswick) and Liineburg. Divis- 
ion of the old duchy of Saxony. Part of Westphalia was mven to 
the archbishopric of Cologne. Liibeck^ Hamburg, and Bremen oecBme 
in the course of time free cities, owing allegiance to the empire only. 
The archbishop of Magdeburg and Bremen, the bishops of Halber- 
stadtf Hildesheim, Liibeck^ etc., the counts of Holstein and Oldenburg, 
etc., became immediate vassals of the empire. 

Eastern Saxony and the ducal title were given to Bernard of As- 
kania, son of Albert the Bear. Otto of Wiitthhach received Bavaria. 
Henry the Lion was obliged to leave the country for three years. 
He went to the court of Henry II. of England, his father-in-law. 

1184. Brilliant court festival at Mainz. 

1184:-1186. Sixth expedition to Italy (peaceful). The emperor 
gave his son Henry, who was now twenty-one, but had long 

1186. been king elect of Germany, in marriage to Constance, 
daughter of Roger 11.^ aunt and heiress of William //., the 
last Norman king of Naples and Sicily. 

1190. Frederic's crusade and death (p. 215). His son, King Henry, 

whom he left behind as vicegerent, was obliged to take the 
field against Henry the Lion, who, upon the emperor's departure, had 
been sent out of the empire for another three years, but had since re- 
turned from England. The death of William II. of Sicily in Nov- 
ember, 1189, led Henry to come to an understanding with Henry the 
Lion. In the mean time came the news of the emperor's death. 

1190-1197. Henry VI., a highly educated statesman, but 
stern and relentless. 

1191. First expedition to Italy. Henry received the imperial crown at 

A. D. Germany atid Baly. 223 

Rome, after lie had abandoned Tuscnlnm, which had ever been 
true to his father, to the Romans. The city was destroyed ; Frascati 
^rew up near its site. Heniy went to Naples to rescue the inher- 
itance of his wife, Constance^ trom Tancred of Lecce^ whom the native 
party in Palermo had elected king. Unsuccessful siege of Naples 
for three months. Sickness in the army compelled the emperor to 
return to Germany. 

1192-1194. New war with Henry ike Lion, who had not kept the first 
treaty. The war ended in a compromise, the conclusion of 
which was assisted by the liberation of the brother-in-law of Henry 
the Lion, Richard Coeur-de-Lxon of England (p. 216), and by a 
marriage between Agnes, daughter of the emperor's uncle, Conrad, 
coimt ]^latine of the Rhine, with Henry, son of Henry the Lion. 
1101. Second expedition to Italy, where Tancred had died. War 
with his widow and his son William. The emperor subju- 
gated the kingdom of the two Sicilies, and punished with 
severity the participants in a conspiracy against himself. 
1194. Henry threatened with excommimication for withholding the 
estates of Matilda (p. 200) from the Pope. 

1196. Diet at Wurzhurg. Henry's plan of making Grermany (united 
with the Sicilies) an hereditary monarchy, on condition that 
all fiefs should become hereditary, even in the female line, 
failed in consequence of the resistance of the princes and the 
lesser nobility. 

1197. Third expedition to Italy. Henry suppressed a second con- 
spiracy with cruel severity. In the midst of his great plans 
(conauest of the Eastern Empire, Crusade), he died suddenly 
in Messina, thirty-two years old (28 Sept. 1197). Double 
election in Germany. 

1198-1208. Philip of Swabia, youngest son of Frederic 

1198-1215 (1218). Otto IV. of Brunswick, son of Henry 
the Lion. 

1198-1215. War for the crown between the house of Hohenstaufen 
and of Welf. Otto IV., recognized by Pope Innocent m^ 
was defeated by Philip and his power reduced almost to the limits of 
Brunswick. In the midst of preparations for a last and decisive 
combat Philip was assassinated at Bamberg by the count palatine 
OUo of Wittmbtu^. Otto IV . was universallv recognized and crowned 
at Rome by Innocent III. (1209), after having abandoned the estates 
of Matilda to the papal chair and made other concessions. He was 
soon involved in a quarrel with the Pope, however, and the latter put 
forward his ward Frederic, son of Henry VI., as anti-emperor (1212). 
Otto IV., in alliance with England, was defeated at Bouvines (near 
Lille) by Philip II. Augustus (1214), and returned to his own do- 
mains. Died at the Harzburg (May 10, 1218). 

1212-1260* Frederic II. also king of the two Sicilies, 

a prince of remarkable g^ts, but passionate, more Italian 
than German, having been born in Sicily ana educated by lus Italian 

224 MedicBval Hutory. A. D. 

mother. He was an enereetic opponent of the spiritnal supremacy, 
haying indeed but little likmg for the church ; in his hereditary estates 
he favored the Saracens. 
1215. Frederic went to Germany, was crowned German king in 

Aachen, where he promised to undertake a crusade, and 
1217. gave Swabia to his young son Henry , and 
1220. had him elected king of Rome (the title given to the Grer- 
man king elect). Frederic left Germany for fifteen years. Expe- 
dition to Rome. After renewing the promises which he had for- 
merly made to Pope Iimocent III. (feudal supremacy of the 
papal chair over his hereditary domain, wliich should never be united 
with Germany, crusade), he was cro^^iied by Honorius III. at Rome. 
1222. The emperor's son Henry y solenmly crowned^king at Aachen. 

His chief adviser and chancellor was Engelbertj archbishop of 

Colore (murdered 1225). 

1225. Frederic took as his second wife, lolanthe, daughter of John 
of Brienne, titulary king of Jerusalem. Promise of a crusade 

1226. Diet at Cremona ; quarrels with the Lombard cities. 

1227. The Crusade which nad been commenced was broken up by a 
contagious disease. The successor of Pope Honorius III., tho 
octogenarian Gregory IX,, placed the emperor under the ban. 

1227. Battle of Bomhdvede. The Danes, who under Waldemar 
IL had extended their power over the coasts of the Baltic, 
were decisively defeated. 

1228-1229. Crusade of Frederic II. (p. 216). 

1229. Frederic drove from his dominions the papal (key) troops, 
who had invaded them. 

1230. Peace with the Pope at S. Grermano. Removal of the ban. 
1230-1240. Legislation of Frederic in his Sicilian kingdom. 

Regulation of feudal relations. Representation of the cities. 
1234. Revolt cf the young king Henry f in alliance with the lower 

German nobility and the Lombard cities, against his father, sup- 
pressed by Frederic with the aid of the princes of the empire and the 
imperial cities. Henry submitted, was kept in strict coniinement, 
then sent to Italy, where he died, 1242. Reconciliation with the 
Wclfs. Erection of a new duchy, Brunstcick-Liineburgt for OUo the 
Child. Third marriage of the emperor at Worms with Isabella, 
sister of Henry III. of England. Diet at Mainz. Enactment of a 
public peace (jirst publication of a law in Grerman as well as in 

1236. Victorious campaign against the Lombards. In Germany 
Frederic the Warlike of Austria, a follower of the rebel Henry, 
deposed and put under the ban. 

1237. Frederic II. in Vienna, which was proclaimed an imperial 
city. Afterwards Frederic the Warlike received Austria and 
Styria again. 

1237. Diet at Speier. Election and coronation of Conrad, the sec- 
ond son of the emperor as German king. 
1237. Brilliant victory of Frederic over the Lombards at Corte- 
Nov. nnova. Frederic's obstinacy in pressing his demands too 

A. D. Germany and Jtafy. 225 

far, prevented the complete subjugation of Lombaidy. Interference 

of the Pope, who had claims on Sardinia, and was offended at the 

assumption by Frederic's natural son Enzio (an Italian corruption 

of Heinz), the husband of Adelisa, heiress of a part of the island, of 

the title of kina of Sardinia. 

1239-1260. War of Frederic II. with the Popes Gregory IX. and 
Innocent IV. 

1239. Frederic accused of heresy by Gregory and excommunicated 
anew. Ancona conquered by Enzio. 

1241. Naval victory of Enzio at Elba over the Genovese fleet which 
was conveying some ecclesiastics to the council at Rome. Death 
of Gregory. His successor, Innocent IV. (1243-1254), fled to 

Germany threatened with a Mongol invasion (p. 240). 
Innocent IV. called a council at 

1245. Lyons, renewed the ban against the emperor, formally de- 
posed him, summoned the German princes to a new election, 
and urged all subjects of the emperor to revolt. In Ger- 
many the spiritual princes elected 

1246-1247. Heinrich Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, who, though 
at first victorious, was defeated by Conrad, Frederic's son, 
at Ulm, and died (1247) at the Wartburg. The house of 
the landgraves of Thuringia ending with Heinrich Raspe, the 
eastern part of that state was jomed to the margravate of 
Meissen, while the western part became the Ituidgravate 

1247-1256. William of Holland, second anti-king, attained no 
authority in Germany. 

1248. Frederic, at first successful in Italy, was repulsed before 
Padua. His son Ensdo was captured by the Bolognese in the 

1249. Battle of Fossalta (died after an imprisonment of twenty-two 
years in a dungeon). 

Treason (?") of Peter of Vinea (Vineis), Frederic's chancellov. 

1250. Frederic cued in Fiorentino in the arms of his son Manfred 
(Dec. 19). He was succeeded by his son 

1250-1254. Conrad IV. (anti-king: WilUam of Holland) 
fought since 1252 for his hereditary realm only, in Italy. 

1256. WUliam of HoUand fell in battle with the Frisians (twenty- 
seven years old). 

1256-1273. Interregnmn in Qermcutiy. Club-law, Fans- 

Count Richard of Cornwall, younger son of King John (Lack- 
land) of England, elected by a part of the princes, and crowned at 
Aachen, was recognized along the Rhine only (died 1272). Alphonso 
X. of Castile, grandson of Philip of Hohenstaufen, son of Frederic 
Barbarossa, elected by the other princes, never came to Germany. 

In the kingdom of the two oiciHes the brave Manfred, son of 
Frederic II., was at first chancellor for the minor king Conradin, 
con of Conrad IV., afterwards (1258) king. Charles ofAnJou, brother 


226 MediiBval History. a. d. 

of Loiiis IX. of France, to whom the Pope gave the crown, defeated 
Manfred, who was betrayed by his barons, at Beneventum (1266), and 
made liimself king of Naples and Sicily. Man/red fell on the field. 

Conradin went to Italy with Frederic of Baden, also called Fred' 
eric of A ustria (being the son of the Babenberg heiress of Austria). 
He was defeated between Sciircola and Tagliacozzo on Z>ago di 
Celano (1268), and executed at Naples. 

1282. Sicilian vespers, so called because the conspiracy broke 
out on Easter Monday at vesper time. Slaughter of all the 
French in Sicily. John of Procida, Peter of Aragon, king of Sicily, 
Charles of Anjou limited to the kingdom of Naples. 

§ 3. FRANCE.1 

The royal domain of the Capetians was at first limited to the duchy 
of France {Isle de France and Orleanais). The great vassals, who 
were, in the begiiming, almost independent, were gradually reduced 
to submission in this and the following period. 

1060-1108. Phaip I. Quarrel with Gregory VII. First Crusade. 
A long reign, in which the king accomplished nothing. 

1108-1137. Louis VI., the Fat, an able and good king, who had, 
moreover, the good sense to avail himself of the talents of 
Sugar, abbot of St. Denis, whom he made minister. Perceptible 
growth of the royal power. Marriage of the king^s son, Louis ( VII.), 
with Eleanor, daughter of William of Aquitaine, heiress of Poiton, 
Ouyenne, and Gascoyne. 

1137-1180. Louis VII. Second Crusade (p. 215). Louis was a 
weak king, a favorite with the clergy, whose reign was less 
disastrous than might have been expected, because of the influence of 
Sugar, who administered the kingdom during Louis' absence in the 
East. After his return Louis obtained a divorce from Eleanor, who 
married Henry of Anjou, conveying to this prince, who soon became 
king of England, Poitou, Quyanne and Gascoyne, for which 
Henry did homage to Louis. In this transfer lay one germ of the 
hundred years' war. 

1180-1223. PhiUp U, Augustus, 

one of the ablest of the kings of France ; unscrupulous, cold, 
but of great political sagacity. (Tfird) Crusade with Richard Cceur^ 
de-Lion. After Philip's return in 1190 he attacked Normandy, but 
made little headway during the lifetime of Ricliard. (Erection of the 
Chateau GaiUard by Richiurd, on the Seine, above Rouen.) 

After Richard's death (1199) Philip took up the claims of Arthur^ 
son of Richai'd's brother Geoffrey, who had been passed over in Nor- 
mandy in favor of Richard's yoimger brother John, but he was hin- 
dered from prosecuting them by his quarrel with Innocent III. in 
relation to the divorce which Philip had secui-ed from his wife, 
Ingehorg of Denmark, in order that he might marry Agnes of Meran. 
Submission of Philip (1200). 

After the death of Arthur (1203) Philip moved upon Normandy 

1 Sltohin, Ifistoiy of France. 

A. D. France. 227 

anew. Bejection of the Pope's claim to arbitrate between the kings. 
The fall of the Chateau GaiUard was followed by the submission.of 
Normandy (1204). John having refused to obey the summons of 
Philip to appear for trial on account of the murder of Arthur, Philip 
declared his fiefs forfeited. 

Crusade against the AlbigenseSf Waidenses and Cathariy rationalist 
sects protected by Raymond^ count of Toulouse, and the viscount of 
Beziers and Carcassonne (1207-1244). Storm of Beziers (1207. " Slay 
all, Grod will know his own.'^). Conq[uest of the county of Toulouse 
by Simon of Montfort (1211-1215). Death »of Simon at the siege of 
revolted Toulouse (1217). 

War in Flanders with the feudal lords, supported by John of Eng- 
land and Otto of Grermany. Philip, assisted by ike cities^ victorious m 

1214. Battle of Bouvines : 

Aug. 29. Unsuccessful expedition of Philip's son Louis to England 

1223-1226. IiOuiB Vm. New crusade against the count of Tou- 
louse, whose lands had been declared forfeit. 

1229. Establishment of the Inquisition as a regular tribunal by Pope 
Gregory IX., inquisitors having existed since 1203 under In- 
nocent III. 

1226-1270. liOoiB IZ., St. Louis. 

During the kine^'s minority regency of his mother Blanche, who 
repressed a revolt of the barons. The war with the Albigenses ended 
by the extermination of the sect (1244). (Sixth) Crusade of St. Louis 
(p. 217). Blanche regent during his absence. Aft^r the king's re- 
turn, 1254, wise government. Surrender of Perigord, the Limousin 
and southern Saintonge to Henry of England, whereupon Henry re- 
nounced his claim to Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Touraine, Poitou, 
northern Saintonge. Prohibition of wager of battle. Limitation of 
feudal jurisdiction. Establishment of right of appeal to the king 
from the feudal courts in all cases. Tlie Pragmatic Sanction attrib- 
uted to St. Louis is probably a forgery, but Louis' attitude toward 
Rome was one of assertion of all re^d rights. 

During this reig^ the domain of the crown received the following 
additions : The part of the comity of Touloase between the RhOne, 
the sea and the ryrenees (1229), Chartres, Blois, Sancerre, ceded by 
Theobald of Champagne and Navarre (1234) ; Macon, by purchase 
(1239) ; Perche (1257); Aries, Forcalquier, Fdx and Cahors (1262^. 
Second (seventh) Cruaade and death of St Louis (1270). 


Mediievcd History. 

A. D. 





Charles the Bald. 

.SSthelwulf = (1) Judith, who 
837-858. j afterw&rda m. 

I (2) ^thelbald. (3)- 


Baldwin L 

». I ' I 

iEIfhelbald. ^thelbehrt. iESthelred u9E!lflred. 
858-860. 800-866. 866-871. 871-901. 


Badward 1 son, 2 dau. iElfthryth = 
the Elder. 901-925. 


I t 879. 
Baldwin I(. 
t 918. 


.SltheLatan. Eadmund. Eadred. 
925-940. 940-946. 946-955. 


Eadwiff. 955-959. 

Eadsar. 959-975. 

Rollo. Amulf I. 
I t 965. 

WiUiam j 

LongBWord. Baldwin (III.) 

t 962. 

the Fearless. 


Eadward the Martyr. iEthelred II.=s2 Emma. Richard 
975-978. 978-1016. the Good. 

1 I a 

Arnulf U. 
t 988. 

Baldwin IV. 

Earl of Mercia. 


Eadmund | | Eadward Robert Baldwin V. 

Ironsides. Harold. Eadgylh =^ the Confessor, the Magnificent f 1067. 
1066. 1042-1066. or the DevU. 



'William the Conqueror 
I 1066-1087. 

Eadgar ^Etheling. Margaret = Malcolm 

I king of Scots. 


king .of Scots. 


Robert 'William Ruf us. Henry L Aaela 
1087-1100. 1100-1135. m.Stephen 
MRtilrlft — :* c. of Blois. 

I I 

Matilda = Geoffrey of Anjon, Stephen 
Plantagenet 1135-1154. 

Henry n. 1154-1189. 

Henry. Biohard Geoflfrey. 
Cofiir-de-Lion. | 
1189-1199. Arthur, 
t 1203. 

John I>ack1and. 

Henry in. 1216-1272. 

A. D. England. . 229 

§ 4. ENGLAND. 

1066-1154. Norman kings.^ 

1066-1087. William L, the Conqu&rar, 

completed the subjection of the Anglo-Saxons, who were robbed 
of their estates and terribly ill-treated. Two nationalities and two 
languages existed for a long time side by side in England, English, or 
Anglo-Saxon, and French. The hing and the nobility were French 
Normans or Frenchmen. 

The submission of 1066 was partial, Mercia and Northumbria re- 
maining aloof. 

1068. Revolt in the north, incited and aided by a Danish fleet under 
Sweaen. Returning from Normandy William bought oif the 
Danes, ana crushed the insurgents by a masterly winter campaign. 
Northumberland ravaged with fire and sword. 

1071. Revolt of the English under Eadwin and Morkere, which ended 
with the defeat and death of Eadwin, and the capture of Ely 
in the fens where Morkere had taken refuge with the outlaw Here-' 

1075-76. Rebellion of the Norman barons in England easily crashed. 
Revolt of the conqueror's son Robert in Normandy (1077-1080). 
Imprisonment of William's brother, Odo, bishop of Bayeux, for trouble- 
some and intriguing conduct. A threatened invasion from Norway 
and Denmark averted, 1085. William met his death by accident 
while engaged in a struggle with Philip of France about the Vexin 
(Sept. 9, 1087). After the revolt of 

1071. the four large earldoms were abolished, and the shire became 
the largest political division. Sheriffs appointed by the king 
in each shire. WiUiam introduced feudalism in its continental 
form, placing Norman barons over the lands of the English nobility, 
who gradually sank to the position of a middle class. In 1086 the 
power of the barons was weakened by the exaction of an oath of 
fealty from all under tenants to the king direct. The same year 
saw the completion of the great survey whose results were inscribed 
in the Domesday Book, an inventory of all lands *'burthened 
with special dues to the crown." The lower local courts were pre- 
served, but their subordination to the king's court was strongly in- 
sisted on. 

William reformed and reorganized the English Church, assisted by 
Lanfrano, abbot of St. Stephen at Caen, whom he appointed arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Homage to the Pope, however, William ex- 
pressly refused to render. He kept the appointment of bishops in 
his own hands. No papal letter could be received, no papal synod 
held in England, no English bishop appeal to Rome without the king's 

1 Auerustin Thierry, Bistoire de la conquetedt VAngleterre. Qreen, Hit- 
tory of the English People, 

230 Mediteval History. A. D. 

1087-1 100. WiUiam H.. the Red, 

second son of William I. obtained the English crown, while 
Roberif the eldest sou, succeeded in Normandy. A revolt of the Nor- 
man barons in favor of Robert was suppressed by help of the English 
in 1090. Death of Lanfranc, 1089. Ascendency of RanuLf FlanSard. 
Extortions of William. Formation of the New Forest. 

1093. Anselm, abbot of Bee, appointed archbishop of Canterbury. 
He was soon involved in a quarrel with the king on the ques- 
tion of investitures and on other nuitters. In 1097 Anaelm appealed 
to Rome and left England. 

1097. Edgar, son of Margaret (sister of Eadgar AetheHng), ob- 
tained the Scottish crown, thus closing the civil war in Scotland 
between the Celtic and English parties. William was found dead in 
the New Forest, Aug. 2, 1100 (murdered ?). 

1100-1135. Henry L, Beauderc, 

on learning of the death of William II., hastened to England 
and secured the crown in spite of the opposition of those barons who 
pressed the claim of Robert of Normandy, then returning from the 
Crusade. Issue of a charter, wherein the exactions and abuses of 
William the Red were prohibited and the " Law of Edward the Con- 
fessor " restored. 

Henry married Matilda, daughter of Malcolm of Scotland, and 
Margaret, sister of Eadgar Aetheling. Recall of Anselm. 

1101. Invasion of Robert of Normandy, with the connivance of many 
of the Norman barons on both sides of the Channel, ended by 
treaty without a battie. Punishment of the rebel barons. Robert of 
Belesme, earl of Shrewsbury, driven from England. In 1104 Henry 
invaded Normandy. Robert was defeated at the 

1106. Battle of Tinchebrai and kept in captivity until his death 
(1134). Henry took possrssion of Normandy. 
Quarrel with Anselm in regard to investitures, ending, after the 
exile and return of Anselm, in a compromise (1106). Introduction 
of the Cistercians in England. Suppression of the great feudatories 
and substitution of a class of lesser nobles. Death of Henry's son 
WUliam by the sinking of the " White Ship " in the Channel (1120'). 
Marriage of Henry*s daughter MatlMa to Geoffrey, son of Fulk the 
Black, count of Anjou (112^). Nonnandy and Maine definitely se- 
cured by Henry. Henry died 1135. 

1135-1154. Stephen of Blois, 

son of Adela, daughter of William I., and the count of Blois, 
seized the crown in defiance of the rights of Matilda and her son 
Henry, and was elected at London principally by the citizens. Chaiv 
ter of Oxford (1136). (Second) mvasion of tiie Scots repulsed in 

1138. Battle of the Standard, 

at Cowton Moor in Yorkshire. Arrest of Roger of Salisbury 
and the bishop of Lincoln (1139). In the same year Matilda landed 

A. D. England. 231 

in England. Stephen defeated and captured at the battle of Lincoln 
(1141). Matilda was elected Lady of England by the clergy. Her 
severe and impolitic government soon alienated her followers. Fin- 
ally Stephen, having been exchanged, took up the war again, which 
went on with varying success until 1147 when Robert of Gloucester died 
and Matilda left England. In 1153 Henry of Anjou landed in Eng- 
land to make good his claim. Without a battle an understanding was 
reached and Ilenry was recognized as the heir of the crown (Treaty 
of Wallingford 1153). 

The rei^n of Stephen was one of the darkest periods in English 
history. Uis weakness, and the confusion of civil war had given 
the feudal nobles full liberty. Castles were erected in great num- 
bers throughout England, and each was the home of oppression and 
cruelty. Stephen died 1154. 

il54-1399. House of Anjou (Plantagenet)^ in the di- 
rect line. 

1154-1189. Henry H. 

Outside of England Henry possessed : 1. Nonnandy and the 
suzerainty over Bretagne, as the heir of the Norman kings. 2. 
Anjou and Maine, inherited from his father. 3. Poitou, Qnyenne 
and Qascogne, acquired by marriage with Eleanor of Aqiutaine 
(1152) ; in all more than half of France. 

The reign of Henry is the period of full amalgamation of the Eng- 
lish and the Normans. 

The accession of Henry (at 21 years of age) was welcomed as the 
beginning of a better time. Banishment of the mercenaries main- 
tained by Stephen. Demolition of the castles. Resumption and res- 
toration of estates, which was attended with difficulty, some of the 
new nobles requiring to be dislodged by force. 

1158. First Welsh war not successful. 

1162. Thomas Becket, the chancellor, made archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Ilcestablishment of the Exchequer, a bureau for assessing 

and collecting the taxes. Introduction of scutage, a commutation in 
money for personal service ift the army permitted to the lower ten- 

1163. Second Welsh war. 

As chancellor, Becket had been the king's servant and friend ; as 
archbishop, he became at once his opponent, resisting his wishes even 
in financial matters; an. opposition which seems to have led to the 
abolition of Danegeld (p. 205). Becket bitterly opposed the king's 
reform of the ecclesiastical law relatinc; to the punishment of eccle- 
siastics for criminal offenses. Henry demanded that after ecclesias- 
tical punishment had been administered the offender should be handed 
over to receive the punishment of the civil law. The wishes of the 
king in this respect and on other points involving church and state 
were formulated in the 

1 So called from the bit of broom {genet) which Geoffrey of Anjou, eon of king 
Fulk of Jerusalem (p. 230), was wont to wear in his helm. 

232 Medi(JBval Htstory, a. n. 

1164. ConstltationB of Clarendon. 

Tho jurisdiction of Heeiilar courts over clerical offenders was 
affirmed, appeal to Kome in such cases was proliibited, the election 
of bishops iu the presence of royal officers, and with the king's con- 
sent, was insisted on, as was the investiture of the bishop or abbot 
elect with his secular lauds by the king. At first Beckct accepted 
the constitutions ; but afterwards he withdrew liis acceptance and 
appealed to Rome. Brought to trial and condemned on some mat' 
ters comiected with his chancellorship, Becket fled to France. 

1165. Third Welsh war. 

1166. Aflfllge of Clarendon. Reestablishment olJFrank-piedge, 
or mutual responsibility of the inhabitants of a Tillage. In 

each shire criminals were to be presented by twelve men from the 
shire and four from each town (grand jnry) ; abolition of compurgation 
(proof of innocence by oath of neighbors) for which the ordeal or 
judgment of Grod was substituted. 

1170. Henry under threat of interdict was reconciled with Becket j 
who returned to England. He soon became embroiled with 

the king, and was murdered by four knights of Henry's court, in 
consequence of Henry's passionate outbretuc against him (December 
29, 1170). 

Establishment of itinerant or circuit judges. Court of appeal, 
afterwards the great and privy council. 

1171. Expedition of Henry to Ireland. A bull of Adrian IV, in 
1157 had given this country to Henry, but no use had been 

made of the authority until Dermod, king of Leinster, fled to Henry, 
did him homage, and sought aid in his wars. Aid was sent m 1160, 
and in 1171 Ilenry went in person. Richard of Clare (Strongbow), 
son-in-law of Dermoid made earl of Leinster. The southeastern part 
of Ireland submitted to Henry. 

1172. Penitence of Henry at Becket's tomb. His absolution. 

1173. Rebellion of Henry's eldest son Henrys and general league of 
French and English lords, Louis Vll, and William the Lion 

of Scotland against the king. Defeat of Louis. Capture of William 
who was released only after acknowledging Henry as his suzerain 
(1175). Death of Henry the younger, 1183. 
1181. Assize of arms. Restoration of militia service. 
1189. Conspiracy of Henry's sous, Richard and John, with Philip of 
France. Humiliation and death of Henry II. 

1189-1199. Richard I., Ccmir-de-Lion. 

His reign was passed almost entirely away from England. 
Crusade (p. 215). On his return Richard was captured by Leopold 
of Austria, delivered to the emperor, and detAUied thirteen months in 
captivity, being released at last for a heavy ransom. During his 
absence Eleanor^ his mother, was regent. Persecution of the Jews. 
The intrigues of Philip of France and the king's brother John 
resulted in war in England, which was quickly suppressed after the 
return of Richard (1194). For the rest of his reign Ricliard was in 
France at war with Philip. Erection of the Chateau OailJftrd on the 
Seine. Death of Richard before the castle of C nliAS-Chabrol (1199). 

A. D. ' England. 233 

During his absence England was governed by Hubert Walter, and 
after his resignation in consequence of a refusal of money by the 
great council, by Geoffrey Fitz Peter. 

1199-1216. John Lackland. 

John was recognized in England without opposition and secured 
Normandy, but Anjou, Maine and Touraine acknowledged the claim 
of Arthur son of Geoffrey. 
1203. Death of Arthur while in John's power. Philip at once secured 

the sentence of John and the forfeiture of his fiefs. Nor- 
mandy, Anjou, Maine, Touraine and a part of Aquitaine were at once 
lost to John. Henceforward John was restricted to his English king- 
dom. The death of Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury (1205) 
was followed by a disputed election. A reference to Rome resulted 
in the election of Stephen Langton by command of Innocent III. 
(1207). John refused to receive him and the kingdom was visited 
with an interdict (1208). Moved by fear of deposition, John finally 
yielded, received Langton, and accepted his kingdom aa a fief of 
the papacy (1213). 

John's exactions and misgovemment had embroiled him with the 
barons since 1199. Refusal of the barons to follow John to France 

1214. Defeat of John at Bonvines in Flanders (p. 227). On John's 
return negotiations were opened with the barons, but failed, 

and the confederated lords occupied London. 

1215. Signature of Magna dharta by John at Runny- 
June 15. mede. 

The provisions of this charter applied to the commons 
as well as to the nobles and clergy, and directed that its benefits 
should reach the lower tenants.^ Principal provisions : 1. Rati- 
fication of Henry's charter. 2. Security for personal free- 
dom ; no freeman should ** be taken, imprisoned or 
damaged in person or estate, but by the judgment of 
his peers" or "by the law of the land" (Art. 39).^ 
3. Regulation of feudal dues and obligations. 4. Regulation of 
national taxation ; limitation of the aid (auxillum) which could 
be collected without the consent of the great council to the three 
ancient and well known cases (ransom of the lord ; knighting 
of his eldest son; marriage of his eldest daughter). 5. Speci- 
fication of members of the great council, and of the cases for 
which, and manner in w^hich it should be convened. 

The charter declared null and void by the Pope. Suspension of 
Langton. War soon broke out ; the French party among the barons, 
declaring the crown forfeited, bestowed it upon Louis, son of Philip 

1 Stubbs, Early PlanintjenetSf 149. 

3 Niillus liber homo capiatur vel imprisonetnr aut dissaisiatur ant utiaghetur 
aut exuletur aut aliqiin modo destruatar, nee i^uper eum ibimus nee super eum 
niittemus, nisi per legale judicium pariuin suorum vel per legem terre. 

234 Afediaval History. A. D. 

of France, who in 1216 o&me to England. Death of John (October 
19, 1216). 

1216-1272. Henry III., of Winchester, son of John. 

The death of John was fatal to the hopes of Lands, The 
English party which secured the coronation oi the nine-year old 
Henry, though small at first soon outnumbered the fVench. The de- 
feat of the French fleet of Thanet determined Louis to give up the 
contest and return to France. Regency of William Marshall (1216- 
1219). The Magna Charta was twice reissued in a modified form. 
After the death of William Marshall, England was governed by 
Peter des Roches, PandtUf, the papal le^te, Hubert de Burgh, the 
justiciary, and archbishop Langton, who had returned and soon super- 
seded PanduLf as legate (1221). Second coronation (1220). Third 
reissue of the charter (1223). Henry's personal government began 
in 1227, and soon involved the country m difficulties. Heavv taoBr 
tion necessitated by the demands of the Pope and by the foreign 
policy of the king. Fall of Hubert de Burgh (1232) ; of Peter des 
Roches (1234). Marriage of Henry to Eleanor of Provence (1236). 
Struggle over the money gprants in the great council, which hence- 
forward was called Parliament. Papal exactions of enormous sums 
of money. 

Of the French possessions of the Angevines Henry had retained 
only Aouftaine and Gascony. 

12oi3. Return of Simon of Montfort, earl of Leicester, son of 
Simon of Montfort, who had led the crusade against the Albi- 
genses, to England from the government of Gascony. Simon soon 
took a proiuijient part in the parliamentary struggle which now as- 
sumed formidable proportions. 

1258. Parliament of Oxford. The barons presented a list'of griev- 
ances, the Provisions of Oxford, the reforms demanded in 
which were to be carried out under a conmiission of twenty-four 
barons. Permanent council of fifteen barons to meet three times a 

1263. Outbreak of war between the king and the barons. Arbitra- 
tion of Louis IX. of France (1264). Provisions of Oxford 

annulled. This decision resulted in a renewal of the war. The king 
and his son Edward were defeated in the 

1264. Battle of Lewes. 

May 14. Treaty {Mise of Lewes) between the parties. Native coun- 
selors presented and a new council arranged by a parliar 
mcut in which four knights from each shire were added to the 
clergy and nobility. Council of Nine. 

1265. Parliament of Simon of Montfort, the first Parliament 
Jan. 20. to which representatives of the boroughs were called (yet 

tliis did not become a legal custom until in the next reign). 
Edward released. Arms were again taken up. In the 
1265. Battle of Evesham, 

Aug. 4. Earl Simon was defeated and fell on the field. Death of 
Henry (Nov. 16, 1272). 
In this reign the begging friars came to England. Revival of 

A. D. The North. 235 

Bcholasticism. Fame of Oxford. Roger Bacon, author of Opus 
Magnum^ "the encyclopaedia of the thirteenth century." Mathew 
Paris. Revival of Welsh literature. Mahinogion. Geoffrey of Mon^ 
mouth, Romances of Arthur, 

§ 6. THE NOBTH. 


The extinction of the direct line of Esiridsen (p. 208) was followed 
by a period of •onfusion and wars over the succession (^Erik Emun^ 
1134-1137, Erik Lamb, 1137-1147) untQ, 
1157-1182. Waldemar I., the Great, 

was elected to the throne. Subjugation of the Wendsy who 
had long harassed Denmark. Capture of Ancona on the island of 
RUgen. Suppression of a revolt in Skaania, caused by the severity of 
bishop Ahsalon, Waldemar's son 

1182-1202. KnutVI. 

was even more successful than his father, and refused to 
acknowledge the suzerainty of the emperor, Frederic Barbarossa, as 
Waldemar had done. Defeat of a naval expedition of the Wends, 
who received aid from the emperor, by bishop Ahsalon (1184) ; 
Hither Pammerania submitted, as did a part of Mecklenburg, Knut, 
" King of the Slavs." E:q)edition to Esihonia, War with the count 
of Hdstein and other Grerman princes. Conquest of Lilheck and Hamr 
burg. Capture of Adolf of Holstein, Quarrel with Philip Augtistus 
of France over his treatment of Ingebord (p. 226). Knut was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, 

1202-1241. Waldemar II., the Conqueror, 

the first portion of whose reign forms one of the most bril- 
liant epochs of Danish history. Adolf of Holstein released on condi- 
tion of ceding all Holstein to Waldemar, who granted it as a fief to 
Ilia nephew, Albert of Orlamund. Unsuccessful interference in Nor- 
way and Sweden. Conquest of Oesel and of a large part of Prussia, 
In return for his recognition of Frederic II, over his rivals as em- 
peror, Waldemar obtained 'a cession of all conquests in Germany, 
north of the Elbe and the Elde (Holstein, Lauenburg, part of Meck- 
lenburg). Expedition to Esthonia. The Danneborg, or national 
standard (1219). Waldemar's power fell more rapidly than it was 
acquired. In 1223 the king and his son were treachci-ously captured 
by Henry, count of Schwerin, and imprisoned in the castle of Danne- 
borg, in Hanover, for three years. Waldemar obtained his release by 
the payment of a heavy ransom, and the renimciation of all liis con- 
quests south of the Elbe, and in the Slavic countries. Holstein 
ceded to Adolf the Young (1225). This renunciation was annulled by 
the Pope, and Waldemar tried to regain Holstein, but was defeated 
in the battle of BornhcBved (1227). Tlic rest of his roign was 
passed for the most part in peace. He died in 1241. Of all his con- 

2oG Mediaval History, A. D. 

quests onl^ Rugen, some places in Mecklenburg, Pmssia, ISstho- 
nia, remained to Denmark. Waldemar*s code of laws. Waldemar 
was twice married : 1. Margrete of Bohemia, a well-beloved princess 
{Dagmar), 2. Bererigaria of Portugal, bj whom he had three sons 
who mounted the throne in succession. Waldemar committed the 
political blunder of dividing the kingdom among his sons so that the 
nominal king possessed only a small part of the monarchy ; Schleswig 
was conferred on Abel. This led to disputes, so that the following 
period was one of civil strife, wars of succession, murder, and exile 
of kings. Erik (1241-1S50). Abel (1250-1252). In this reign the 
towns began to send representatives to the council (^Danehqf). 
Christopher (1252-1259). War about Schleswig, thi king claiming 
that it had been g^nted to Abel as a personal fief, while the descen- 
dants of Abel declared that it was an hereditary lief. Conflict with 
the archbishop Jacob Erlandsen. Erik Glipping (1259-1286). Oc- 
cupation of Schleswig. Erik Menved (1286-1319). Regency of the 
queen mother. Miserable condition of Denmark. The larger part 
of the kingdom granted out to Danish and German nobles. Chris- 
topher II. (132(J^1334). The nobles and clergy extorted from the 
king certain capitulations, which materially weakened the power of 
the crown for 310 years. Confirmation of privileges of the clergy. 
No ecclesiastic could be tried in a secular court, neither could the 
tenants of ecclesiastical foundations. No bishop could be imprisoned 
without the consent of the Pope. The property and persons of the 
clergy were free from all taxation. The nobles could not be com- 
pelled to follow the king beyond the limits of the kingdom ; if they 
were captured in war the crown was obliged to ransom them within a 
year, or lose the right of holding them to military service. The king 
could declare war only with the consent of the nobles and clergy. 
No person could l^e imprisoned without having been tried and con- 
deimied in a local court and in the king's court, whence an appeal 
lay to the national Diet. Laws could be made, repealed, and amended, 
only upon the motion of the nobles in the annual Diet, and with the 
consent of the whole nation. Peasants must not be unjustly treated 
by the king's agents, nor compelled to carry the king's baggage be- 
yond their own township. Commerce should be free and not bur- 
dened with extraordinary dues. War with Geert, count of Holstein, 
who invaded the kingdom, and with the aid of discontented nobles 
drove Christopher from the kingdom. Election of Waldemar, duke of 
Schleswig ; soon after, Christopher, by great concessions, acquired the 
crown again. Eight years of anarchy (1332-1340). Skaania, Hal- 
land, Bleking attached themselves to Sweden. After the death of 
Geert, the youngest son of Christopher, 

1340-1375. Waldemar m., Attadag, 

was made king, and devoted liimself to acquiring, by pur- 
chase or by force, the alienated crown lands, in which he met with 
success. In 1359 Waldemar reg^ned Skaania, Halland, and 
Bleking from the Swedish king, Magnus Smek, and affianced his 
daughter Margaret to Hakon, son of the Swedish king. Denmark 
restored to her boundaries as they had been under Waldemar /. 

A. D. The North. 237 

This success was followed by a general war with Sweden, Mecklen- 
hurgy the Hanseatic League, etc., which iii spite of the sack of Copen- 
hagen ended disadvantageously for the Hanse towns, 13G3. In 13C8, 
however, the Hansa, in alliance with Ilolstein, Mecklenburg, and 
Sweden, began wiir again, and in 1370 obtained from the Danish es- 
tates a treaty which secured for them the most extensive commercial 
privileges. In 1372 Waldemar accepted this peace of Stralsund. In 
1375 Waldemar died. Passing over the claim of Albert, duke of 
Mecklenburg, the son of Waldemar's eldest daughter, the estates 
elected the son of his youngest daughter Olaf^ (1376-1387), then six 
years of age. In 1380 0^/ succeeded his father Hakon as king of 
Nor^'ay, and both lands were well governed by his mother Margaret, 
the regent, who, after Olaf^s death, 1387, was elected queen in both 
countries. In 1388, Sweden revolted against the king, Albert, and 
Margaret accepted an offer of the crown. In the battle of FalkcB- 
ping ^1389), Albert was defeated and captured. In 1397, the 
three kingdoms were united by the Union of Calmar. 



After the death of Stenkil (p. 208), the country was distracted by 
wars between the Svea and the Gauta, which lasted, with slight inter- 
ruptions, for two hundred years ; whereby the people suffered 
greatly, the free peasants disappeared, and a nobility of warriors 
arose which was exempt from taxation and possessed its own juris- 
diction. These nobles acquired supremacy in the Diet, and re- 
duced the power of the king to a shadow. Under Erik IX., the 
Saint (1150-1162), Christianity was introduced throughout the king- 
dom. Establishment of the archbishopric of Upsala (1163). The 
family of the Bonder, which began with Erik the Saint, became ex- 
tinct with Erik Eriksson Lcespe (1223-1250). Under this family the 
power of the clergy had so increased that in 1248 they were forbid- 
den to take the oath of allegiance to the king. At the same time 
celibacy was introduced. The Bonder djmasty was succeeded by that 
of the Folkunger, which came to the throne with Waldemar (1250- 
1275), son of Birger Jarl, who continued until his death (1266) the 
actuskl ruler of Sweden, as he had been under Erik Lcespe, Founda- 
tion of Stockholm (1255). Birger assigned his other sons large 
duchies in Sweden, thereby planting the seeds of future discord. In 
1275, Waldemar was imprisoned by his brother Magnus, duke of 
Sodermanland, and remained a captive until his death (1302). Mag- 
nus (1279-1200) proved a good ruler and left a prosperous kingdom 
to his son Birger (1290-1319). The regent Torkel governed wisely 
until his fall in 1306, when war broke out between Birger and his 
brothers Erik and Waldemar, In 1317 Birger made his brothers pris- 
oners and starved them to death. This caused a popular revolt 
which expelled Birger and placed on the throne the son of Erik, 
Magnus Smek (1320-1363). During the regency Norway fell to 
Magnus, through his maternal grandfather Hakon, and Skaania, 

238 Medieval History, A. d. 

Halland, and Bleklng, which belonged to Denmark^ but had been 

Sawned to Holstein, submitted to Magnus, who paid the mortgage, 
lagnus, after he became of age (1333) made a poor ruler, in 
1360, he surrendered Skaanla, Holland, Bleking to Waldemar 
Attadag of Denmark, and betrothed his son Hakou to Waldemar's 
daughter Margaret, In 1365 Albert of Mecklenburg was proclaimed 
king, and in the battle of Enkceping (1365) captured Magnus who was 
released in 1371 upon making renunciation of the crown of Sweden. 
Albert (1365-1388) was king in name only, the power beine in the 
hands of the nobles. In 1388 the nobles deposed the king and offered 
the crown to Margaret of Norway and Denmark, by whom it was ae- 
cepted. At the battle of Falkasping Albert was made prisoner and, 
after an imprisonment of six years, renounced the crown. In 1397 
Sweden joined Norway and Denmark in the Union of Calmar. 



After the death of Magnus Barfod in Ireland (p. 209), liis three 
sons EjsteUf Sigurd, and Ola/, reigned in conjunction until the death 
of Ejsten and Olaf left Sigurd sole ruler. Sigurd made a pilgrim- 
age to Jerusalem. He was followed bv his son Magnus the Blind, 
who in 1134 was obliged to cede half the kingdom to Harald Gille, 
who came from Ireland and claimed to be a son of Magnus Barfod, 
There followed a wretched period of civil war ; strife between the 
Birkebeneme, or national party, and the Bagleme, or clerical party, in 
which the former finally got the upper hand. Magnus V* (1161— 
1184), Sverre (1177-1202), Hakon IV. (1202-1204), Guttorm the 
child (1204), Inge Baardsen (1201^1217). 
1217 (1223)-1262. Hakon V. 

son of Hakon IV,, grandson of Sverre. He crushed his rivals, 
weakened the power of the clergy, restored quiet to the country, and 
raised Norway once more to an influential position among European 
nations. Conquest of Iceland (1260) and submission of Greenland. 
Hakon died in 1262, after suffering a defeat at the hands of the Scots 
in an en>edition which he had undertaken against Scotland. He was 
followed by his son Magnus Lagabceter (1262-1280) who ceded the 
Isle of Man and the Hebrides to Scotland. Collection and publication 
of a new code of laws (1264-1279). Erik Priest-hater (1280-1299). 
War with Denmark over the dowry of his mother, Ingebord, War 
with the Hanse towns, wherein the king was worsted and obliged to 

frant the towns full privilegjes in Norway, and to join the league. 
>eath of Margaret (" The Maid of Norway "), daughter of Erik, 
and granddaughter on her mother's side of Alexander III. of Scot- 
land, while on her way to claim that crown after the latter's death. 
Hakon VII. (1299-1319). War with Sweden and Denmark. Dying 
without male issue, he left the crown to his daughter's son, Magnus, 
king of Sweden, who ascended the throne in 1320. In 1350 Magnus 
bestowed the crown of Norway on his son Hakon VIII. (1350-1380), 
who in 1362 became co-regent for Sweden. In 1363 Hakon married 

A. D. 

The North. 





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COM f* 





240 Medlceval History. A. d. 

Margaret the heiress of Denmark. Hakon was succeeded by his 
minor son Ola/ (1380-1387), whose mother Margaret administered 
the kingilom of Norway as she had done that of Denmark^ which Olaf 
had inlierited in 137G. After Olaf's death in 1387 Margaret (1387- 
1412) was recognized as (}ueen of both Norway and Denmark. The 
union of the two monarchies was completed by the Union of Calmar 
and endured until 1814. At the XTnion of Calmar (1397) Sweden 
was united with the two kingdoms. 


Arabic Spain was conquered from the Morahethes or Almoravides 
(p. 209) by the Almohades about the middle of the twelfth century. 
Since the defeat at Tolosa (1212) steady decline of the power of the 
Arabians, who since the reign of Alfonso X. of Castile were con- 
fined to the kingdom of Granada. 

1095. County of Portugal, between the Duero and MinhOf granted 
as a Castilian lief to the Burgundian count Henry y whose son 
liberated himself from the overlordship of Castile, and called him- 
self King of Portugal (1140). 

Aragon and Catalonia (county of Barcelona) united (1137). 
Leon and Castile separated again (1157) ; finally definitely 
united (1230). 

About 1150. Origin of the three orders of knighthood which took 
their names from the cities guarded by them : 1. San J ago di 
Compostella (Gallicia), 2. Alcantara (on the Tajo), 3. Calatrava (on 
the Guadiana. 

§ 7. THE EAST. 

Eastern Empire. 

1057-1185. Eastern emperors of the houses of the Ducaa and the 

1185-1204. Dynasty of AngeluB. 
1204r-1261. Latin empire (p. 216). 

The Mongols. 

1206. The Mongols elected on the Amur, Tetnuchin, their chief. He 
took the honorary title Jenghiz Eihan, under which, rather 
than under his true name, he is known in history. Tlie Mongols con- 
quered a part of China, destroyed the empire of the Chowaresmiansy 
which reached from India to the Caspian Sea, and subjugated south- 
em Prussia. 

Temuchin's grandson Batu made plundering expeditions through 
Russia, defeated the Poles and fought the 

1241. Battle of Wahlstatt, against the Germans under 

Henry the Pious, duke of Liegnitz. The Mongols, although 
victorious, retired to the East, and ravaged Hungary. A Christian 
army under Wenzel, king of Bohemia, cut them off from Austria. 

A. D. The East. 241 

The greater part of the Mongols went back to Asia, but Russia was 
under their sway till 1480. 

1258. The Mongols conquered Bagdad and destroyed the Caliphate, 
Their immense empire separated into Khanates, {China, Khan- 
ate of Kaptchak on the Volga, Jagatai in Turkestan, Iran^ 



The Afghan empire broke up after the death of Muhammad Ghari 
(p. 211), and the vicegerency of the Punjab and Hindustan became 
an independent sultanate under Kikah^vd-din, sultan of Delhi (1206- 
1210), who was originally a slave, and founded the slave dynasty 
(1206-1288). He extended the Mohammedan rule as far as the 
Brahma-putra. Under his successors the sultanate suffered from Mon- 
gol invasions. AUah^^ud-din, yiceroy oi Oude, who had made daring 
expeditions into the Deccan, murdered the sultan JdaL-ud-dtn, his 
uncle, and made himself sultan. Conquest of Gttzerat. Capture of 
Chitor in Rajputana (1300). Conquest of portions of the Deccan. 
After thedesXhoiAUah-^-din (1316) revolts occurred which were 
suppressed by the Turkish governor of the Punjab, Tughlak, who 
mounted the throne of Delhi, and founded a new line of sultans, who 
transferred their residence to Tughlakabad. Tuglaih was succeeded 
by his son Muhammad Tughlak (1325-1351), who was obliged to puiv 
chase the retreat of the Mongols from the Punjab. A terrible famine 
induced him to remove the population of Delhi to Deoghur, and the 
misery of those who survived the journey of 700 miles induced him 
to send them back again. Large issue of copper coinage, followed 
by financial panic. Rebellions broke out everywhere, and the Mo- 
hammedan empire separated into numerous small states. Firuz-Shdh 

1398. Invasion of Hindustan by Timiir Shah. AUahrud-dtn had ex- 
tended his power over a la^e part of the south, but the Hindu 
revolt of 1316 had shattered it. The southern part of the peninsula 
was coniprised in the Hindu empire of Vijayanagar (Narsinga), about 
1300. In 1350, on the death of Muhammad Tughlak, the Moham- 
medan army in the Deccan had set up a sultan of its own, whose 
capital was at Kulbarga. These Bahmaai sultans were soon in- 
volved in a series of horrible wars with the empire of Vijayanagar, 
The Bahmani empire endured until 1500, when it was broken up into 
five kingdoms. 



The Khitan Tatars having established themselves firmly in Leaour- 
tsung, Hwy-tanng (1101-1126) conceived the idea of inviting the 
Neu-che Tatars to take the field against them; they did so and ex- 
pelled the Khitan, but occupied the province themselves, and thence 
spread over Chili4i, Shen-^e, Shunr-se, and Ho-nan, Under Kaon- 


242 Mediaval History. A. D. 

txtmg (1127-1163) the Neu'Che Tatars^ or as thej now caUed them- 
selves, the Kins, reached to the Yana-tse-Keang, 

The new empire of the Kins inyited attack from the Mongol Tatan^ 
who experienced at this period a wonderful development of power. In 
1213 Jenghiz E^an invaded the Kin province of Leaou-tsung; ninety 
cities were razed to the ground. After the death of Jenghiz (1227) 
his son Ogdai (1227-1241) continued the work of conquest. 

1232. Fall of the Kin dynasty, brought about by an alliance of the 
Mongols with the independent kingdom of Sungy in the south. 
Man|^ (1248-1259), son of the warrior Too-le, was succeeded by 
his brother, 

1259-1294. Kublai Khan, 

Mongol emperor. The complete fall of Sung in 1280 left 
Kublai lord over all China, as well as ruler of almost all the rest of 
Asia, excepting Hindustan and Arabia. China was never more illus- 
trious or powerf uL "Visit of Marco Polo, the Venetian, to the court 
of Kublai. Unsuccessful attack upon Japan (1281, p. 243). 

The immediate successors of Kublai were men of little note: Yuen- 
eking (1294-1307), Woo-tung (1307-1311). Jin-tsung (1311-1320) 
endeavored to blend the two races, and admitted many Chinese to 
official positions. After his death matters went from bad to worse, 
until 8hun-te (1333-1368) was driven from the empire by Choo^ 
vuen-changf the son of a (jhinese laborer, who, in 136i8, proclaimed 
himself emperor under the name of 

1368-1398. Hong-woo, 

the founder of the Ming dynasty. Subjugation of Tatary. 



1156. The wars of Gen and Hei, which began in this year, are very 
famous in Japanese annals. In the first battle (1156) the 
Taira (Heishe) were victorious, under Kiyomori, and obtained control 
of the royal palace. Exiled from Kioto, the Minamoto (Genji), under 
the enterprismg brothers, Yoritomo and Yoshitsunej founded a power 
in the plain of the Koanto, with Kamakura as their capital. The death 
of Kiyomori (1181) was the signal for the downfall of the house of 
Hei. Kioto was captured by the Minamoto. The final struggle 
occurred in the 

1185. Naval battle of Dan no ttra, 

near Shimonoseki. The Taira were utterly defeated, many 
perished in the fight, and the family was exterminated throughout 
the islands, save a few who, escaping to Kiushiv, transmitted their 
name to the present day. 

Secure in victory, Yoritomo left the Mikado and the kug^ in Kioto 
undisturbed, while he strengthened his power at Kamakura. Five 
men of his family were appointed governors of provinces, an office 
previously filled only by civilians. A special tax was levied through- 
out the empire for the support of standing garrisons in all the prov- 

A. D. The East. 243 

inces, and these troops were under military mlers of his own race, 
who shared the government of the province with the civil governor, 
and were suhoidinate to Yoritomo himself. In 1192 Yoritomo was 
appointed Sei-i Tai Shoguriy or generalissimo. He was henceforward 
known as the Shogun. With &.e death of Yoritomo (1199) fell the 
power of the Minamoto. 

1200-1333. Supremacy of the family of Hojo, The founder of the 
Hoio ascendency was Tokimasa, father-in-law of Yoritomo, 
who exercised ahsolute control over the degenerate descendants of 
that able Sho?un. None of the Hojo ever held the ofBce of Shogun, 
but, vassals of a vassal, they ruled the Shogun and the Mikado as 
Yoritomo had ruled the Miluido alone. The line of Yoritomo ended 
in 1219, when the Shogunate was transferred to the Fujitvara, who 
held it until 1251, when their vassal-masters handed it over to one of 
the sons of the reigning Mikado, in whose family it remained until 

Since the co^iquest of China by the Mongol-Tatars, the victors had 
kept the subjugation of Japan steadily in view. Embassy after em- 
bassy had demanded submission and been repulsed ; the last, in 1279, 
was beheaded. 

1281. Invasion of Japam by the Mongol Tatars. 

Destruction of the arnuida by a typhoon; defeat and massacre 

of the survivors upon the island of Taka. 
By this repulse Hojo Tokimune won great praise; he was, indeed, a 
man of great capacity and good sense. After him, however, the Hojo 
grew more and more outrageous in their treatment of the Mikado 
until a revolt broke out, headed by Kitsunoki-Masashig^ and Nitta 
Yoshisada, which ended in the 

1333. Capture and destruction of Kamaknra, and the exter- 
mination of the Hojo family. 

For a time (1333-1336) the Mikado Go-Daigo (1319-1338) was 
monarch in fact as in name, but his weakness cost him his newly 
found authority. 

Ashikaga Takauji, one of the leaders in the revolt against the Hojo, 
revolted against his new master, seized Kioto, and set up a rival 
Mikado who appointed him Sei-i Tai Shogun, 

1336-1392. War of the Chrysanthemums, 

between the false Mikado at Kioto and the true Mikado at 
Yoshino, each displaying the imperial emblem, the chrysanthemum. 
Peace was concluded in 1392 under the condition that the imperial 
throne should be occupied by mikados taken alternately from the 
rival houses. The northern branch died out after a few generations. 
During this period (since the establishment of the Shogun at 
Kioto) feudalism reached its full development. The country was 
divided among the soldiers of the Shogun, who held their estates as 
fiefs from the Shoorim, to whom they owed service. Gradually the 
agricultural and ouier classes became attached to certain of these 
militaiy lords, daimios, and received their lands from them as fiefs. 
The taxes which supported the Mikado and the court were absorbed 
by the daimios, and the kuge was left to abject poverty. 

244 Media vol History. a., d. 



§ 1. GERMANY. 

1273-1347. Kings and Emperors of various houses. 

1273-1291. Rudolf I., count of Hapsburg and Cyburg, 

landgrave in Alsace, the most powerful prince in Helvetia, was 
elected by the three archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier and the 
count Palatine of the Rliine, through the influence of his cousin, the 
burggrave Frederic of HohenzoUem. 

Strict enforcement of the public peace. War with Ottocar, king 
of Bohemia, who had taken possession of Austria, after the extinction 
of the Babenberg line (1246), had reconquered Styria from the Hun- 
garians, and had inherited Carinthia and Camiola. Ottocar was put 
under the ban and his fiefs proclaimed forfeited. Rudolf took 
Vienna, and was on the point of crossing the Danube when Ottocar 
agreed to a treaty (Nov., 1276), whereby he abandoned Austria^ 
Styria, Carinlhia and Camiola, but received Bohemia and Moravia 
again as fiefs of the empire. Ottocar however soon renewed the 

1278. Victory of Rudolf on the Marohfeld (near 
Vienna). Death of Ottocar. Peace with the guardian of- his 
son Wenzel who received Bohemia and, later, Moravia. Development 
of the family power of the Hapsburgs. Austria, Styria, Carinthia, 
given as imperial fiefs to Rudolf *s sons, Albert and Rudolf. Carin- 
thia was given to Meinhard, count of Tyrol, Rudolf's brother-in-law. 
Campaigns of Rudolf in Burgundy and Swabia, particularly against 
Eherhard of Wiirtemberg, In bwabia since the fall of the Ilohen- 
staufens the most powerful princes were the counts of Wiirtem- 
berg, and the margraves of Baden. The ducal title in Swabia de- 
scended to Rudolrs son Ru4olf, and from him to his son John 
(Parricida), but this title designated only authority over the Haps- 
burg estates in Swabia. Formation of a great number of fiefs held 
immediately of the empire in Swabia. Through the exertions of the 
archbishop of Mainz, Rudolf's son Albert was not elected his succes- 
sor, but the choice fell on a relative of the archbishop. 

1292-1298. Adolf of Nassau, whose reign was devoted to 
the attempt to establish a dynastic power by the acquisition of 
Thuringia and Meissen (in opposition to the brothers Frederic ^ 
and Diezmann). Adolf was deposed at the Diet of Mainz, by 
the influence of his former patron, the archbishop of Mainz, 

1 The title **with the bitten cheek " appears to have been a later invention ; 
his contemporaries called this Frt-deric, son of Margaret, daughter of Frederic 
IL, by the surname ** the Peaceable." See Wegele, Fried, <Ur Friedigt, 1868. 

A. D. Germany, 245 

without the approval of the archbishops of Cologne and Trier 
and the count Palatine. He fell at Uollheim in personal con- 
flict with 

1298-1308. Albert I., of Austria, son of Rudolf I. who 
had been elected king by the opposing party. Alliance with 
Philip the Fair, king of France, against the Pope. Albert tried in 
vain to recover Holland as a vacant fief of the empire. Alliance of 
the three ecclesiastical electors and the count Palatine against the 
king, who was victorious (1301), and reduced the princes to obedience 
(siege of the castle of Bingen). Unsuccessful wars with Bohemia, 
and with Frederic and Diezmann of Meissen, who defeated the im- 
perial armv under the burggrave of Nuremberg at LuckOf not far from 

Albert was murdered by his nephew John (Parricida) between the 
Aar and Reuss, near the Hapsburg, His widow Elizabeth and his 
daughter Agnes took terrible vengeance for this murder. Through 
the influence of the archbishop of Trier the princes elected as king 
his brother 

1308-1313. Henry VII., count of Ltttzelnburg or Lux- 
emburg, a half-Frenchman. 

1309. The Swiss Cantons received from Henry VII. doc- 
June 3. umentary confirmation of their immediate feudal re- 
lation to the empire. 

Origin of the Swiss Confederacy. 

Of the inhabitants of the cantons, those dwelling in Schwyz seem to 
have been, for the most part,/r«6 peasants ; while in Uri and Unter- 
walden the majority were in a condition of servitude, as regarded 
either their persons or their estates. The most extensive landowners 
were monasteries (c. g. the Frauenmiinster in Ziirich), and nobles re- 
siding out of the country, like the counts of Lenzburg and those of 
Hapsburg. After the extinction of the former (1172), at any rate 
since the thirteenth century, the counts of Hapsburg exercised, under 
various legal titles as landgraves or advocates, full jurisdiction and 
presided in the assemblies. Under the imperfectly developed admin- 
istration of that time, the holder of these privileges was considered 
the actual ruler of the country. * 

As early as the first half of the thirteenth century the cantons had 
resisted the efforts of the Hapsburgers to develop their stewardship 
into an actual sovereignty over them ; indeed they had even attempted 
in part to withdraw themselves from tlie stewardsliip of the Haps- 
burgers. In IJWl Henry, regent for his father Frederic II. in Grer- 
many fp. 224), granted the people of Uri a charter which removed 
them from under the protection of the Hapsburgers and replaced 
them under that of the empire. In 1240 Frederic II. gave the peo- 
ple of Schwyz a charter which promised them an immediate tenure 
from the Empire. After the middle of the thirteenth century, 
the Hapsburgers were nevertheless still in possession of their office 

246 Medicsval History, A. D. 

of steward or advocate (^Vogt) for the cantons. Rudolf I. seems to 
have recognized the charter of Uri, but not that of Schtpyz. Imme- 
diately upon his death, on Aug. 1, 1291, the cantons Uri, Schtcyz, and 
Nidwalden (which was afterwards united with the towns of Obwalden 
under the name UrUerwalden) concluded a perpetual league. Al- 
though intended only to insure the maintenance of existing condi- 
tions, this league is to be regarded as the beginning of the Con- 
federacy. By making shrewd use of the confusion that followed in 
(xermany, but not without many changes of fortune (after the battle 
of Gdllheim (p. 245) the cantons were obliged to recognize the su- 
premacy of the Hai)sburgers), the confederates in 1309 attained the 
object for which their ancestors had striven. 

The Swiss narrative, to which the popular poetry has added many 
ornaments, and which condenses the facts of the gradual acquirement 
of an inunediate relation to the empire into a short space of time, 
and exaggerates their effects, can no longer be regarded as historical 
in view o? the results of modem investigation.^ It is first found in 
chronicles which were written between two and three hundred years 
after the events, and is often contradicted by the documents.^ Neither 
the Oath on the RiUli (1307, Werner Stauffacher, Walther Fiirsty Ar- 
nold Alelchthal), nor the expulsion of the bailiffs on the 1st of January 
1308, is historically authenticated. 

The Swiss confederacy was not formed by the exertions of three or of 
thirty individuals, but was the result of many historical events which 
united in powerfully assisting the energetic and enduring efforts of the 
inhabitants of the cantons to free themselves from sdl foreign su- 

As regards the story of Tell, it is now established that neither the 
shooting of the apple from the head of his son, nor the murder of the 
bailiff Gessler in the hollow way at Ktissnacht can be in any way re- 
garded as an liistorical event. It has been proved that among the 
Kiissnacht bailiffs of that time there was no Gessler. The legend of 
the shooting of the apple occurs five times outside of the cantons, 
agreeing almost to the wording of the answer which the archer gives 
the tyrant : in Norway, in Iceland, in Denmark, in Holstein, and on 
the middle Rhine, and, with an altered motive, a sixth time in Eng- 
land, Hence it is tolerably certain that we have here to do with a 
common Grermanic tradition. Moreover, the resemblance of the 
Swiss version to the elder narrative of Saxo Grammaticus (twelfth 
century) of the shot of Toko, tho Dane, who is said to have lived in 
the tenth century, is so striking as to render it probable that the Swiss 
chroniclers had that historian before them. 

Whether a man of the name of Tell ever lived in Uri is a question 
which cannot be answered with certainty either in the affirmative or 
tho negative.' It is one, moreover, which has but little interest when 

1 A. Huber: die Waldstdtte Uri, SchwyZj Unterwalden, ISQl ; and Bxydh' 
hola, Tell und Gessler in Sngt und Geschiche, 1877. 

* The honor of having first used this fact aftor a (rue scientific fashion to dis- 
prove the tradition belonjfs to the Swiss historian Kopp ( Urhmden zur Ge- 
arhichte der eidffendss^lschen Bunde, 1835 and 1857; Beichsyeschichte, 1845-1858). 

^ According to the i n vest ij^at ions of Kopp, who examined all the archives iu 
Uri, and Bochliols (p. 257, note), the latter is almost certainly the case. 

A. D. Germany, 247 

it is admitted that the main features of the legend are onhistorical. 
It is noteworthy that Tell, even in the legend, plays no part at all in 
the common insurrection, after the murder of the bailiff. It was not 
imtU laiter, when the Swiss had actually worked out their freedom, 
that his deed was invented, and surrounded by the halo of popular 
belief, his name made a symbol of Swiss energy and love of freedom. 
The Tell chapels and the memorial festivals are no proof that Tell was 
an historical personage, since the erection of the former and the estab- 
lishment of the latter can be shown to date from a time when the tradi- 
tion was already fully developed. The document concerning a public 
meeting of 1388, when more than a hundred people are said to have 
declar^ that they knew Tell, is evidently a later interpolation. 
1310. Henry's son, /oAn, was placed on the throne of Bohemia by 
the national assembly, in spite of the claims of the Hapsburg- 
ers, whereby the Liitzelnbur^rs acquired a family power. 
1310-1313. Henry's Roman expedition. He was crowned king of 
Italy in Pavia, and emperor in Rome (1312). 

1314-1347. Ludwig of Upper Bavaria at war with 

1314-1330. Frederic of Austria, son of Albert 

1315. Victory of the Swiss confederates in the pass between lake 
Nov. 15. Ageri and the mountain Morgarten over Leopold of Aus- 
tria, Aederic's brother. The flower of the Austrian chivalry 
(1500 in number) slaughtered. 

Dec. 9. Renewal of the league between Uri, Schwyz and Unteruxdden 
at Brunnen. 

1316. Recognition of the immediate dependence of the cantons 
upon the empire, by king Ludwig. During the fourteenth 

and fifteenth centuries the people generally bought off the ever 
diminishing rights of the landed monasteries. Rapid growth of the 
league of Qie confederates, which was joined by one after another of 
the remaining districts, who thus withdrew themselves from the control 
of the territorial lords. At the close of the fifteenth century Austria 
had been entirely driven out of the lands south of the Rhine. After 
1340 no imperial bailiff is mentioned in the cantons, which in conse- 
quence of the weakness of the imperial power soon became republics, 
so that the proclamation of the mdependence of Switzerland in the 
Peace of Westphalia (1648) was only the le^ recognition of a state 
of things which had long existed in fact. 

1322. Battle at Ampfing near Muhldorf Frederic of Austria de- 
feated and captured {Schioeppermann ; the story is probably 

1324. Ludwig gave the mark Brandenburg, which had reverted by 
the extinction of the Askanian line, to his son Ludwig, whom he 
afterwards married with Margaret MauUasch, the heiress of 
Tyrol and Carinthia. 

1325. Frederic set at liberty upon renouncing his claim to the throne. 
He surrendered himself again as prisoner, was made co-regent 
by Ludwig, died 1330. 

1327-1330. Ludwie's Roman expedition. Crowned emperor in Rome* 
(Anti-pope Nic?u)las V.) 

248 MedxiBval Hislory. a. d. 

The IDectoral meeting at Rense (1338) declared every legally 
elected German king to be thereby constituted Roman emperor, 
even without papal coronation. 

The violent means adopted by Ludwig to increase his domestic 
power led, a year befoi-e his death, to the election of Charles, son of 
John, king of Bohemia (f 1346 in the battle of Crecy), Charles was 
not universally recognized until after Ludwig's death. 

1347-1437. Emperors of the Luxemburg — Bohe- 
mian line. 

1347-1378. Charles IV. 

A prince with nothing knightly in his character, but wise in 
stateciaft, and shrewd in calculation ; a scholar (he studied at Paris 
and Bologna, spoke and wrote Bohemian, German, Latin, French, 
Italian). War with the Bavarian party. In opposition to Ludwig 
there appeared in Brandenburg the false Waldemar (1348-1350), who 
was assisted by Charles. 

The emperor's first care was his hereditanr kingdom, Bohemia 
(whence he was styled by Maximilian I., "^bohemia's father, the 
Holy Roman Empire's arch-step-father"). The emperor in 1348 
founded a university, after the pattern of that in Paris, at Prague, 
the first in Germany. The Bavarian party elected in opposition 

1349. Gkdnther of Bchwarzburg, king of Grermany, but he died in 
Jan. June of the same year (poisoned ?). 

Plague (Black Death) in Germany, and throughout nearly all 
Europe. Persecutions of the Jews. Flagellants. 
1353. Berne joined the Swiss confederacy which now included Uri, 
Schwyzy Untencalderty Lucerne, Zurich, GlaruSf Zug, and Beme^ 
the so-called eight old cantons. 

1354-1355. Charles's first expedition to Rome. He was crowned 
emperor at Rome with a humiliating ceremony. 
Silesia and Lower Lusatia (^Niederlausitz) united with Bohemia. 

1356. Golden Bull.^ Fundamental law of the empire. 

The election of the emperor was definitively intrusted to the 
seven electors, who had practically exercised this right for a long 
time ; ^ three ecclesiastics : 1. Archbishop of Mainz (arch-chancellor 
of Germany); 2. Archbishop of Trier (arch-chancellor of Italy); 
3. Archbishop of Cologne (arch-chancellor of Burgundy) ; four secu- 
lar : 4. King of Bohemia (arch-seneschal) ; 5. Count Palatine of the 
Rhine (arch-steward); 6. Duke of Sazon-'Wittenberg (arch-nuir- 
shall); 7. Margrave of Brandenburg (arch-chamberlain). Estab- 
lishment of the indivisibility and inalicnableness of the electoral 
states, which were made hereditary in the male line and received cer- 
tain regalia (privUegium de nan appellando, etc.). The electoral vote 
went with the land. 

I So called from the gold case which contained the seal. 

* The electoral vote had been disputed Iwtwoen the two Saxon lines and 
the two lines of Wittelsbach. It was now assigned to Sachsfn -Wittenberg and 
the County PaUuine^ but refaaed to Sachsefi-Lauenburg and Bacana. 

A. D. Germany, 24D 

1363. Austria acquired Tyrol, The heiress of Tyrol, Margaret 
MatUtasch, who outlived her husband, the Bavarian Ludwig, 
elector of Brandenburg (p. 247), and her only son, Meinhard, gave 
her county after the latter s death to duke Rudolf of Austria, 

1368. Second expedition of Charles to Italy in allianco with the Pope 
against the Visconti. 

1373. By the treaty of Furstentvalde, Otto the Finne Qazy), the last' 
Bavarian margrave of Brandenburg, transferred the mark to 
Charles IV., in return for an annuity. 

Leagues of the Cities. 

The Hanseatio League. The union of several seaports and trad- 
ing cities, between the Baltic and the Elbe, formed in the thirteenth 
century (between 1255 and 1262 ?), was the beginning of this league.^ 
Separate alliance between LUbeck and Hamburg. 

in the fourteenth century the league attained wide extent and 
great power. After this time the name Hansa (i. e. trade guild) was 
commonly applied to the league. Since 1350 over ninety cities ex- 
tending from the mouth of the Schelde to Esthonia, besides many 
inland cities (e. g. Magdeburg, Berlin Thorn), belonged to the Hansa, 
Object of the alliance : common defense, security of sea and land 
routes, settlement of disputes between members by arbitration, ao- 

2uirement and maintenance of trading privileges in foreign countries. 
Capital of the league : Ltlbeck. Division of the league into three, 
afterwards four, quarters : 1. Prussian and Livonianj principal town, 
Dantzig ; 2. Wendic, including also the cities of Mecklenburg, Pomn 
merania, and the Marches ; chief town, Lilbeckj 3. Saxon; chief town, 
Brunswick : 4. Westphalian ; chief town, Cologne, Principal trading 
ground, all northern Europe. Principal trading stations : Novgorod, 
Stockholm, Wisby (in Gothland), Bergen, Bruges, London. Ships of 
war {Orlogschiffe). 

1361. War with Waldemar lY., king of Denmark, under the conduct 
of the burghermaster of Liibeck, John Wittenborg, who captured 
and plundered Copenhagen, but was afterwards defeated before Hel- 
singborg, and, in consequence, beheaded at Liibeck* 

1367-1370. Second war with Waldemar IV. The king compelled to 
ily. Copenhagen, Helsingor, and other cities conquered. A 
glorious and advantageous peace for the Hansa, concluded at Strain 
sund, ended the war. 

The League of Rhine cities, founded about the middle of the 
thirteenth century (league of Worms and Mainz), to insure stricter 
enforcement of the public peace, comprised at various times more 
than seventy cities, not all upon the Rhine Te. g. Bremen, Regensburg, 
Nuremberg) ; both temporal and spiritual pnnces joined the league. 

The Swabian city league concluded in 1376, particularly as a de- 
fense against the counts of Wurtemberg. Eberhard the Greiner (i. e* 
Quarreler), also called Rauschebart. (Uhland's ballads.) 

^ Unions of German merchant!) in foreign countries under this name had long 
existed, the oldest being in London. 

250 MediiBval History, ▲. D. 

ABSooiatlonB of Nobles founded by members of the middle 
nobility, the imperial knights, particularly in Swabia, Franconia, and 
on the Rhine, to Tnamfftin their independence against the cities on the 
one hand and against the higher nobility, the princes of tlie empire, who 
were everywhere trying to acquire territorial sovereignty on the other. 
The princes of the empire were either spiritual (archbishops, three of 
whom were electors (p. 248), bishops f abbots), or secular (dukes, counts^ 
palatine, margraves, burggraves). The following associations of nobles 
deserve mention : the Martinsvogel (named after the day of their 
union), the SchUgler, the Lowenbund, 

1377. Beginning of the wars between the cities and the nobles. 
Battle of Reutlingen. Brilliant victory of the Swabian league 

(Ulm, the capital) over Ulrich, son of Eberhard. The Swabian league 
recognized by the emperor. 

1378. Death of Charles lY., after he had so divided his lands among 
his three sons that Wemel received Bohemia and Silesia (Lux- 
emburg fell to him afterwards also), Sigismund, the mark of Branden- 
burg, John, Lusatia. In Moravia two nephews of Charles, Prokop 
and Jobst, were margraves. The election to the German throne had 
already fallen upon 

1378-1400. Wenzel, Charles IV.'s oldest son. 

1381. The Suxibian league united with that of the Rhine, and after- 
wards entered into alliance with a part of the Swiss confed- 

1384. Wenzel proclaimed a new public peace, the so-called Heidel" 
herger Stallung (Stallung = preserve of game, etc.), for four 
years, which, however, was broken after the lung had returned to 

Leopold of Austria, who, in the division of Hapsburg estates had re- 
ceived the western lands, attacked the Swiss confederacy in alliance 
with the south German nobility. In the 

1386. Battle of Sempaoh {Arnold von WinUeried?)} he 
was defeated and lost his life. His second son, Leopold^ 
renewed the war and was defeated in the 

1388. Battle of N&fels, by the men of Glarus and Schwyz, The 

war with the cities broke out anew. Eberhard the Greiner 
defeated the Swabian cities at Ddffingen, where his son Ulrich 
fell. Rupert, count Palatine, defeated the Rhine towns at 
Worms, These victories restored the superiority of the 
princes over the cities. 

1389. New public peace for eight years proclaimed by Wenzel at 

the council of the princes at Eger. 
Wenzel, who was hated in Bohemia for his cruelty and indolence, 
and had been several times made a prisoner in civil quarrels, was de- 
posed by a section of the princes of the empire (1400). He died 
1419 as king of Bohemia. 

I See O. Kleifsner, die Quellen eur Sempacher Sehlackt und die Winkelried' 
sage, 1873. 

A. D. Germany, 251 

1400-1410. Rupert, Count Palatine, 

who was barely able to make the royal authority respected 
within his own party. 

1401. Unsuccessful expedition to Italy. The German army was de- 
feated at Brescia by John Galeazzo Viscontif whom W enzel had 
appointed hereditary duke of Milan (1395). 

1409. In consequence of the Hussite troubles (p. 252) in Prague' 
and a change in the university statutes, all Germans, profes- 
sors and students alike (5000 in number), left the uniyersity 
of league and went to Leipzig, where Frederic the Warlike of 
Meissen founded a uniyersity. 
The council of Pisa, convened to restore papal unity (Pope Gregory 

Xll.y against Pope Benedict XIII.), elected Alexander F. as a third 

Pope, not having been able to induce the former two to abdicate. 

1410-1437. Sigismund, broiher of Wenzel, 

in right of his wife, daughter of Ludwig the Great, king of 
Hungary, margrave of Brandenburg since the death of Charles IV. 
Sigismund was at first elected by the votes of Trier, the County 
Palatine, and Brandenburg, whose vote he himself cast through his 
plenipotentiary Frederic, burgarave of Nwreniberg. The other princes 
elected «/o6«^ of Moravia (f 1411^. By the skillful management of his 
plenipotentiary, and the recognition of the successor of Alexander V., 
John XXIII., Sigismund gained the votes of the opposition at a 
second election, went to Itafy, fought unsuccessfully with Venice and 
Milan, but induced Pope John XXIII., who was hard pressed by 
Naples, to summon an cecumenical council in German territory. 

1414-1418. Council of Constance (Kostnitz). 

At once a council of the empire and, in a certain way, a Euro- 
pean congress, visited by Italian, German, French, English, and after- 
wards by Spanish prelates (5 patriarchs, 33 cardinals, 200 arch- 
bishops and bishops), and by numerous princes with imposing trains, 
BO that at times there were as many as 80,000 strangers in the city. 

The council had three objects : 1. Suppression of heresy (causa 
Jidei). 2. Healing of the schism (causa unionis). 3. Reformation of 
the church (causa reformationis).^ 

The party of reform secured the adoption of the plan of voting 
by nations, Germans, French, English, Italian, having each one common 
vote. Pope John XXIII., who appeared in person, was first induced 
to public abdication, but afterwards escaped to SchafRiausen with the 
help of Frederic, duke of Austria, who oeing put under the ban was 
forced to submit. Upon the motion of Gerson, chancellor of the 
University of Paris, the council proclaimed its superiority over the 
Pope, but proceeded to take up the causa fidei next. Conaemnation 
of the doctrine of the Englishman Widif (1327-1384^ (opposition 
to confession, transubstantiation, and absolution), and the chief mis- 
sionary and developer of this doctrine, John Hus (a Bohemian of 
Czechish descent, bom at Hussinec, 1369 ; 1398, professor ; 1402, rec- 

l ^. fiiibler, die Kotutanzer Reformation^ 1867, 

252 Mediaval History, A. d. 

tor of the University of Prague ; since 1412 under the ban), who, re- 
lying upon a safe conduct from the emperor, had appeared in Con- 
stance. Hub burnt (July, 1415, his friend Hieronymus of Prague, 
1416). After the execution of Uus, the causa unionis was again t^en 
up. John XXII I , was deposed ; Gregory XII, abdicated voluntarily. 
Sigismund went to Spain to secure the abdication of Benedict XII L 
During the lone^ absence of the emperor, discussion of the causa tef" 
ormationis. After Sigismund's return (1417) Benedict XIII, was 
deposed by the council. 

It was now demanded by the party of reform that a thorough re- 
form of the church in all its parts should precede the election of a 
new Pope ; the Ultramontanes (i. e, the Italians), reinforced by the 
Spaniards as 9k fifth nation, succeeded in bringing about an immediate 
election, so that the reform fell through. Martin V. elected Pope, 
Nov. 1417 (although with the condition : de fienda reformatione post 
electionem), dissolved the council 1418, as an agreement coidd not be 
reached. The three concordats which were concluded with the Ger- 
mans, the English, and the Romans, brought about no real abolition 
of abuses. 

At Constance in 1415 Sigismund invested Frederic burggrave of 
Nuremberg with the mark Brandenburg, the electoral vote, and the 
office of archchamberlain, as It reward for the important services he 
had done him (especially at his election), and the empire. The cere- 
mony of investiture took place in 1417.^ 

1423. After the extinction of the Askanian house, Sigismund in- 
vested Frederic the Warlike, of the house of Wettin, margrave 
of Meissen, with the electoral duchy of Bazony (Witten* 

1419-1436. Hussite Wax. 

Terrible indignation of the Bohemians at the execution of 
Hus. His followers, the Hussites, also called Utraquists, because 
they demanded communion in both kinds, bread and vdne (^sub 
utraque specie), for the laity as well as for the clergy, attempted to 
spread their doctrine, which the council had rejected, by force. Re- 
volt in Prague. Ziska leader of the Hussites. After the death of king 
Wenzel (1419), Sigismund was heir to the Bohemian throne. He 
was crowned m Prague, but was soon obliged to leave the countrv. 
The imperial troops were driven back as they entered Bohemia 
(1421). Sigismund was disgracefully defeated (1422) at Deutsch-Brod, 
The Hussites ravaged the neighboring countries (skillful use of gun- 
powder and clumsy cannon ; ramparts of wagons). The coun- 
cil of Basel (1431-1449) concluded a treaty with the moderate Hus- 
sites (Calixtinians), (compact of Prague 1433^ ; the Taborites, whose 
leaders (the two Prokops) fell in battle, were aef eated and annihilated 
at Bohmxsch'Brod (1434). 
1420-1460. Epoch of the greatest power of the secret tribunals of 

Westphalia (Vehmgerichte). 

1 The mort^ajfing the mark for a sum of money waa onlv a form. There 
wfl8 no sa/c, only a "remunerative present." Cf. Riedel, (resch. c/m Prtuss. 
Konigshausit, it. 269. 

A. D. Germany. 253 

1438-1740. Emperors of the House of Hapsbiirg. 

1438-1439. Albert n., sou-iu-law of Sigismund, whom he succeded 
in Bohemia and Hungary as well, died after letuming from an 
ezx>6dition against the Turks. 

1440-1493. Frederic III. (IV.),^ cousin of Albert, 

the last emperor who was crowned in Rome (1452). He was 
powerless both in Germany and in his own lands, and involyed in war 
with his brothers. 

jEneas Silvius Piccdomini (when Pope, Pius IL), his advisor. 
Civil war in Switzerland ; Zurich allied with Austria ^1440-1446). 
The troops of Ziirich defeated by the confederates. Ziirich besieged. 
At the request of Frederic, Charles VII. of France sent the Dauphin 
(afterwards Louis XI.), with the unbridled bands of the Armagnacs, 
against Basel, to raise the siege of Zurich. Heroic death of 1600 
Confederates at Bt. Jacob (1444). Peace with France. Since 
their victory at Ragaz (1446) over the German troops, the Swiss con- 
federacy was practically independent. Native kings elected in Hun- 
gary and Bohemia (1457) whom Frederic was obliged to recog^ze. 

The reforms resolved upon in the Council of Basel (1431-1449) 
were abandoned by the Concordat of Vienna concluded with Pope 
Eugenius IV. (1446). 

About 1450 John Gutenberg ^ invented (at Mainz) the art of 
printing. {Jokann Fust, Peter Schoffer). 

Frederic, obliged to give up parts of the duchy of Austria to his 
brother and his cousin, besieged by them in Vienna, and released by 
George Podiebrad, king of Bohemia (1462). 

The marriage of Frederic's son, archduke MaximUiany with Mary, 
daughter and heiress of Charles the BaJd, duke of Burgundy (f 1477), 
caused several wars with France, and, after the death of Mary (1482), 
with the revolted Netherlands. Maximilian, however, succeeded m 
keeping the Burg^undian inheritance for his son by Mary, the arch- 
duke Philip. Only the duchy of Burgundy (la Bottrgogne, capital 
Dijon), fell to France. 

Frederic III., involved in a war with Matthias Corvinus, king of 
Hungary, was driven out of Austria and restored by MaximiHan (only 
after the death of Corvinus, 1490). Maximilian, after the extinction 
of a branch line, received Tyrol, which the house of Hapsburg had 
acquired in 1363 (p. 249), and at Frederic's death was in possession 
of all the Austrian lands. 

I If Frederic of Austria, opponent and co-regent of Iiudwlg of Bavaria^ be 
counted, he wm Frederic IV. 

3 His family name was Gensfleisch ; the name Gutenberg was that of his 
mother's patrician family. The claim brought forward in the Netherlands that 
Lorenz Jansson ( Coster)* in Haarlem was the true inventor of printing (1423) has 
been proved by Van der Iiinde to rest upon a forgery. His investigations 
assign Fust and especially Schdffer a much less important position than has 
been commonly attributed' to them. 

254 Mediaval Hittary, A. d. 

§ 2. FRANCE. 

1270-1285. PhiUp m., le Hardi, the Rash. A qiiiet reign whose 
troubles wei*e mostly from outside. Sicilian Vespers (p. 226}. 
Piiilip married his son, 
1286-1314. Philip IV., U Bel, the Fair, with Johanna, heiress of 
Systematic introduction and development of the CivU (Roman) 
Law. Increased importance of parliament, from which ecclesiastics 
were removed in 1287 ; in 1302 it was fixed at 'Paris. (Tlie French 
parliament was a oonrt, not a leglfllature). 

Agreement between Philip and Edward I,, of England, Edward 
renouncing his claims upon Normandy and receivine^ from Philip 
10,000 livres and a guarantee of non-forfeiture for uie rest of his 
French fiefs. 

1292-1298. Conflicts between English and Norman sailors ; sack of 
La Rochelle. Edward I, of England, summoned before the 
court of his suzerain, sent instead his brother, earl of I^iancas- 
ter, who surrendered Chdmne to Philip as security for a satis- 
factory arrangement. Philip, hereupon, declared Edward's 
fiefs forfeited, by reason of his non-ap[)earance. 
1294-1297. War between France and England, carried on in Gas- 
cony and in Flanders, Philip being successful in both fields. 
1299, June 19. Peace was concluded between France and England 
at MontreuU-sur-Mer, on the basis of present possession as re- 
garded territory. Marriage to Edward I. and Margaret, sister 
of Philip 1 V. (see below). 
1296-1304. Quarrel with Pope Boniface Yin. The strife origmated 
in the king's need of money, owing to the growing central- 
ization of government, which led him to tax ecclesiastical property. 
Bull, " Clericis laicott," forbidding the clergy to pay taxes to the secular 
government without consent of the Pope (1296). Philip replied by 
an ordinance prohibiting the exportation of money or valuables from 
the kingdom without the king's permission. From these extreme 
positions the princes gradually retreated until a reconciliation was 
patched up. As a private man the Pope became arbitrator between 
t^hilip ana Edtoard, and secured two thirds of Aquitaine to France, 
which was, however, again transferred to England by a marriage 
treaty, wherein Edward was betrothed to Philips sister Margaret, and 
his son, Edward (II.) to Philip's daughter isabeUe, Flanders an- 
nexed to France. 

The quarrel between the king and the Pope broke out afresh in 

1301. The bull " iluicuZto .;?/iV wherein the Pope asserted his su- 
premacy over all kings, was burned by Philip's order. Remonstrance 
of the estates of France with the Pope (1302). 

Revolt of Flanders. The French army of feudal barons was totally 
defeated by Flemish citizens in the 

1302. July 1. Battle of Courtrai (JDay of the Spurs). 

Four thousand gilt spurs were captured by the victors. So 
many fiefs were vacated that Philip saw the royal power considera- 
bly strengthened. 

A. D. France. 255 

Pablication of the decretal ""Unam Sanctam*' (Nov. 18, 1302) 
claiming the supremacy of the spiritual power over the temporal ; 
this was followed by a threat of excommunication. In France the 
last bull was seized, and violent measures taken against the Pope. On 
Sept. 7, 1303, Boniface VIII , was seized at Anagni by the king's 
adviser, Nogeret, and Sciarra Colonna, and treated with indignity. 
He was shortly released by a popular uprising, but finding Rome on 
his return in French hands, he fell ill and died. 

Philip recognized the independence of Flanders (1305 June 5). 

Benedict Xl, dying, after nine months Philip secured the election of 
a Frenchman as Clement V, Reconciliation of the church with the 

1309. Removal of the papal residence to Avignon (1309-1379). 
1307. Arrest of all Knights Templars in France. Trial of the knights 
on various charges of immorality and heretical doctrines and 
practices. By the free use of hearsay evidence and of torture, their 
condemnation was secured, and fifty-four were burned. Abolition of 
the order (1312) by the Pope. Execution of the g^rand master, 
Jacques de Molai, confiscation of the lands of the templars. Annexa- 
tion of Lyons, hitherto independent through the very number of her 
claimants, to France (1312). Death of Louis, Nov. 29, 1414. 
1314-1316. Louis X. le Hutiriy the Quurrelsome^ through his 
mother heir of Navarre. His uncle, Charles of Valois, was the 
true ruler. Execution of Philip's minister, De MarignL Serfs per- 
mitted to purchase their freedom. {Comme selon le droit de nature 
chacun doit naistre franc). Louis died June .5, 1316. His brother 

1316-1322. Philip V. le Long, the TaU, 

was appointed regent for the queen, who was with child. On 
the death of the queen's son, soon after birth, Philip proclaimed him- 
self king, and to put aside the claims of Jeanne, daughter of Louis X., 
he decreed that on the basis of ancient Prankish law,^ no female conld 
succeed to the throne of France (the Salio lavr). 

Excesses of the Pastoureaux suppressed by force. Attacks upon 
the lepers and the Jews. 

Acquisition of Douay, Orchies, Ryssel from Flaiiders. Philip died 
Jan. 3, 1322, and was succeeded by his brother, 

1322-1328. Charles IV., the Fair, 

Died January 31, 1328, without male issue. Jeanne, daughter 
of Louis X., received Navarre. La France, according to the Salic law, 


^ Lex Salisca^ tit. 42, 6. De terra vero talica in muUerem nulla portio transit, 
ted hoc virilis sexut acquirit. This applies strictly to allodial possessions, and 
not to fiefs or to the crown. 


Mediceval Htstory. 

A. D. 


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A. D. IVance. 257 

1328-1498 (1589). House of Valois, a yoonger line of 
the Capets, sacceeded. 

Iiouis VIII., 1223-1226. 

IiOUiB IX., St. Louis, Charles, count of Anjou and Provence, 

1226-1270. ancestor of the kiniEB of Naples. 


Philip m., le Hardi, Robert (6th son), count of Clermont, 
1270-1285. ancestor of the Bourbons. 

Philip IV., le Bel, Charles, count of Valois, Louis, count of Ev- 

1285-1314;. ancestor of the house olf reux. 
! Valois. I 

i I I I 

IiOulsX., Philip v., Charles rv., Isabelle | 

le Hutin. le Long. le Bel. m. Bd- Philip VI., 

1314-1316.1316-1322. 1322-1328 ward II. 1328-1350. 

I I of England. 

daughters, daughter. | 

Edward HI., John H., 

I I of England. le Bon, 

Jeanne, John, 1350-1364. 

queen of 1316. 

Kavarre. lived seven days. 

1328-1350. PhiUp VI., nephew of PhHip IV. 

Philip was the choice of the feudal barons, who had regained 
somewhat of their old power since the death of Philip the Fair, but 
his tyranny alienated his vassals, while his oppressive exactions ham- 
pered trade and deprived him of the hearty support of the cities. 
Quarrel with Edward m. of England, springing out of the claim of 
the English sovereign to the French crown through his mother, Isa- 
helle, daughter of Philip lY. (see the genealogy). Alliance with 
Scotland. Outbreak of the 

1339-1453. Hundred years War between France and 
England. (Fraissart 1337-1410 (?), chronicler of the war.) 

Naval victory of the English and their allies, the Flemish (Jacob 
van Artevelde), at Sluys (iftO). 

Contested succession in Brittany ; John de Moni/ort, one claimant, 
obtained the aid of Edward, and recognized him as king of France. 
(Heroism of Marguerite, countess of Montfort.) Landing of Edward 
in Normandy (1346). 

1346. Battle of Crecy, in Picardy. 

August 26. Victory of the English. Use of cannon (?). Death of 
the blind king, John of Bohemia, the father of Charles IV.i 

1347. Capture of Calais (story of the intercession of Queen PhU'ppa). 

1 Recent investigators reject the story that the (ifteen-year-old Prince of Wnlo'* 
(the Black Prince), took from the hchnet of the fallen king John, the devise 


258 Mediaval History, a. d. 

1347-1349. Black Death in France. 

Acquisition of Montpellier from James of Arragon, and of the 
Dauphine of Vienne from the last Dauphin, Humbert II. (who went 
into a monastery) by purchase. Vienne was given to Charles, son of 
John of Normandy, grandson of Philip. He took the title of Dauphin, 
and on his accession to the throne decreed that the Dauphine should 
never be united with the crown. Hence Dauphin became the title 
of the heir of the French crown; 

Origin of the practice of selling offices and titles. First imposition 
of the gabeUe, a tax in the form of control of all salt works by the gov- 
ernment. Death of Philip, Aug. 22, 1350 ; he was followed by his son, 

1350-1364. John n., le Bon. 

Feud with Charles the Bad, king of Navarre ; arrest and im- 
prisonment of Charles (1356). 

1356. Battle of Poitler (properly Mau^tuis). 

Sept. 19. Victory of the Black Pnnce with 10,000 men, over John 
with 50,000. Capture of John (a prisoner for four years). 
Meanwhile confusion reigned in France where the young Dau- 
phin, as regent, was unable to suppress the terrible civd con- 

1357-1358. Insurrection of the bourgeoisie of Paris, led by Etienne 
Marcel, the provost of the traders (prevot des marchands)^ 
who entered into treasonable connection with Charles the Body 
king of Navarre. Meeting of the estates; abolition of abuses. 
Truce with England for two years. Murder of the marshalls 
of Champagne and Normandy in the regent's presence, by order 
of Marcel. The government in the hands of Marcel and a com- 
mittee of thirty-six. 

1358. Peasant war, accompanied by horrible cruelties, known as the 
Jacquerie, under the lead of Guillaume CaiUet, called Jacques 
Bonhomme, which afterwards became the nickname for the 
lower class in general, in France. Murder of Marcel in Paris. 

1360. Peace of Bretigny (near Chartres), 

Edward received Poitou, Guienne, and Crasconge in full sover- 
eignty, but renounced his claim to the French crown, and re- 
nounced also all other fiefs in France. Release of John, for a 

1363. Burgundy occupied by John on the death of th^ queen and her 
sou by her former marriage, Philip, duke oi IJurgundy, pass- 
ing over the claim of Charles of Navarre. Tlie duchy was 
given to the king's son, Philipthe Bold, founder of the Burgun- 
dian branch line of Valois. ^y his marriage with the heiress 
of Flanders, the new duke laid the foundation of the power of 
the house of Burgundy in the Netherlands. Ketiim of John 
to captivity. He died April 8, 1364, and was followed by his 

1364r-1380. Charles V., le Sage, the Wise. 

In the war between Pedro, the Cruel, of Castile, and his brother, 
Henry of Trastavere, Charles favored the latter, while the former 

A. P. France. 259 

was allied with the Black Prince. Expelled by Bertrand du 
Guesclin, Pedro was restored by the Black Prince (Battle of 
Najara, 1367). In 1369 Pedro was killed in personal combat 
with his brother. Reform of the coinage in France. 
1369. Charles declared war on Edward. Du Ouesolin (1313-1380), 
constable of France (1370). Most of the English possessions 
in France were again united with the crown of France. Death' 
of the Black Prince ri376). Death of Chailes, Sept. 16, 1380. 
He was followed by his son, 

1380-1422. Charles VI., then eleven years old. 

Quarrels of his uncles, the dukes of Anjou, of Burgundy, of 
Bourbon, and of Berry. 
1386. Threatened invasion of England comes to naueht. Revolt in 
Ghent under Philip van Artevelde. Crushed by Charles (X)« 
Clisson, constable) at the battle of Roosebec (1382) ; slaughter 
of the Flemings. Death of van Artevelde. 
1392. Charles being seized with madness, the rep;ency was assumed by 
the dukes of Burgundy and Berry, settmg aside the duke of 
Orleans, the brother of the king. Civil strife between the 
parties of Burgundy and Orleans (Armagnacs *). 
1407. The duke of Orleans murdered by order of John, duke of Bur- 
gundy. Cabochians (from one Caboche, a butcher) in Paris, 
overtiwown by the Oneanists under the Dauphin. 
1415. Henry Y. of England, landing at Harfleur, besieged that city 
Oct. 15. in vain, but in the Battle of Azinoourt (Agincourt), he 
totally defeated a vastly superior French army. Capture 
of the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon. Death of the Dauphin, of the 
king's second son, John, and of the duke of Berry. The queen, Isa- 
beau, of Bavaria, took refuge with the duke of Burgundy. Massacre 
of the Armagnacs at Paris, 1418. Rouen captured by the English. 

John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, murdered at the bridge of 
Montereau by the followers of the Dauphin (Tanneguy, Duchdtel), 
John's son, Philip, hereupon concluded, with the consent of the queen, 
the Treaty of Troyes with the English (1420). Henry Y. married 
Catharbu, daughter of Charles VI., and became regent and heir of 
J^ ranee. 

Under John the Fearless (1371-1419) and his son, Philip the Good 
(1396-1467), the house of Burgundy reached the summit of its power. 
Philip made himself master of the inheritance of Jacqueline, daughter 
of William, count of Holland, although the emperor, Sigismund, had 
declared her lands to be vacant fiefs of the empire. Death of 
Henry V. of England (at Vincennes, Aug. 31, 1422), and of Charles 
VI. of France (Oct. 21, 1422). The latter was succeeded by his 

1422-1461. Charles VII., 

who, for the present, was recognized south of the Loire only ; 
in the north Henry VI., infant king of England, was acknowledged 

1 From Bernard, count of Armagnac, fathor-in-law of the duke of Orleans, 
who became head of the Orleaniata about 1410. 

260 MeduBval History, a. d. 

lord. Duke of Bedford^ regent in France, allied with the duke of 
Burgundy. Siege of Orleans (1428). 

1429. Jeanne d'Aro fmore properly, Dare), bom in Domremy, on 
the left bank of tne Meuse, convinced that she was chosen by 
Heaven to be the deliverer of France, succeeded in obtaining from the 
king permission to relieve Orleans, the accomplishment of which feat 
(April 2d-May 8) earned for her the name Maid of Orleans {La 
Pucelle). The English driven back. Charles YII. crowned at Rheims. 
Intri^es against Jeanne at the French court. Captured by the Bur- 
gundians at Compilgne (1430), she was delivered to the English, 
and, after a mock trial, condenmed for sorcery, and burnt in £>uen 

1435. The duke of Burgundy recognized Charles YII., on condition 
of receiving Auxerre, Macon, Peronne, Montdidier, and the 
towns on the Somme, and being released from feudal homage. Death 
of the duke of Bedford. 

1436-1449. Period of inaction, utilized by Charles VII., for the in- 
troduction of reforms : establislunent of a permanent tax to 
be levied by the king without the cooperation of the estates ; aboli- 
tion of the '* free companies," and institution of regular companies, 
the beginning of standing armies (ordinance of Orleans, 1439). 

1449-1461. Renewal of the war. After some fluctuations of fortune 
(Talbot in Guienne; his death, 1453) the English lost all 
their possessions in France except Calais. 

1453. FaU of Constantinople. End of the Eastern Empire. 
Introduction of Grecian scholars and Grecian writers into Eu- 
rope (p. 278). Death of Charles VII., July 22, 1461. He was 
succeeded by his son, 

1461-1483. Louis XI., 

who by his shrewdness and perfidy annihilated the power of 
the great barons and laid the foundation of absolute monarchy. 

Revocation of the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VII. (issued 
in 1438 by the council of Bourges : declaration of the rights of the 
GAllican church ; limitation of the power of the papacy m France ; 
appeals to Rome forbidden). 

1462. Acquisition of RoussUlon and Cerdagne by mortgage. Re- 
demption of Amiens, Abbeville and St Quentin from Bur- 

1464. League of the Public Weal (Ligue du Hen publique), a conspiracy 
of the dukes of Brittany , Bourbon, Lorraine, A tendon. Berry, 
and the count of Charolois. Battle of MontVMry. Louis broke up 
the league by the concessions of the treaty of Conjlans (restoration 
of the towns on the Somme, Normandy granted to the duke of 
Berry), the execution of which he evaded. Death of Philip of Bur- 
gundy ; accession of his son Charles the Bold (le Temeraire). Con- 
niet between the duke and the king. Meeting at Peronne (Oct. 1468). 
Storm of Li^ge. 

1476. Invasion of France by Edward IV. of England in alliance 
with Burgundy, Meeting at Pequigny (near Amiens) between 

A. D. 







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rs 9 r 


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262 Mediaval History » A. D. 

Louis and Edward. Betrothal of the Dauphin Charles to Edward's 
eldest daughter. Peace between France and Burgundy. 
War of Charles the Bold with the Swiss cantons. Defeat of the 
duke in the 

1476. Battle of Qranson, in the 
March 1. 

June 22. Battle of Murten, (morat) and in the 

1477. Battle of Nancy, where Charles was slain. 

Jan. 5. Tlie duchy of Burgundy united with the crown of France, as 
was likewise Anjou, Provence, and Maine through the extinction 
of the house of Anjou (14:80). Annexation of Aleru;on, Perches Guienne, 
during this reign. The king's servants : Olivier le Dain, Tristan 
VHermite. Death of Louis ^., Aug. 30, 1483. He was succeeded 
by liis son, 

1483-1498. Charles VIII. 

Death of the duke of Brittany (1488). The coalition of the 
emperor, Spain, and England to preserve the independence of the 
duchy bore no fruit. In 1491 Charles married Anne, daughter of 
the duke of Brittany. Peace of Senlis with the emperor (1493) ; 
peace of Etaples with England. Cession of Roussillon and Cerdagne 
to Spain. 

1495. Rapid conquest of the kingdom of Naples which Charles 
claimed by inheritance through his father from Charles, count 
of Maine and Provence (see the genealogy), which, however, he was 
soon forced to abandon ia consequence of a league between the Pope, 
the emperor, the duke of MHan, Venice, and Spain, 

§ 3. ITALY. 

Milan : since the time of the emperor Henry VII. (1308-1313) 
under the Visconti as imperial viceroys; since 1395 as dukes. 
After the extinction of the line of the Visconti (1447) Milan became 
for a short time a republic. The condittiere Francesco Sforza, hus- 
band of a daughter of the last Visconti, who served in the pay of 
Milan, soon seized the power and became duke of Milan (1450). 

Venice : since 697 one state under a doge (dux) ; from about 1000 
A. D., ruler of the Adriatic, increased in power and influence 
throughout the period of the crusades. Participation in the so-called 
fourth crusade (p. 216), under the doge Henry Dandolo, then ninety- 
four years of age. After the crusades and the war with Genoa, which 
lasted 125 years, Venice was mistress of the Mediterranean and the 
trade with the East, during the tliirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
Acquisition of Corfu 1387, of Cyprus by gift of Catharine Comoro, 
1498. The repubUc at the height of its power in the first half of the 
fifteenth century. Constitution strictly oligarchical. 1172. Establish- 
ment of the Great Council, with 450-500 members, followed by that 
of the Smail Council (Signoria), which limited the power of the doges 
still more. 1298. Closing of the Great Council, Golden book of the 
nobility (1315). Conspiracies — among others that of the doge 
Marino Faliero (executed in 1355) — led to the creation of the power- 
ful Council of Ten. Since 1454 the three terrible state inquisitars. 

▲. p. England. 263 

Genoa, since the reestablishment of the Greek empire in the East 
a powerful state, especiallj since the final victory over Pisa in Italy 
(Sardinia and Corsica^ ; weakened by the war with Venice and by 
civil disturbances in tne second half of the fifteenth century ; sal>- 
jected now to Milan^ now to Frcmce. 

In Florence, after long civil contests, democracy and tyranny 
having ruled the city in turn since 1282, the family of Me&oi ac- 
quired princely rank, about 1400, and brought the city to its highest 
point of power. Giovanni di Medici, a rich banker, founder of the 
power of his family. His son, Cosimo (Cosmus), the father of his 
country (died 14G4). Under hi^ grandson, Iiorenzo (died 1492), de- 
velopment of the arts in Florence. Renovation of the sciences, 
advanced by Grecian scholars, who had fled from the Eastern Empire 
before the Tnrks. Dante Alighieri, author of the *' Divine Comedy," 
bom 1265, at Florence, where he played an important part in the 
political complications, banished 1302, died at Ravenna, September 14, 
1321. Francesco Petrarca, the " father of the revival of learning " 
(1304-1374). Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), author of the « De- 

The Papal States, founded by the presents of Pipin and Charles 
the Great (p. 184) ; in the twelfth century increased by the bequest 
of the countess Matilda of Tuscauy (p. 200) and other acquisitions ; 
since Innocent III, completely independent of the empire. Pope 
Boniface VIIL (1294-1303) at variance with PhiHp I V. of France 
(p. 254). His successor, Clement V. (a Frenchnum), transferred 
the papal residence to Avie;non. Residence of the Popes at 

1309-1376. Avignon. (" Babylonish captivity.") 

At Rome the fantastic tribune Cola di Riemi (1347, papal 
senator 1354). Comtat Venaissin in the thirteenth century, Avignon 
in the fourteenth century, became the property of the papacy. 

From 1378 on there was one Pope at Rome, elected by the Italian 
cardinals, and one at Avignon, elected by the French cardinals, to 
which number the Council of Pisa (1409) added a third, until the 
Council of Constance restored the unity of the church (p. 251). 
(Great Sohism, 1378-1417). 

At Naples, the house of Anion : the elder line until 1282 (death of 
Queen Joan I.) ; the younger (purazzo) until 1435 (death of Joan II.). 
(See the genealog}', p. 261.) 
SlcUy, 1282-1295 united with Aragon; 1295-1409 under a branch 

of the house of Aragon ; after 1^09 again united with Aragon, 
whose king, Alphonso Y. (1416-1458), conquered Naples in 1435. 
After his death (1458), Naples, but not Sicily, descended to his natural 
son (Ferdinand I.) and his successors ( — 1501). 

§ 4. ENGLAND. 

1272-1307. Edward I., Longshanks. 

The great events of this reign were the annexation of Wales 
to England and the introduction of finanoial, legal, and legiBlatiTe 

264 Medicsval History. A. D. 

Edward was returning from the (seventh) Cmsade, when he heard 
of his accession at Capua. Devoting a year to Gascony, he reached 
England and was crowned in 1274. 

During the barons' wars Wales had become practically independ- 
ent, and Lle'welyn, prince of North Wales, refused even nominal 
submission to Edward until 

1276-1284. Conquest of Wales. 

1277. Edward led an army into Wales, and forced the prince to 
cede the coast district as far as Conway, and do homage for 
the rest. 

1282. Insurrection of Llewelyn and his brother David. After 
hard fighting, the death of Llewelyn (Dec, 1282) and the cap- 
ture of David (hanged, drawn, and quartered, Sept. 1283) led 
to the complete submission of the country. (No ''Massacre 
of the Bards.") 

1284. Annexation of Wales to England. After this the title 
" Prince of Wales " was generally given to the heir of the 

1289. Return of the king from a three years' absence in Grascony ; 
punishment of the oppressive judges. 

1290. Expulsion of the Jevra from England (over 16,000). 

1291. Death of the queen, Eleanor (daughter of Ferdinand III. of 
Castile). Erection of crosses along the route by which the body 
was carried from Lincolnshire to London ; those at Northamp-' 
ton and Waltham still exist. 

1292. Balliol, whom Edward had decided to be the rightful heir to 
the Scottish throne, did homage for the fief and became king 
of Scotland. 

After the death of Alexander III, of Scotland the crown passed to 
his granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway, to whom Edward 
had betrothed his son ; but she died on the voyage from Norway 
(1200), and thirteen claimants for the crown appeared. The Scottish 
estates being unable to decide between the two strongest claimants, 
Balliol and Bruce, referred the case to Edward. (See the gene- 

1293. Hostilities between English sailors from the Cinque Ports 
{Dover, Sandwich, Hastings, Hythe, Romney) ^ and French 

mariners resulted in a naval battle. Philip IV. of France summoned 
Edward to Paris to answer for the occurrence. As a step in the 
negotiations the fortresses of Guienne were temporarily placed in 
Phdip's hands, whereupon he declared Edward contumacious and his 
fiefs forfeited. 

1294. Rebellion of Modoc in Wales suppressed. 

1294. "War with France followed by war with Scotland, which 

joined France. 
1296. Capture of Berwick ; massacre of the inhabitants. Defeat 

1 These towns, to which WincMsen., Rye, and Sea/ord were afterwards added, 
poa!»eRsed peculiar privileges. They were under the care of the Warden of the 
Cinque Ports ; their representatives in Parliament were known as barons. The 
towns were fortified under William I. 

A. D. 



hi . 

5- w 




< * 

.J d 

I & 
g o 


266 MedicBVol JButory, a. d. 

of the Scots at Dunbar, Baliol resigned the crown and was 
imprisoned. Scotch coronation stone carried to London. Scot- 
laud under an English regent 

1297. Revolt of the Scots under Six William Wallace. Defeat 
of the regent « 

Edward's demauds for money from the clergy being refused (bull 

Clericis laicosy 1296), the recalcitrant clergy were placed under the 


In 1297 the king sununoned the barons to follow him to Flanders. 

The resistance of the lords ended with the acquiescence of the king 

in the 

1297. Be-issue of the Great Charter and the forest cliarter (Confir- 
matio chartarum) with additional articles, by which th» right 
of taxation without the consent of Parliament was renounced 

1298. Truce with France enabled Edward to invade Scotland. At 

July 22. Battle of Falkirk, 

the Scots under Wallace were completely defeated. Appeal 
to the Pope, who laid claim to the suzerainty over Scotland, — 
a claim which was rejected by the English lords in 1301. 
1303. Peace of Amiens with France. Edward had previously mar- 
ried Margarety sister of Philip IV., and betrothed his son Ed- 
ward to Philip's daughter Isabella. Invasion of Scotland. 
Submission of Bruce and Comyn. 

1305. Execution of Wallace, who had been betrayed to the English. 

1306. Opposing claims of Bruoe and Comyn; murder of Comyn, 
coronation of Robert Bruoe (March 27). 

1307. July 7. Death of Edward I., on his way to Scotland. 

Legal and Ztegialatlve reforms under Bdward. 

1275. First statute of Westminster : a codification of previous stat- 
utes. Grant of a regular tax on exported wool, and of a fif- 
teenth of movable property. These forms of taxation, the in- 
direct customs duties, and the taxation of personal estate were 
intended to supplement the older land tax, which they grad- 
ually sm^Missed in importance. 
Separation of the old king's court into three tribunals : Court 
of Bzchequer, for cases where the royal revenue was in- 
volved ; Court of Eling'a Benoh, with jurisdiction in all 
matters concerning the sovereign, and in criminal cases espe- 
cially reserved fornis decision (" pleas of the crown ") ; Court 
of Common Pleas, for cases between private individuals. 
Development of the jurisdietiqnof: 1. the royal council (later the 
** Star Chamber ") ; 2. of the Chancellor, in cases where relief 
could not be obtained by the ordinary or '* common " law. 
This higher jurisdiction emanating directly from the sovereign 
was known as equity. 

1279. Statute of Mortmain (de religiosis)^ forbidding the aliena- 
tion of land to religious bodies (whereby it became free from 
feudal dues) without the permission of the king. 

A. D. England. 2C7 

1285. Statute of Winchester, regulating the militia and the pre> 
servation of public order. Conservators of the Peace (later 
called Justices of the Peace) appointed in every shire to execute 
the provisions of the statute. Second Statute of Westminster^ 
am^ding the Statute of Mortmain. 

1290. Third Statute of Westminster {Quia emptores), providing that 
when land was alienated the sub-tenant should hold directly of 
the overlord, and not of the tenant. 

1295. Summons of the first perfect Pcurliament ; clergy, 
barons summoned severally by special writ ; commons sum- 
moned by writ to the sherilEs directing the election of two 
knights from each shire, two citizens from each city, two 
burghers from each borough. 

1297. De Tallagio non Concedondo, prohibiting the imposition of 
taxation without the consent of Parliament. 

1307-1327. Edward IL, 

fourth son of Edward I. Peace with Scotland ; Aymer de 
Valence, governor. Recall of the king's favorite. Piers Gaueston, a 
Grascon, who had been banished by Edward I. Marriage of Ed- 
ward II. with Isabella of France. Gaveston soon incurred the hatred 
of the barons, and he was banished (1308), soon, however, to be re- 

1310. Govermnent entrusted to twenty-one ordainers. 

1311. Ordinances of the Parliament of 1311 presented by the 
ordainers. Reform of abuses ; punishment of favorites ; ap- 
pointment of great officers by and with the consent and approval 
of the barons ; consent of the barons necessary for declaration 
of war ; parliaments to be called every year. Execution of 
Gaveston (1312). 

The successes of Bruce in Scotland (capture of Linlithgow, 1311; 
Perth, 1312 ; Edinburgh, 1313 ; siege of Stirling, 1314) produced a 
temporary rec-onciliation between the king and the barons. Edward 
marched to Scotland with 100,000 men, and in the 

1314. Battle of Bannockbum, 

June 24. was totally defeated by 30,000 foot-soldiers under Robert 

The king's new favorites, the two Despensers, father and son, were 
as displeasing to the nobility as Gaveston had been ; in 1321 Parlia^ 
ment decreed the exile of the favorites. Edward showed unexpected 
energy ; at the battle of Boroughbridge, the earl of Lancaster, the 
leader of the barons, was defeated and captured (executed March, 
1322). Repeal of the ordinances of 1311. After an unsuccessful 
invasion of Scotland, 

1323. Edward concluded peace for thirteen years with Bruce, whose 
assumption of the royal title was passed over in silence. 

Isabella, sent to France in 1325 to treat with Charles IV., concern- 
ing the English fiefs in France, intrigued with Roger Mortimer and 
other hostile barons, and in 132G lauded in England. Capture of 
Bristol; execution of the Despensers ; imprisonment of the king. 

268 • Medictval History, Ml, D. 

1327. Deposition of Edward 11., in parliament; accession of his son, 
Edward. Edwiird, imprisoned in Berkeley Castle, was there 
murdered, Sept. 21, 1327. 

1327-1377. Edward III. 

Council of regency (carl of Lancaster), Edward being but 
fifteen years of age. The queen and Mortimer the true rulers. 
13*28. Unsuccessful war with Scotland. James, earl of Douglas, 
Treaty of Northampton. Bruce recognized as king, and feu- 
dal superiority of the English crown renounced. 
1330. Edward took the government into his own hands. Elzecution 
of Mortimer, Imprisonment of the queen-mother. 
The death of Robert Bruce (1329) was followed by civil war in 
Scotland, during which Edward Baliol seized the crown ; Bruce's 
infant son, David, fled to France. Baliol did homae^ to Edward, 
which induced a revolt of the Scottish nobles; Baliol driven over the 
border. Edward hastened north; defeat of the Scots in the 
1333. Battle of Ilalidon Hill, near Berwick (henceforward this town 
belonged to England). Baliol restored to the Scottish throne. 
Scotland south of the Forth ceded to England, and homage 
rendered for the remainder. Alliance between the patriotic 
party in Scotland and France. 
1337. War with France (the Hundred Years' War). Edward 
claimed the French crown in right of his mother (see p. 257). 

1341. Completion of the separation of parliament into an Upper 
House (Lords), composed of the nobUity, and a Lower House 
(Commons), composed of the representatives of boroughs and 
the knights of sh^s. The process of separation had begun 
as far back as the reign of Edward I. 

The responsibility of ministers established by act of parliament 
(revoked by the king in the same year). 

1342. David Bruce returned to Scotland and recovered the throne. 
Scotland henceforward independent. 

1340. Battle of Neville's Cross, near Durliam ; defeat of the 
Scots ; capture of David 11^ who was retained in captivity 
until 1357. Battle of Cr^cy, p. 257. 

1348-49. Black Death in England; more than a half of the popula^- 
tion perished. As the visitations of the plague were especially 
heavy among the lower classes, a scarcity of labor and rise of 
wages followed, which led to the passing of the Statute of 
Laborers, regulating wages. In the next year (1350) laborers 
were forbidden to leave their own parish. 

1356. Edward invaded and ravaged Scotland, but won no lasting suc- 
cess. Battle of Poitier, p. 258. In 1357 David was ransomed. 

1360. Peace of Bretigny (p. 258). Renunciation of the French 
crown and of Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Touraine. Cession 
in full sovereignty to England of Aquitaine (Crascony, Guienne, 
PoitoUf Saintongey the Limousin^ the Angoumois, Perigord, Bi- 
gorre, Rouerque), Ponthieu, Quisnea, Calais. 

1361. Return of the clack Death. Popular discontent. Preaching 
of John BcUl, William Longland, author of Piers Plow- 

A. D. England. 269 

1369. Final yisitation of the Black Death. 

1370. Capture of Limoges by the Black Prince ; massacre of the in- 
habitants (death of the Black Prince, June 8, 1376). 

1371. John of Qaunt, fourth son of Edward III., married the 
daughter of Pedro the Cruel of Castile, and assumed the title 
of king of Castile. 

Loss of all the English possessions in France, except Bordeauz, 
Calais, and Bayonne. Peace for three years (1374). 

1376. The Oood Parliament. Opposition of William of Wykeham 
and Peter de la Mare (Speaker of the Commons) to «/ohn of 
Graunt. Punishment of favorites, reformation of the arbitrary 
royal council (Concilium Ordinarium). After the dissolution of 
the parliament John of Gaunt disregarded its enactments ; to 
WiUiam of Wykeham he opposed John 'Wyolif (1327-1384), 
who taught that the property of the clergy was at the disposal 
of the crown. 

1377, June 20. Death of Edward III. 

During this reign the crime of treason was defined by the 
Statute of Treason (1351) ; transfer of a suit to foreign courts was pro- 
hibited ri3o3, future Statute of Praemunire) ; Parliament acquired the 
power oi impeachment; trial by jury assumed a more modem form 
^separation of the old jury into a jury proper, and witnesses) ; a poll- 
ta^was introduced (1377) ; English was directed to be used in courts 
of law (1361). In Ireland, the Statute of Kilkenny (1367) prohibited 
intermarriage of the English and Irish, and supplanted the native lan- 
guage and customs by English. 

1377-1399. Richard H., 

son of the Black Prince, twelve years old. The king was in 
the hands of Parliament, and his uncles, the dukes of Lancaster 
(John of Graunt), York, and Gloucester^ were excluded from the re- 
gency. The war with France and Scotland requiring money, a poll- 
tax was assessed in 1379, and again in 1380. 
1381. Revolt of the peasants under John Ball and VTat Tyler; 

capture of London ; burning of the duke of Lancaster's palace, 

the Savoy, Wat Tyler killed by Walworth, mayor of London. 

Suppression of the revolt. Disregard of the charter abolishing 

serfdom, which Richard had at first g^ranted. Villanage was, 

however, doomed. 
Wyclif 's doctrines spread by his " poor preachers." Denial of 

Transubfltantiation (1381). Wyclif s adherents nicknamed 

Lollards by their opponents. Wyclif*s translation of the 

1388. Battle of Chevy Chase (Otterbume), between Lord Henry Percy 

and the earl of Douglas ; defeat of the English. {Ballad of 

Chevy Chase). 
Quarrel between Richard and his favorites, {Robert de Vere, Michael 
de la Pole), and the parliament. In 1386, Continual Council under 
the duke of Gloucester, for one year. Defeat of the king ; impeach- 
ment of Vere and others, before the *< Wonderful " Parliament (1388). 
In 1389 Richard took the government into his own hands. 

£70 MeditBval History. A. d. 

1393. Statute of Prsemtmire, prohibiting the introduetion of ^nsgial 

1396. lliohard married Isabella, daughter of Charles YI. of France, 
and concluded peace for 26 years. 

1397. Imprisonment (and death) of the duke of Gloucester. Im- 
peachment of the earls of Arunddy Warwick, Nottingham^ 
Derby » Arimdel was executed ; Warwick imprisoned for life ; 
Nottingham was made duke of Norfolk ; Derby (Henry Bo- 
linbroke, son of John of Gaunt), duke of Hereford. 

1398. Quarrel between Hereford and Norfolk. The king forbade 
their combat, and banished Norfolk for life, Hereford for six 

Richard made an expedition to Ireland, where the isolation 

of the English who were settled within the conquered district, 

the so-called KngHnh Pale (Drogheday Dubliriy Wexford^ Water- 

fordy Cork) had rendered them almost independent of England. 

During his absence 

1399. Henry Bolinbroke, since the death of his father, duke of 
liancaAter, landed in England. Richard returned from Ire- 
laud, only to be captured, deposed, and imprisoned in the 
castle of Pontefract (murdered ?). 

Geoffirey Chauoer (died 1400), Canterbury Tales. 

1399-1461. House of Lancaster, a branch of the boose 

of Plantagenet. 
1399-1413. Henry IV., 

under which name the duke of Lancaster ascended the throne, 
the claims of Edmund MortUner, earl of March, the true heir, being 
passed over. 

1400. Conspiracy of the earls of Rutlandy Huntingdouy Salisbury, 
Kenty and Spencer suppressed. Revolt of Wales under Owen 
Qlendower ; defeat of Sir Edmund Mortimer (1402). 

1402. A Scottish inroad under the earl of Douglas defeated at Horn- 
ildon IIUL Capture of Douglas. 

As Henry refused to allow the ransom of Edmund Mortimer (he 
being the uncle of the young earl of March, the true heir to the 
crown), a conspiracy was formed against him by Harry Percy (Hot- 
spur), brother-iu-law of Mortimer, to whose family the king was largely 
indebted for his throne, who induced his father, the earl of Northum- 
herlandy and his uncle, the earl of Worcester, to join with himself, Glen- 
dower, and Douglas, and take up arms. In the 

1403. Battle of Shreinrsbury, 

July 21. the conspirators were defeated. Harry Percy was killed and 
Douglas taken. Conspiracy of Mowbray and Scroop, archbishop 
of York ; execution of the conspirators. 
1405. Capture of James, heir of the Scottish throne, while on his way 
to the court of France (James was the second son of Robert 
///. of Scotland ; the eldest, duke of Rothsay, had been starved to 
death by tlie king's brother, duke of Albany), and detained in Eng- 
land imtil 1 123. 

▲. D. England. 271 

1408. Defeat of the earl of Northumbertand and Lord Bardolph at 

Bramham Moor; death of the former. 
1413. March 20. Death of Henry IV. 

1413-1422. Henry V., Monmouth^ 

While prince, companion of wild rakes ; as king, energetic and 

Trial and condemnation for heresy of Sir John OldcastU (Lord 
Cobham), a friend of the king. Oldeastle escaped from prison, and 
a rising of the Lollards assumed formidable proportions ; it was, how- 
ever, easily suppressed. (Oldeastle captured and burned, 1417). 
1415. Conspiracy of the earl of Cambridge, Lord Scrope and Sir 

Thomas Grey detected. Execution of the conspirators. 
1415-1420. War with Fnmoe (p. 259). 

1415. Oct. 25. Battle of Aglncourt. 

1417. Second invasion of France. Li England, unsuccessful Scottish 
inroad (<<The Foul Raid"). 

1420. May 21. Peace of Troyes. 

Henry married Catharine, daughter of Charles YII. of i^Yance, 
and was accepted as regent and heir of the crown. 

1421. Third mvasion of France. 

Death of Henry at Vincennes, August 31, 1422. 
Use of English in the House of Conunons. Sir Richard Whitlinff- 
ton, thrice lora mayor of London. 

1422-1461. Henry VI., Windsor. 

Not quite nine months old at his father's death. Parliament 
refused to appoint a regency, and named the king's uncle, duke of 
Gloucester, protector, in the absence of his brother, the duke of Bed- 
ford, who was regent in France. 
1423. Liberation of James II. of Scotland, after the conclusion of an 

agpreement with the English not to assist one another's enemies. 
1422-1453. War in France. Bzpnlsion of the English. (Joan 

of Arc,) See p. 260. 
1437. James I. of Scotland murdered by the earl of Athol and 

Robert Grahame. 
1445. Marriage of Henry VI. with Margaret, daughter of Ren^, 

titular long of Naples and Jerusalem. Henrv promised to re- 
store to Ren^ his nereditanr lands of Anjou and Afaine. This mar- 
riage was the work of William de la Pole, earl of Suffolk (soon made 
a duke), whose influence at court surpassed that of the earlier adviser. 
Cardinal Beaufort (died 1447). Airest and suspicious death of the 
duke of Oloncester. The loss of Normandy was followed by the im- 
peachment of Suffolk, who was banished by Henry, but seized at sea 
and put to death (1450). 

1450. Rebellion of Jack Cade (" Mortimer "). 

The insurgents occupied London and murdered Lord Say, one 
of the ministers. The rebellion was soon suppressed, and Cade, while 
in hiding, was killed by Alexander Iden, 

The government now passed into the hands of Richard, duke of 
York, grandson of the ffih son Of Edward IIL, son of Anna Mortis 

272 Mediaval History. a. d. 

mety heiress of the chiims of the third line, who retftmecL to England 
from Ireland ; his power, however, was not enough to oust his rival, 
the duke of Somerset, grandson of John of Gaunt, and in 1452 he 
was induced to dismiss his army, and then forced to swear allegiance. 

1452. James H. of Scotland murdered William, earl of Douglas ; 
defection of the Donghu^es to England. 

1453. Battle of CaBtillon in France. Death of Talbot, earl of 
Shrewsbury. Surrender of Bordeaux. Of all the English 
poBsessiona in Franoe Calais alone waa left in their 

1453. Birth of Prince Edward, son of Henry VI. Insanity of 
Henry. The duke of York protector. Imprisonment of 
Somerset. The recovery of the king in 1454 was followed by 
the restoration of Somerset to power. 

The duke of 7ork, the earls of Saliabury and 'Warwick, 
now took up arms against Henry and his advisers. 

1465-1485* Wars of the Bed Rose of Lancaster and 
the White Bose of York (see the genealogical table). 

1455. Battle of St. Albans. York victorious. Death of Somer- 
May 22. set ; capture of Henry. A hollow reconciliation (1458) 

wa« followed by a new resort to arms. At the battle of 
Bloreheath (Sept. 23, 1459), the Lancastrians were defeated. The 
victory was a barren one for York ; defection in his army caused him 
to abandon the contest and retire to Ireland. Flight of Yorkist 
leaders. York and his party attainted of treason by the Parliament 
of Coventry. 
1460. Landing of the earls of Salisbury, March (afterwards Ed- 

toard iV.), and Warwick, in England. In the 
1460. Battle of Northampton, 
July 10. the Lancastrians were defeated ; capture of Henry ; flight 

of Margaret and her son to Scotland. The duke of 7ork 
entered London and preferred his claim to the crown« Parliament 
decided that he should succeed Henry. 

1460. Battle of Wakefield. 

Dec. 30. Defeat of York by the queen and Prince Edward. York 
fell on the field, the earl of Salisbury and the duke of 
Rutland, son of York, were killed. 

1461. Battle of Mortimer's Cross, near Hereford. Defeat of the 
Feb. 2. Lancastrians by the son of the duke of York, Edward, earl 

of March (now duke of York). 
Feb. 17. Second Battle of St. Albans. 

Defeat of the Yorkists under Warwick. Release of Henry. 
The earl of March, however, came to the rescue, joined the remnants 
of Warwick's army with his own, and entered London, where he was 
proclaimed king by acclamation, March 3, 1461. 

1461-1485. House of York (branch line of the house 
of Plantagenet). 

1461-1483. Edward IV. 

The early part of his rcig^ was disturbed by constant attempts 
of the Lancastrians to overthrow the new dynasty. 

A. D. 













K S' > 




a «: 




o a. 

274 Med%(Eval History. a. d. 

1461, March 27. Battle of Ferry Bridge. Defeat of the Lancas- 

March 29. Battle of Towton. After a most obstinate fight Ed- 
ward and Warwick prevailed, and the Lancastrians were totally 
defeated (said to have lost 28,000 men). 
Edward was crowned (June 28), and his brothers, GeorffesLod Ed- 
xoardy were created dukes (Clarence and Gloucester). In 1462 
Margaret obtained assistance from France, and made two attempts to 
retrieve the Lancastrian cause, but both were unsuccessful. Henry 
retired to Wales ; Margaret to Lorraine. A final uprising of the 
Lancastrians wa« crushed at Hedgeley Moor and at Hexham (1464). 
1464. Secret marriage of Edward with Elizabeth Grey, daughter of 
Richard Woodville, baron Rivers, and widow of Sir John 
Grey, a Lancastrian. This marriage and the advancement conferred 
on the family of the new queen much exasperated the earl of War- 
wick and the other Yorkists. The dissatisfaction of Warwick was 
increased by the marriage of Edward's sister Margaret with the 
duke of Burgundy, and he intrigued with the duke of Clarence, 

g'viufi^ him his daughter in marriage and promising him the crown, 
erolt of 'William of Rydesdale in 1469. Execution of the 
queen's father. Earl Rivers, Edward became reconciled with War- 
wick, but a victory over the insurgents at Stamford {** Loose-coat 
Field ") (1470) so strengthened the king that he proclaimed War- 
wick and Clarence traitors, and they fled to France. Reconciliation 
of Warwick and Margaret. 

1470. Warwick landed in England, occupied London, and pro- 
claimed Henry (who had been imprisoned since 1465) king. 
Edward fled to Burgimdy, but returning with assistance was 
well received, and joined by Clarence. Re-imprisonment of 

. Henry. 

1471, April 4. Battle of Bamet. 

The Lancastrians under "Warwlok (the king^maker) totally 
May 4. Battle of Tewkabmy. 

Defeat of Margaret, who was captured ; murder of her son 
Edward. Henry VL died in the Tower May 22, the day 
when Edward IV. reentered London. 
1475. Invasion of France by Edward, who, in connivance with the duke 
of Burg^undy, claimed the French crown. Subscriptions sup- 
posed to be voluntary (benevolences), without consent of Parlia- 
ment, now first introduced to raise money for this invasion. The war 
was ended without a battle by the Peace of Pequigny (1476). 
Truce for seven years ; payment of a large annual sum to England ; 
ransom of Margaret ; betrothal of the dauphin to Edward's eldest 
daughter, Elizabeth. 

1478. Trial and condemnation of Clarence for treason. He was exe- 
cuted in the Tower. (Popular report that he was drowned 
in a butt of malmsey.^ 
1480. War with Scotland, which was ended by the Treaty of Pother- 
ingay, wherein Berwick was surrendered to the English. 
As Louis XL now refused to consent to the marriage of the dauphin 

A. D. Spanish PeninstUcu 275 

with Edward's daughter, as arranged at the treaty of Peqoigny, 
Edward resolved on war, but died suddenly, April 9, 1483. 

1483. April-June. Edward V. 

Richard, duke of Gloucester, regent for the thirteen-yearK>ld 
king. The kine^ and his brother, duke of York, confined in the 
Tower. Richard created protector. Execution of Lord Hastins^. 
Gloucester advanced a claim to the crown, based on the asserted in- 
validity of Edward III.'s marriage with Elizabeth Woodville. The 
claim being adnutted by Parliament, Richard accepted the crown 
(June 26). 

1483-1485. Richard HI. 

The new king began his reign by a progress in the north. 
Murder of the two princes in the Tower (TyreU and Dighton). 
The Duke of Buckingham (to whose services Richard largely owed 
the crown), headed an insurrection in favor of Henry, earl of 
Richmond (great-g^at-grandson of John of Gaunt). Execution of 
Buckingham. Return of Richmond to France without landing. 

1484. Confirmation of Richard's title by Parliament. 

Tlie following table shows the derivation of Buckingham from Ed- 
ward III. ; — 

Edward III. 

John of Gaunt, Thomaa, Duke of Gloucester, 

by his dd wife. | 

I Anoe = Edmund, Earl of Stafford. 
John, Earl of Somerset. 

Duke of Somerset. Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham. 

f 1 I 

John Margaret Humphrey, Lord Stafford. 



Henry VH. 

Henrj'j Duke of 

In 1485 Richmond made another attempt, landed at MU/ord Haveriy 
and completely defeated Richard in the 

1485. Battle of Bosworth Field, 
Aug. 22. where Richard was slain. 

£l 1471 William Cazton, printer, established a press at West- 
minster ; in 1474, he published " The Grame and PJay^ (rf Chesse," 
the first book printed in England. 



The Moors in Spain were, since 1238, confined to the kingdom of 
Qranada, where agriculture, commerce, and industrj^ flpqpshed. 

276 Medicei'cU Htitory. ▲. d. 

Wars with the Christian kingdoms, occasionally in alliance with 

1492. Conquest of Granetda and union of the kingdom with 

The kingdoms of Castile and Aragon during this period were in- 
volved in constant wars, ever renewed and of varying fortune, with 
the Moors and with one another. In hoth kingdoms bloody wars of 
succession and civil wars. 

Of the kings of Castile may be mentioned, in the thirteenth century 
Sancho I V,, in the fourteenth Peter the Cruel and Henry the Bastardy 
the first of whom was aided, in his war with Henry for the throne, by 
England (victory of the Black Prince at Najara^ 1367), the latter 
by France. Mercenary bands or free companies, under Bertrand du 
Guescelin, Peter defeated and killed at Montiel in 1369. 

Peter III, (1276-1285) of Aragon acquired the crown of Sicily, 
•which he bequeathed to his second son, James, while his eldest son, 
Alphonso Il/.f succeeded him in Ara^n. His successor, Peter IV,, 
curbed the excessive power of the nobility of Aragon. In 1410, after 
the extinction of the royal family of Catalonia, a Castilian prince, Fer- 
dinand, ascended the throne of Aragon. His grandson, Ferdinand 
the Catholic (1479-1516), by the marriage which he had made be- 
fore his elevation to the throne with laabella, heiress of Castile, laid 
the foundation for the final union of the two kingdoms. 


The legitimate line of Burgundy became extinct (1383), and was 
succeeded by the illegfitimate Burgundian line. Heroic age of Portu- 
gal, which now reached its greatest power. Conquests, CetUa, Tan- 
giers ; formation of a Christian kingdom of Algarhe on the northern 
coast of Africa. Voyages and discoveries (p. 279), under the patron^ 
age of the Infant, Henry the Navigator (1394r-1460 ; discovery of 
Porto Santo and Madeira, 1418-19 ; Cape Verde, 1445 ; Azores, 1447; 
Cape Verde Islands, 1455). 


Denmark, Norway Sweden. 

Each a united kingdom from the second half of the ninth century 
on, converted to Chnstianity about 1000, were united by the Union 
of Calmar (1397). Margaret, queen of Denmark, daughter of Wal- 
demar IV., married Hako VIII, of Norway, and after the death of 
Hako succeeded to the throne, at first for her minor son (f 1387). 
The crown of Sweden was transferred to her by the estates of that 
kingdom. The union lasted (interrupted by Sweden) to 1524. 


From 862 to 1598, under the house of Rurik, converted by Vladimir 
the Great 988, soon divided into many principalities, whicn were in 
theory subordinate to the Grand Prince of Kiev, but practically were 

A. D. The North and East. 277 

tolerably independent. During the supremacy of the Mongols in Rus- 
sia, which endured 250 years, there grew up a new g^rand principal- 
ity, that of Moscow, which after the devastation of Kiev by the 
Mongols (1239), and its conquest by the Lithuanians (1320, p. 169), 
became the national centre of Russia. After a long contest the 
Mongol supremacy in Russia was overthrown (1480) by Ivan IV., 
the Great, the founder of the united monarchy. Republic of Nov- 
gorod subjugated (1478). 


Under the Piasts (840-1370, Christian about 1000) involved in 
war with Germany, with the heathen Prussians (later with the Teu- 
tonic knights), and with Russia. The last king of this house was 
Casimir the Great. Short union with Hun«Lty imder Louis the Great 
(1370-1382). Louis' younger daughter, nediaig, married the grand 
duke of Lithuania, Vladislav IL Jagello, whereby Poland and Lithu- 
ania were united under the house of Jagello from 1380 to 1572. ^ 
Conversion of Lithuania. 


Conquered in the thirteenth century by the Teutonic order (p. 
218), smce 1309 residence of the grand master at Marienburg. The 
order attained its greatest power under Winrich von Kniprode (1351- 
1382) ; beginning of a gradual decline. Defeat of the order by the 
Poles at Tannenberg (1410). 

The energy and daring of Henry of Plauen brought about the ad- 
vantageous Jirst peace of Thorn (1411). The revolt of the Prussian 
nobles in the country and the cities and their alliance with Poland led 
to the second peace of Thorn (^1466) : West Prussia and Ermeland 
ceded to Poland ; the order retamed East Prussia as a Polish Jief, 


Toward the close of the ninth century Hungary was occupied by 
the Finnish ^ tribe of Magyars (p. 193) ; until 1301 under the reign- 
ing house of the Arpads, Introduction of Christianity by the duke 
Geisa and his son St. Stephan, the first king of Hungary (crowned 
1000). Extensive immip^tion of Germans. Ecclesiastical division 
of the country into ten bishoprics ; political division into seventy-two 
counties (Gespanschajien). Formation of a powerful aristocracy 
(Afagnats). The Golden Bull extorted from King Andrew II. (con- 
temporary of the emperor Frederic IL), after his return from a cru- 
sade (p. 216), is the foundation of the privileges of the Hungarian 

After the extinction of the Arpads, Hungary came under the house 
of Anjou (1308-1382). Period of greatest power under Louis the 
Great (1342-1382), who m 1370, succeeded to the throne of Poland 

L'^nder Sigismund of the house of Luxemburg (1387-1437), be- 

1 Vambery, Urtprung d. Magyartn^ endeavor? to prove the Turkish origin 
of this people; they were, at all events, Turanian. — Trans. 

278 MediiEtHxl History. A. D. 

ginning of the decline of the kingdom. Alhert of Anstria (143S- 
1439), and afterwards, Vladislav III. of Poland, elected king ; the 
latter fell at Varna (1444) in battle against the Turks, whereupon 
Albert's minor son, Ladislaus Postumus, succeeded. The chancellor 
of the kingdom, John Hunyadi, defeated tlie Turks at Belgrade (1456). 
After his death and that of Ladislaus, Hunyadi's son, Matthias Cor- 
vinus, became king (1458-1490). After his brilliant reign Hungaij 
was united with Bohemia under Ladislaus IL, of the house of Jagello, 
and the succession was secured to the archduke Maximilian of Aus- 

Turks, Mongols, and the Zlastem Empire. 

Supremacy of the Osman (Ottoman) Turks, Turcoman nomads, 
founded in Asia Minor by Osman /., about 1300. His successors, 
Urchan, Murad /., and Bajazet /., extended Turkish power during the 
fourteenth century to the confines of Europe (Adrianople, residence 
of the sovereigns in 1365). 

The development of the Osmanic power was temporarily checked 
by the Mongols under Timur Lenk (i. e. the Lame), commonly called 
Tamerlcme or Timur the Tatar, Bajazet being defeated and cap- 
tured in 1402 at Angora. One of Bajazet*s successors, Muhammed II., 
destroyed the Eastern Empire, which had been under the rule of the 
PaloBologi since 1261, by the 

1453. Conqnest of Constantinople. 

Flight of Grecian scholars to Italy, where they taught in 
the universities, and gave the impulse to a new study of Grecian 


In 1403 the rebellious prince, Yen, succeeded to the throne under 
the name 7ung-lo (140^1425), and proved an efficient ruler, carry- 
ing his arms into Tatary, and annexmg Cochin-China and Tonquin 
to China. Under Seuen-tih (1420-1436) Cochin-China revolted. 
Chingtung (1436-1465) fell into the hands of the Tatars in 1450, 
and remained a prisoner imtil released by a Chinese victory in 1457. 
The quiet reigns of Ching-hwa (1465-1488) and Hung-ohe (1488- 
1506) were unmarked by important events. 


Under the domination of tlie Ashikaga Shognns (1336-1573), 
whose founder, AshikagOrTakar-Uji, set up a rival emperor, Japan 
was under two dynasties, — the southern (legitimate) at Yoshino, the 
northern (usurpers) at Kioto; the true sovereigns, meantime, were the 
Shoguns at Kioto. The period is a dark one, filled witli constant wars 
between the dynasties, and civil wars in Kioto. 

It is curious to reflect that in the midst of these wretched wars 
Columbus was sending messengers into the interior of Cuba charged 
with letters to the sovereign of Japan, whereby he hoped to open 
communication for Spain with a monarch whose power was as limit- 
less as his wealth. 



PHALIA (1492-1648). 


Three inventions, whose discovery belongs to the Middle Age, but 
which came into more common ase at the beginning of the modem 
period, have plaved a very important part in the total change in 
society which followed. 1. The magnetic needle, probably early 
discovered by the Chinese, applied in navigation (compass) in the 
east in the thirteenth century; in the west at the beginning of the 
fourteenth (by Flavio Gioja ?). This invention materially s^vanced 
the discoveries of the new era. 2. GKinpowder, probably introduced 
into Europe from Asia (China, India, Arabia). According to a tradi- 
tion whose truth can no longer be maintained, invented by the monk, 
Berthoid Schwarz, at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 1354 (?). It was first 
used in Europe about the middle of the fourteenth century. The new 
class of weapons thus introduced were at first in the highest degree 
imperfect, and of but little value ; but their improvement gradually 
brought about a complete revolution in military science and art, and 
thereby led to the destruction of chivalry. Standing armies took the 
place of the feudal levies, and aided the princes to triumph over the 
lower order of feudal nobility. 3. PrintJiig (p. 263), which was more 
widely spread after the conquest of Mainz (1462), had scattered the 
assistants of Fust to various lands. Tliis invention would, however, 
have very largely failed of its effect, but for the improvement made 
at about the same time in the manufacture of Paper. 

1492* Discovery of America by Columbus (Colon). 
For details and the further course of discovery see page 
282, etc. 

1498. Ocean route to the East Indies discovered by 
Vasco de Gama. 

After the Canary Islands^ Madeira^ and the Azores had been discov- 
ered by daring sailors (especially Italians) in the first half of the 
fourteenth century, but had since been partially forgotten, the Portu- 
guese at the instance of the Infant, Henry the Navigator (p. 276), be- 

280 Modem History. a. d. 

gan in 1415 to push southward along the coast of Africa in order to 
find the way to India. The death of Henry (14G0) interrupted the prog- 
ress of discovery for a considerable time, but in 1486 Bartholomaeua 
Diaz reached Cabo tormentosOy called by John II., Cabo de huena 
esperama (Cape of Good Hope), and in 1408 Vasco de Gama landed 
on the coast of Malabar (Calicut, p. 353). (Afartin Beheim of iVu- 
remberg^ author of the celebrated globe still preserved in that city, 
wliich shows the state of geographical knowledge just before the dis- 
covery of America (1492), was in the service of the king of Portu- 

The Eastern trade (in silk, cotton, pearls, spices and other luxuries), 
had been carried on partly by land through central Asia, and partly 
across the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, and across Arabia and 
through the Persian Gulf. The conquests of Islam, and especially the 
capture of Constantinople, had greatly diminished the number of prof- 
itable routes, so that the discovery of a new route became of great 
importance, especially to the maritime nations of western £urope who 
had been excluded from trade with the East, wherein the merchant 
republics of Italy, Pisa, Genoa, Venice, had grown rich and powerful. 
The Portuguese attempted the eastern route around Africa. Columbus 
found at the court of Spain patrons willing to try the experiment of 
a western route, at once (according to the data with which he reck- 
oned) shorter and simpler. 

The success of the Portuguese struck a mortal blow at the pros- 
perity of Alexandria and the g^eat cities of Italy, and secured a 
monopoly of the Eastern trade to Portugal for*one hundred years, 
after which it passed into the hands of the Dutch and English. 

Tlie failure of Columbus had a still greater importance in history, 
disclosing a new world, where immigrants from the old should develop 
new political constitutions and new social conditions. 

The Portuguese power in the East Indies was founded by the vice- 
roy ^/wi«//a (1504-1509), and especially by Albuquerque (1509-1516 ; 
see p. 353). 

1519-1522. First voyage around the world under Fer- 
dinand Magalhses (Magellan), 

a Portuguese who had entered the Spanish service. Passage to the 
Pacific through the Straits of Magellan, MagalhsBS was killed in 1521 
on one of the Philippine Islands. 


It is probable that as early as 1000 the Northmen, who had occu- 
pied Iceland since 874 and had thence made settlements in Greenland 
(985), had not only discovered but had tried to colonize the conti- 
nent of America (Vinland).* 

1 More than a dozen claims to the discoverv or attempts at the discovery of 
America before Columbus have been preferred by various nationalities, a brief 
list of which is here appended: 1. St Brandan (565) and St. Maolovlua 
iMalo) in the sixth century. 2. Seven Spanish bishops (714 or 734) ; Isl- 
and of Seven Cities, also called Antillin, a name afterwards transferred to the 
Antilles. 3. Buddhist priests from China (458), followed by Hoti-Shin (499), 

A. D. America, 281 

986. BfartU Herfulfson saw the coast of Vinlaiid, but did not land. 

1001. Lei/ ErUcson discovered HeUuLand, Marldandf Vinland^ where 
he built some booths. 

1002. Thorwcdd Eriksan coasted along Kjcdames and died at Kros^ 

1007-1009. Thorfirm KarUefnej under whom a colony was established 

which remained several years in Vinland. Birth of the child 


1011. Helge and Finnborge with Freydis, wife of Thorwald. The 

tragical ending of this settlement seems to have discouraged 

colonization ; yet traces of intercourse are observable for a 

long time, (11121, Bishop Erik of Greenland ; 1266, voyage of 

clergymen of Greenland to the Arctic regions ; 1255, Adelhard 

and lliorwald Helgason ; 1347, voyage of seventeen men from 


The identification of the places visited and named by the Northmen 

is attended with great, perhaps insurmountable difficulties. The 

detailed exposition of Ra/n (lielluland =: Newfoundland or Labra^ 

dor ; Marldand = Nova Scotia ; Vinland ^ Mt. Hope Bay ; Kjal- 

amess = Cape God ; Ejrossanness =» Boston Harbor) is hardly to be 

accepted ; some writers place the southern limit of discovery at the 

southern point of Newfoundland.^ 

Wherever they were made, the settlements of the Northmen in 
America were not lasting, and the remembrance of them had almost 
passed away by the fourteenth century. Although Columbus had 

discovered Foasang, (See Iioland, Fou-tang^ for arguments in favor of this 
discovenr.) 4. Basques; Juan de CEstraiae (about 10(X)). 5. Northmen 
(986). o. Ari Marson, from Liinericic in Ireland (982) discovered Huitramann 
land (White Man's Land) or I Hand it Mikla (Great Ireland). South (!)arnlina ? 
Florida? He was succeeded by Bjdrni Asbrandson (999), and GudUif Gud- 
Ittngson (1029). 7. Arabians; Almaghruins (in the eleventh century). 8. 
Madoc ap Gwynedd, a Welsh prince (1170). 9. Vadino and Guido Vi- 
valda (1281), Theodoro Doria and Ugolino Vivalda (1292), Venetians. 10. 
Nlcolo and Antonio Zeno (1380-90). This '* discovery " involves an older 
one made by a fisherman of '' Frislanda '' about 13G0. 11. Ck)rtereal, 1403. 
12. Sskolny, a Polish pilot (1476). 13. Alonzo Banohea de Helva (1484). 
the pilot who as some claim died in the house of Columbus, leaving his jounial 
in the latter^s hands. 14. Martin Betaaim (1484). 15. Cousin and Pinson 
from Dieppe (1487). 

This discovery of America has been assif^ned to still other races by disputants 
over the origin of the American Indians, among which may be mentioned : 
Egyptians^ Tyrians^ Phoeniciati,% C'lnn'inites^ Norwegians^ Chinese, Iberians^ 
ScythianSy Tatars, Jetcs (the Lost Tribe*), liomnns, Malays; there is also the 
theory of settlement by the inhabitants of Atlantis, and of a new creation. It 
is pleasant, from a patriotic standpoint, to state that it has been recently asserted 
that Europe was originally populated from America. 

1 Three "relics" of the Northmen have hern famous in their time. 1. The 
Writinr Rock on the Taunton Rivor near Dighton, Mass. It was claimed that 
the inscription was in runes, and it has been interpreted by northern scholars to 
contain an account of the vovajj:e of Thorfinn, but it seems at present that 
Washington's opinion of the Indian origin of the picture writing is to be ac- 
cepted as correct. 2. The Old Stone Mill at Newport, R. I. The northern 
origin of this structure can hardly be maintained against the more probable 
theory of its construction by Gov. Benedict Arnold in the latter half of the sev- 
enteenth century. 3. The*'* Skeleton in Arm<»r.*' discovered In the early part 
of the pre<<ent century at Fall River, J^Iass., is now admitted to havo been tliat of 
an Indian. 

282 Modem Hittory. A. D. 

visited Iceland in 1477, it is not probable that he had heard of them ; 
it is evident, from his own writings, that he had no suspicions of the 
eidstence of a continent southwest of Iceland.^ 

Christoforo Colombo (he called himself and signed himself, 
after he became a Spaniard, regularly Chriatobal Colon), bom 
(1435 ?, 1456 ?) at Genoa, of plebeian origin, a sailor from his earli- 
est youth, wished to try a western route by sea to India (by which 
name m his day, the whole East was meant), and especially to Zipangu, 
(fJapan) the mag^c island, which the Venetian Marco Polo (travels 
1271-1295) had described in the book Alirabilia Mundi. Starting 
from the erroneous calculations of Ptolemv and Marinus concerning 
the size of the earth and the length of the habitable region (the Eas- 
tern Continent), Columbus made the circumference of the earth too 
short by a sixth, thus locating Zipangu in about the position of the 
Sandwich Islands. His plans having been rejected by Portugal 
faf ter the failure of an eicpedition secretly despatched westward to 
discover land), Columbus in 1486 accepted the service of the crown 
of Castile (Isabella). Delayed in the execution of his project by the 
Arabian war and the lack of money at the court, he was about to 
offer liis services at the court of France or England, when the cap- 
ture of Grenada promised tlie necessary means for the expedition.' 
Contract with Columbus, who received nobility, the hereditary dignity 
of admiral and viceroy, and one tenth of the income from the newly 
discovered lands. 

14d2, Aug. 3-1493, March 15. First Voyage. Departure from 
Pcdos with tliree small vessels on the 3d of August, from the 
Canaries on Sept. 6. On Oct. 12, landing on Chuanahaniy* 
one of the Bahama islands. Discovery of Cuba (called by 
Columbus Juanna) and Hayti (Espanola, St. Domingo). Ship- 
wreck off Hayti, foundation of the first colony {Navidad) on 
that island. 

1493, May 3. Bull of Alexander VI. establishing the line of parti- 
tion, which divided that part of the world not possessed by any 
Christian prince between Spain and Portugal by a meridian 
line one himdred degrees west of the Azores. All W. of that 
line to fall to Spain, all E. of it, to Portugal. This compromise 
between the claims of the Spaniards based on the discoveries 
of Columbus, and those of the Portuguese based on their dis^ 
coveries in the Atlantic, was afterwards revised so that the line 
was extended 270 leagues further west (1473). 

1493, Sept 25-1496, June 11. Second voyage of Columbna from 
Cadiz, with seventeen vessels and 1500 persons. 
Discovery of the Lesser Antilles (inhabited by CaribSy which Colum- 

1 See Feschel : Gesch. d, ZeitaUers d. Entdeckungetif 2d ed., p. 84 

2 That Columbus laid his plans before Genoa is unhistorical (Feschel, 2d 
ed. p. 120). 

s The chief claimants for the honor of having been the first landing place of 
Columbus are Cat Idand, Turk^s Istandj Watling^s Island^ Samana. The latter 
clfiim was first advanced, and ably advocated by Capt. G, V. Fox in his 
" Attempt to solve the Problem of the First Landing Place of Columbus in the 
New World." Wash. 1882. (U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.) 

A. D. AmericcL 283 

bus misimderstood, Canibs, whence Cannibals) and the island of Jam- 
aica. Voyage along the southern coast of Cuba to within a short dis- 
tance of the western end. Foundation of Isabella in Hayti (Dec. 
1493), of San Domingo on the same island by Bartholomew Columbus. 

1497, May-Aug. Voyage of John and Sebastian Cabot from 
Bristol with two vessels. Discovery of land (Prima Vista, 
probably some part of Newfoundland) June 24, 1497 (not 1494). 
They explored the coast N. to 67^° N. and S. for an uncertain dis- 
tance, probably not so far as Florida, as lias been claimed. 

1497. Firat (alleged) voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. Discovery 
of the continent of South America. This voyage is doubtful 
though many give it credence. 

1498, May-July (?). Voyage of Sebastian Cabot ; doubtful re- 

sults (68° N. to 35° N. ?). 
1498, May 30-1500, Novi 20. Third voyage of Columbus. Dis- 
covery of Trinidad (July 31), the continent of South America 
(Aug. 1); discovery of the mouth of the Orinoco. Exploration of 
the coast as far as Cape Vela (Marmita). Return of Columbus to 
Hispaniola. Dangerous revolt of Koldan, with whom the admiral 
was obliged to conclude a treaty. Columbus, who was disliked by the 
settlers on account of his foreign birth, and his avarice, — a vice from 
which he cannot be absolved,' — was accused at court. Bobadilla, sent 
out as judge with especial powers, sent Columbus and his brother in 
chains to Spain (1500). Columbus was at once released upon his 
arrival and treated with distinction ; he retained the dignity of admi- 
ral, but as viceroy was superseded by Ooando. 

1499 May-1500, June. Voyage of Alonzo de Hojeda and Ame- 
rigo Vespucci. 

Discovery of Surinam, Paria, Venezuela and the coast of South 
America to 3° N. (mouths of the Amazon ?). This is often 
called the second voyage of Vespucci, but the first voyage, 
which he is said to have made in 1497, when he reached the 
continent of South America, is doubtful. 
Vespucci was a learned Florentine (1451-1512) who participated 
in two Portug^iiese voyages to South America, entered the service of 
Castile in 1505, and filled the position of Royal Pilot from 1508 until 
his death, a post in which he rendered important services to science, 
particularly in the construction of maps. The new world was called 
after him, not by him, America. The originator of this name was 
Martin Waltzemiiller (Hylacomylus) from Freiburg in the Breisgau, 
professor at St. Die in Lorraine (1507). The name of America spread 
at first only in Germany and Switzerland, and did not come into gen- 
eral use until the close of the sixteenth century.^ 

1 Feschel, 2d ed., p. 272. 

^ Humboldt, Examen critique de Vhistoire et de la geographic du fwureau 
continent; Pesohel, Gesch. d. Zeitalter d. Entdeckungen^ cap. XIII., Abhand- 
lungen zur Erd-und Votkerkunde^ 1877. Two attempts have been recently 
made to derive America from a native word. Jules Maroou, in the Atlftntte 
Monthly (1875, March), and T. H. Lambert, in the Bulletin of the American 
Geo^aphical Soc. for 1883, p. 45. Acconiing to the former, America. i« a cor- 
ruption of the Indian name of a rang^ of mountains in Venezuela; the latter 
derives it from a native name of the empire of the Incas in Peru. The first 
dated map to bear the name ** America " was that in the edition of Solintu of 
1520, by A pianos. 

2&4 Modern History, A. D. 

1499, Dec .-1500, Sept. Voyage of Vincent Taifiez Pinzon from 


Discovery of Cape Augimtine (Feb. 28), of the Amazon, Pas- 
sage of the equator, lliis voyage traced the South American 
coast to 8° W S. 

1500, April. Pedro Alvarez Cabral, bound for the East Indies, was 

accidentally(?) carried westwaid until he reached the coast of 
Brazil, in about 10° S. He called the country Terra SancUe 
CruaSf and took possession of it for Portugal. 

1500. Gaspar de Cortereal, a Portuguese, discovered Newfoundland 

(Conception Bay), the mouth of the iSi^ Lawrence, and tlie 
coast of Labrador. 

1501. Cortereal sailed again in the hope of finding the passage to 
the East Indies, a hope which inspired the continuous efforts of 
nearly all the early explorers. He was lost upon the voyage. 

1501. Second voyage of Vespucci under a Portuguese cemmauder. 

1502, May 11-1504, Nov. 7. Fourth (and last) voyage of Co- 

lumbus. Discovery of the Bay of Honduras, Darien (Porto 
Bcllo). Shipwreck at Jamaica. 
Columbus died in Valladolid (150G) without a suspicion that he had 
discovered a new continent, and in the firm belief that hLs discoveries 
were parts of Asia. His son, Don Diego Columbus, viceroy and ad- 
miral. A grandson and great grandson of the discoverer retained 
the hereditary title of admiral. 

Succeeding voyages [de Bastides, Hojeda (with Vespucci f), Miguel 
Cortereal (1502), Vespucci (3d voyage, 1503), Jtian de la Cosa (1505), 
etc.] examined more minutely the coasts already discovered, while in 
the Spanish possessions the work of settlement and conquest was be- 
ing pushed forward. Cruelties inflicted on the Indians of the West 
Indies, whose race disappeared with frightful rapidity. It is prob- 
able that more was learned of the coasts of both Americas in this 
period than has been divulged ; the rivalry of Spain and Portugal 
leading to a careful secrecy regarding all discoveries. The exact his- 
torical value of the D^Este map, just discovered by M. Harrisse, can- 
not be known as yet, but seems to have clearly established the fact 
that tlie coast of North America from Florida to beyond Cape Cod 
was well known to the Portuguese in 1502. 
1504. French fishermen at the banks of Newfoundland. 
1506. Jean Denys of Honfleur, and Camart of Rouen, examined (and 

sketched) the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
1508. Juan Diaz de Solis and Vincent Yanez Pinzon traced the coast 

of South America as far as 40° S. Discovery of Yucatan. 
1 "iOS. Circumnavigation of Cuba, by Ocampo. Aubert in the St. Law- 

Importation of negroes from Africa to the Spanish possessions 
in the West Indies where they were employed in the mines. 

1511. Conquest of Cuba by Diego Velasquez. 

1512. Discovery of Florida by Juan Ponce de Leon, governor 

Csince 1510) of Porto Rico. 

1513. Discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Vaaco Nufiez de Bal- 
boa, who crossed the isthmus from Sanla Maria on the Gulf 

A. D. Americiu 285 

of Darien (founded 1510). Balboa was put to death in 1514 
by Daviloy governor of Darien, Carthagena, and Uraba (Casti- 
1516. Voyage of Juan Diaz de Soils in search of a passage to 
the East Indies. Discovery of the Rio de la Plata, on the 
banks of which river Solis was killed by the natives. 

1516. Alleged voyage of Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert. 

It is very doubtful if this voyage was made, or if made, 

what part of America was reached. 
BaHhoLome de Las Casas (1474-1566) went to the Indies in 1502 
with Columbus, bishop of Chiapa (in Mexico), advocate and pro- 
tector of the Indians. 

1517. Franda Hematulez Cordova discovered Yucatan (Cape Car- 
toche) ; advanced civilization of the inhabitants (Mayas), 
who were under the supremacy of the Aztec empire in 

1518. Juan de Grivalja coasted from Yucatan to Panuco, and brought 

back tidings of the Mexican empire of Montezuma. 
Name of " New Spain " given to the region which he ex- 

1519. Alvarez Pinedo, by order of the governor of Jamaica, Garay, 
coasted from Cape Florida to the river of Panuco. 

1519-1521* Conquest of Mexico by Hernando Cortez 

whom Velasquez, the governor of Cuba, had appointed to the 
command of a small force of 600 foot, sixteen cavalry, thirteen 
cross-bowmen, fourteen cannon, but immediately removed. Cortez 
sailed against the will of tlie governor. Capture of Tabasco (March). 
Landing at St. Juan de Uloa (April 21). Negotiations with Monte- 
zuma, who ordered the invaders to leave the kingdom. Cortez, 
elected general by the troops, dispatched one ship to carry a report 
to king Charles of Spain, and beached (not burned) the rest. Foun- 
dation of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, In alliance with the Tlascalans 
Cortez marched upon Mexico, the capital of Montezuma (Montecuh- 
cuma), who admitted him to the city (Nov. 8). Daring seizure of the 
king in his own house. Cortez was obliged to march against Narvaez 
whom Velasquez had sent to chastise him. He defeated Narvaez, and 
strengthening his army with the soldiers of his opponent, returned 
to Mexico (1520, June). Revolt of the Mexicans, storm of the 
temple, death of Montezuma of wounds inflicted by his subjects, who 
were indignant at his submission to the Spaniards. The Spaniards, 
leaving the city (July 1), were furiously attacked on one of the 
causeways (hrough the lake and suffered terrible loss (Noche triste). 
Reinforced, Cortez defeated the Mexicans in a pitched battle near 
Otompan (July 8). Occupation of Tescuco (Dec. 31V Conquest 
of Iztapalapan (1521). After having built a fleet of tlurtcen vessels 
which were transported by land and launched in the lake of Mexico, 
Cortez laid siege to the capital. After a long investment, accom- 
panied with an almost daily storm (May -Aug. 13, 1521) the city 
was taken. Capture of the king Guatemozin, who was tortured and 

286 Modem Hi$tory. A. D. 

finally executed. Submission of the country. Cortez, at first gov- 
ernor of New Spain with unlimited power, was afterwards restricted 
to the chief command of the military forces. Prosecuting the search 
for a western passage he discovered California (1526). Cortez re- 
turned to Spain in 1540, and died at Seville in 1547. 
1520. Nov. 7-Nov. 28. Passage of the Straits of Magellan by 

Magalhaea, see p. 280. 
152Q» Voyage undertaken for slaves at the suggestion of Lucas 
Vasquez d* Ay lion, exploration of the east coast of North 
America to 32° or 34° N. Cabo de Sta Helena^ ''Chicara:* 
1522. Discovery of the Bermudas. 

1524. Alleged voyage of Qiovanni de Verraxzano in the service 
of the king of France. The letter of Yerrazzano which gives 
the only existing account of the voyage ascribes to the writer 
the discovery, of the east coast of North America from 34^ 
(39°) N. to 50° N. It has been thought that many places 
mentioned can be identified. The truth of the whole story has 
been disputed, but present opinion seems to be in favor of its 
acceptance (?). 

1524. Geographical confess of Badajoa, to settle the boundary be- 
tween Spain and Portugal in the eastern hemisphere, which 
should correspond to the line of Alexander VI. in the western ; 
after a stormy session the council separated without reaching 
an agreement. 

1525-1527. Exploration of the coast of Peru by Francisco Pizarro 
ri478 (?)~1641), as a preliminary to the conquest of that king- 
dom, of which he had heard on Balboa's expedition (p. 284), 
in accordance with an agreement made by r^izarrOf Diego de 
AlmaffrOy and Hernando de Luqiie. Repulse of Pizarro and 

1525. Voyage of Estevan Gomez, a Spaniard, along the east coast of 

North America, 34° N. to 44° N. 

1526. Voyage of Sebastian Cabot in the service of Spain. Dis- 

covery of the Rio de la Plata, Parana, Paraguay, Uruguay, 
The English had taken but little part in the discoveries since 
the time of Cabot, although traces enough of intercourse re- 
main to show that the New World was not entirely neglected. 

1527. Voyage of John Rut, who coasted north to 53° N. and returned 
by way of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, and the coast of Maine 

1528. Lnsuccessiul expedition of PamphUo de Narvaez to Florida, 
under a grant of all the country between Cape Florida and 
the River of Palms. After visiting Apalache (June 5) Nar- 
vaez sailed westward and was lost in a storm (Nov.). Of the 
survivors, four, one of whom was Caheca de Vaca, made their 
way by land to the Spanish possessions in Mexico (1536). 

1528. Settlement of Germans at Caro, between St. Martha and 
Maracapana ; presented to the family of WeUer by Charles V. 

1531-1532. Conquest of Peru by Pizaxro. 

The undertaking was favored by a civil war which was raging 

A. D. America. 287 

at the time in the empire of the Incas. Foimdatk>n of St. Bilchael 
on the Piuro in Peru. Capture of the Inca, Atahuallpa, before his 
army (Nov. 16) ^ who, after the extortion of an immense ransom, was 
put to death (1533). March of Alvarado from Puerto Viego to Quito, 
Occupation of Limaj the capital of the Incas (1534). Feuds between 
the Spanish leaders. Almagro defeated (1538) and executed by 
Pizzaro. The latter was afterwards killed, with his brother. The 
Spanish crown assumed the administration of the country (1548). 

1534. First voyage of Jacques Cartier, a French sailor, from St. 
Malo. biscovery of the west coast of Newfoundland (May 
10), Prince Edward^a Island, Miramichi Bay. Anticostu coast 

1535. May-1536. July. Second voyage of Cartier; discovery of 
the Bay of Sl Lawrence, River of SL Lawrence (Hochelaga), 
as far as the site of Montreal ftf ormation received about 
the great lakes. 

Foundation of the modem city of Lima. Unsuccessful invasion 
of Chili by Almagro. 

1537. Discovery of Lower California by Cortez. 

1538. The west coast of South America explored to 40^ S. by 


1539. May~1543, Sept. Expedition of Ferdinando de Soto, gover- 

nor of Cuba, for the conquest of Florida, with nine vessels and 
over 900 men. After toilsome marches in Florida, with no result but 
disappointment, De Soto led his men westward to the Mississippi, 
where he died (at the jimcture of this stream and the Gnacoya) and 
was buried in the stream. The remains of the expedition (311 men) 
reached Panuco Sept. 10, 1543. According to Dr. Kohl, De Soto 
reached 30*^ 40^ N. m Georgia, and explored the Mississippi to the 
Ohio (38° N.) 
1539-1540. Alomo de Camargo coasted from the Straits of Magellan 

to Peru, completing the exploration of the coast of South 


1540. Expedition of Alar^on in search of the passage to the Indies 
(Straits of Anion). Exploration of the coast of California to 
36° N. Voyage up the Colorado. Lower California, pre- 
viously held to be an island, was thus 8ho\7n to be a peninsula. 
Early maps so represent it ; afterwards the conviction that it 
was an island spread anew and late into the next century the 
best maps of America contained this error. 

1540-1542. Expedition of Francisco Vasquez Coronado, sent out by 
the Spanish viceroy, Mendoza, in search of the seven cities of 
Cibola, concerning whose wealth the Spaniards had derived 
extravagant ideas from the reports of the Indians. Coronado 
reached Zuni May 11. Discovery of the Moqui cafion of the 
Colorado. Reports of a city, Quivird. Coronado wintered at 
Zuni among the Pueblo Indians. In 1541 he marched north- 
east to 40° N. and returned to Mexico (bisons). 

1540. Expedition of Cartier to the St. Lawrence, with five ships. 
Roberval (Jean Fram-ois de la Roche, lord of Roberval), ap- 
pointed governor of Canada and Hochelaga and all countries 

288 Modem History. A. D. 

north of 40^ N. (New France), failed to take part in tliis voyage. 
Cartier founded the fortress of Charlesburg and explored the 
St. Lawrence. 

1541. Gonzalo Pizarro, governor of Quito, crossed the Andes and ex- 
plored the river rfapo for 200 leagues : his subordinate, Fran- 
cisco Orellana sailed down the Napo to the Amazon, and 
down that river to the sea (Aug. 6). Orellana returned in 
1543 to conquer the country, but died in the search for the 

1542. Roberval reached Newfoundland, where he met Cartier, who, 

against the will of the governor, returned to France. Rober- 
val built a fort not far above the island of Orleans, but the en- 
terprise was soon abandoned. 
Rodrigti&s de CabriUo, sent in search of the passage to the In- 
dies, discovered Cc^ Mendocino in 42° N. on the west of 
North America, and explored as far as 44° N. 

1545. Mines of Potosi claimed for Spain. 

1547. Pedro de Gcisca, president of l^eru. Organization and pacifica- 
tion of the country. 

1547. Bishopric of Paraguay established. 

1548. First act of the English Parliament relating to America (2 
Edw. VI. : regulation of the fisheries at Newfoundland). 

1555-1560. First attempt of the admiral de Coligny to found a 
Protestant settlement in America. The chevalier Nicolaus 
Durand de VUlegagnon led two ships to Brazil, and founded a 
colony at the Bay of Rio de Janeiro. Geneva sent fourteen 
missionaries to the colony. Villegagnon now joined the Cath- 
olic church, and his defection rumed the colony ; many set- 
tlers returned to France (1557), some of the rest were mur- 
dered by the Portuguese (1558), and in 1560 the colony was 
entirely broken up by the Portuguese government. Andre 
Thevetf who accompanied Villegagnon, on his return to France 
coasted along the east coast of North America to the Bacallaos 
(Newfoundland), and on hLs return described his voyage in a 
gossipy, untrustworthy book. 

1558. Last Spanish expedition to Carolana ; no settlement made. 

1560-1561. Expedition of Pedro de Urana in search of the empire of 
the OrmaguaSf and of the scoundrel Lope de Aguirre in search 
of El Dorado in South America. 

1562. Second attempt of admiral de Coligny to establish a 
Huguenot colony in America. Expedition of Jean Ribaxdt, 
Erection of Charles Fort near Port Royal in South Carolina. 
The settlement was soon abandoned. 

1563. First slave voyage made by the English to America. John 

Hawkins with three ships brought S[)0 negroes to the West 

1564. Third attempt of Coligny to establish a Huguenot Colony 
in America. Rene Laudonnierey sent to carry aid to Ribault's 
colony, finding the settlers gone built Fort Carolina on the St. 
John^s river in Florida (June). Arrival of RibauU (1565, Aug. 

A. D. Americcu 289 

1565, Sept. 20. Storm of Fort Carolina by the Spaniards under 
Menendez de Aviies ; massacre of the garrison ('* I do this 
not as to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans "). Kibault put to 
sea, but was captured and slain with all his company. Con- 
struction of three Spanish forts on the St. John's (Castle of 
8t. Augustine). 
1568. Expedition of Dominique de Gk>nrges to avenge the mas- 
April, sacre of the French at Fort Carolina. Capture and destruc- 
tion of the Spanish forts, massacre of the garrison (** I do this 
not as to Spaniards, nor as to mariuers, but as to tndtors, rob- 
bers and murderers"). 
1572. First voyage of Francis Drake to South America. Attack 
upon NofS^re de Dios and Darien. 

1576, Firat voyage ef Martin Frobisher in search of a northwest 
June- Aug. passage. Discovery of Frobisher^s Strait and Meta In- 
cognita on the north coast of North America (60°), Supposed 
discovery of gold. 

1577, May-Sept. Second voyage of Frobisher. 

1578, May-Sept. Third voyage of Frobisher. 

1677, Dec. 13-1580, Nov. 3. Voyage of Francis Drake around the 
world. Touching the west coast of North America he dis- 
covered " Drake's Port,^ and claimed the country between 38° N. and 
42° N. for England under the name of New Albion. 

^578. Unsuccessful voyage of discovery of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, un- 
der a patent from queen Elizabeth. 
1580. Foundation of Santa Fein New Mexico, by De Espefio, 

1583. Second voyage of Sir Humphrey Gilbert. Landing at Nero- 
foundland he took formal possession of the island for England 
in right of the discovery of the Cabots. On the return voyage 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert was lost in a storm. 

1584. Sir ^Valter Raleigfa having secured a transfer to himself of the 
patent granted to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, his half-brother, dis- 
patched Amadas and Barlow to explore the coast of North 
America north of the Spanish settlements. They landed on 

July 13. the island of Wocokon and took possession of the country 
for the queen. Exploration of Roanoke. On their return the 
explorers gave glowing accounts of the country, which received 
the name of Virginia. 

1585. Colony of 180 persons under Sir Richard Qrenville 
sent to Roanoke Island ; suffering from destitution they were re- 
moved in 1586 by Drake. Grenville arriving with supplies immedi- 
ately after their departure left fifteen sailors to hold possession ; they 
had, however, all disappeared before the arrival (1587) of 117 new 
colonists. ** Borough of Raleigh in Virginia," governor, John White. 
Virginia Dare, first English child born in America. This colony 
met an unknown fate. White returned to Virpnnia in 1590, but could 
not find the colony. In 1589 Raleigh sold his patent. 

1585. First voyage of John Davis to the north. Exploration of 
Davis Straits to 66" 4(/. Discovery of Gilbert Sound and 
' Cumberland Straits. 

290 Modem IRiiory. a. d. 

1686. Naval expedition of Sir Fronds Drake to the Spanish West 
Indies. Sack of St. Domingo and Carthagena. Rescue of the 
colony of Virginia. 

1587. Third voyage of John Davis (the second was to Labrador in 
1586). He reached 72^ 12f N. and discovered the Cumber- 
land Islands, London Coasts Lumley^s Inlet (Frobisher's Strait ^). 

1592. Alleged discovery of the strait of Juan de la Fuca on the west 
coast of North America in 48° N. bv Apostolos Valerianos, a 
Greek, who had beeir in the service of Spain under the name 
of Jfjum de la Fuca, Peschel {Gesch, d, Erdhunde, I. 273) 
regards the story as apocryphal. 

1595. Ei^edition of Sir Walter Raleigh to GKiiana. Capture of 
the citv of St. James. Search for £1 Dorado. Voyage up 
the Orinoco for 400 miles. 

1595. Expedition of Drake and Hawkins to the West Indies. Death 
of Hawkins. Drake died 1596. 

1598. The Marquis de la Roche obtained from Henry IV. of France 
a commission to conquer Canada. He left forty convicts on 
the Isle of Sahle, made some explorations in AcadiOy and re- 
turned to France. After his death his patent was g^ranted to 
Chauiriii, who made two successful voyages to Tadoussacy and 
left some people there (1600). 

1602. Voyage of Bartholemew Gosnold from Falmouth. Taking due 
westerly course he first saw land in 42^ N. Discovery of a 
cape which Gosnold named Cape Cod (Mav 15). Discovery 
of Buzzard^s Bay (called Gosnold's Hope). Erection of a fort 
and storehouse on Cuttyhunk (called by Gosnold Elizabeth 
Islandy a name now applied to ike whole chain of islands of 
which this is the most westerly). Return of the whole party 
to England. 

1603. Voyage of Martin Prvng from Bristol along the coast of Maine 
from the Penobscot River to the Bay of Massachusetts. 

1603. Voyage of Samuel Champlain, a Frenchman, from Brouage, up 
the St. Lawrence. 

1604. Foundation of Port Royal (the present Annapolis) 
in Nova Scotia by the French. 

In 1603 Pierre du Gast, Sieur de Monts, obtained from Henry 
IV. of France a grant of all lands in North America from 40^ N. to 
46^ N. (from Pennsylvania to New Brunswick), under the name of 
Acadia. (This name was afterwards restrictea to the present Nova 
Scotia, and the French possessions in North America were designated 
generally as New France.) In 1604 De Monts associated himself 
with M. PotUrincourt and sailed for America with two vessels. 
Foundation of Port Royal by Poutrincourt. Discovery of the 
St. John River by Champlain, De Monts' pilot. De Monts built a fort 
at St. Croix, but in the following year joined Poutrincourt at Port 

1 See Fesohel, Gesch. d. Erdhunde, I. 299, for a discussion of the errors of 
the early Arctic navigators. 

A. D. America, 201 

1605. Voyage of George Weymouth (who had made atrip to Labrador 

in 1593^ to the North American coasj; in ahont 41° SO' N. 
Over a huuared years had elapsed since the discovery of America, 
and thus far South America and Central America had alone been the 
scene of active and successful colonization. In North America, a 
few scattered Spanish settlements in the south and one French 
colony in the north were the only representatives of European civiliza- 
tion. The next few years witnessed a mighty change. England, 
which for all her voyages had not a foot of land in America, entered on 
a course of settlement and conquest which ultimately gave her the 
fairest portion of the New World. 

English, Dutch, and Swedish Colonies in North 

America (1606-1638). 

A. English Colonies. 

1606. April 10. The patent of Sir Walter Raleigh becoming void by 
his attainder for treason, James I. issued a patent dividing 

Virginia into two parts : 1. The First Colony, embracing the 
country from 34° N. to 38° N. with the right to settle as far as 41° N. 
if they were the first to found their colony : this southern colony was 
granted to a number of gentlemen, resiaing principally in London 
{Richard Hakluyt), and known as the London Company. 2. The 
Second Colony, embracing the country between 41^ N. and 45^ N. 
with the right of settling as far as 38^ N. if they were the first to 
establish their colony ; this northern colony was granted to gentle- 
men residing chiefly in Bristol, PlymoiUh, etc., and hence known as the 
Plymouth Company. Each company was to become owner of the 
land for fifty miles on each side of the first settlement, and one hun- 
dred miles inland. The nearest settlements of the two colonies 
should be one hundred miles apart. The government of each colony 
was vested in a council resident in England and nominated by the 
king ; the local government was intrusted to a council resident 
in America also nominated by the king, and to conform to his 
regulations. Imports from England free of duty for seven years ; 
freedom of trade with other nations, the duties for twenty-seven 
years to go to the colonies. Right of coinage and of self-defeiise. 
Establishment of a Council of Virginia in England for the superin- 
tendence of both colonies. 

Colony of South Virginia. 

1607» May 13. Foundation of Jamestown in the southern 
colony by a band of one hundred colonists sent out under 
Christopher Newport. It included Bartholomew Gosnold and 
John Smith. Dissension in the council. Explorations by John 
Smith who was captured by the Indians, and presented to the 
chief, Powhatan, but in the end released (story of the rescue 
of Smitii by Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan^). In 1607 

1 This story has been relegated to the realm of fable, on the insufficient 
groond that no mention of it appears in Smith's first account of his captivity. 

292 Modem History, A. D. 

Smith explored the Chesapeake. During the first years the 
colony suffered severely from extremes of heat and cold, as 
well as from dissensions and bad provision by the company. 
Laborers were scarce, the colonists being either gentlemen or 

1609. Second charter of the company of South Virginia, increase of 
privileges and of members. Lord Delaware (Thomas West) 
appointed governor for life. Smith returned to £uffland. 

1610. Tlie distress in the colony was so g^eat (The Starving Time) 

that it was on the point of abandonment when Lord Dela- 
tcare arrived with supplies. 

1611. Delaware returning to £ngland, Sir Thomas Gates was sent out 
as deputy governor. 

1612. Third charter of the company of South Virginia. Inclusion 
of the Bermudas within their possessions. 

1613. The French having established the colony of St. Saviour at 

Mount Desert on the coast of Maine, the governor of South 
Virginia sent Samuel Argal to dispossess them. Argal de- 
stroyed St. Saviour and razed Port Royal. On his return he 
received the submission of the Dutch settlement at Hudson's 
River (?) 

1614. Sir Thomas Dale deputy governor of South Virginia. 

1615. Land, which had hitherto been held of the company by farmers 
as tenants-at-will, was now made private property ; fifty acres 
being now granted to every colonist and his heirs. 

1617. Samuel Arr^ succeeded Sir George Yeardley as deputy govern 
nor of South Virgiuia ; reduced state of the colony. In the 

1618. following year Lord Delaware sailed with supplies and colonists 

for Virginia, but died on the voyage. Rigorous government 
of Argal. At this time there were 600 persons and 300 
cattle in the colony ; the only exports were tobacco and sassa- 
fras, and the London company was indebted £5,000. 

1619. First General Aaaembly in South Virgiiiia convoked 
(June 19) by Sir George Yeardley^ governor general, con- 
sisting of the freemen (burgesses) of the colony, representing 
eleven corporations or plantations. The burgesses sat in the 
same house with the council and governor. 

Introduction of negro slaves (20) into Virginia by a Dutch 

1620. The colony, numbering 1000 persons, received an accessicm 
of 1200 new settlers. Litroduction of women who were sold 
as wives to the colonists for from 100 to 150 pounds of tobacco. 
Free trade with the colony established. 

1621. Sir Francis Wvatt, governor, brought over a new constitution for 
the colony, whereby its government was vested in a governor, 
a council of state, and a getieral assembly, to which two bur- 
gesses were to be chosen by every town, hundred, and planta- 
tion. The governor had the veto power, and every enact- 
m^ent of the colonial legislature required the ratification of 
the company in £ngland to become binding. All ordinances 
of the company were without effect unless accepted by the 

A. D, AmerfccL 293 

1622. March 22. Massacre of 347 colonists by the Indians. 

1624. Commission of inquiry into the affairs of Virginia appointed 
by the crown. In spite of the answer of the general assembly 
wherein the rights of the people were defined, the court of 
king's bench in England, before which the cause was tried, de- 
cided against the company. The charter was annulled. The 
company had sent out more than 9000 persons to the colony, 
of whom not more than 2000 now remained. Sir Francis 
Wyatt was appointed governor, with a council of eleven mem- 
bers, also appointed by the king. Tliis plan of government 
was continued by Charles I. who announced that the colony 
should immediately depend upon the crown, which should ap- 
point the governor and council and issue patents and legal 
processes. Commercial restrictions. 

1630. Grant of Carolana (the region south of the Virginia colony be- 
tween 31° N. and 36° N., from the Athmtic to New Mexico) 
to Sir Robert Heath, being the first instance of a proprietary 
grant by the crown. No settlement seems to have been made, 
on which account the grant was subsequently declared void, 
and a part of the territory granted out under the name of 
Carolina^ a proceeding which resulted in much ill-feeling. 

1632. Grant of Maryland (the region between the Pcftomae 
and the latitude of Philadelphia) to CecU Calvert, lord Balti- 
more, son of Sir George Calvert, to whom the g^nt was orig^ 
inally made, but who cued before putting it to use. The grant 
was met by a protest from Virginia which was of no avail. In 

1634, the first colony reached Maryland ; being about two hundred 
persons. Grant of fifty acres of land to each emigrant as pri- 
vate property. The Calverts being Roman Catholics, no men- 
tion of religious establishment appeared in the charter beyond 
the recognition of Christianity as esta'blished by English com- 
mon law. 

The proprietary governor, holding directly of the crown, 
was subject to no corporation or company, appointed the dep- 
uty governor and the executive officers, regulated the legisla- 
tion, and received the taxes. Tlie general assembly oi the 
colonists possessed an advisatory power, and the right of ex- 
pressing non-approval. 

1636. Grant of New Albion (including New Jersey) from the vice- 
roy of Ireland to Sir Edward Plowden. This New Albion, 
which was not settled, must not be confoimded with the tract 
of like name discovered by Drake on the western coast of 
America (p. 289). 

The Flymontfa Company. 

Immediately upon the receipt of the charter the company had dis- 
patched two explorers to the region of their grant (ChaUons, Hanam), 
and in 

1607, George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert led one hundred colonists 

294 Modem History, A. d. 

to the northern colony. They built Fcrt Su George on the isl- 
and of Motiahigon, at the mouth of the Kennebec River in 
Maine (Aug. 11). The death of George Popham and of Sir 
John Popham in England (1608) so disheartened the colonists 
that they returned to England. No further attempts at settle- 
ment being made for some time, the lYench (who had also a 
claim to these regions (see 1604) planted several colonies within 
the territory of the Plymouth Company. 
1614. Exploration of the coast of the northern colony by John Smith 
from Penobscot to Cape Cod, On his return he wrote an ac- 
count of his voyage and published a map of the district explored, 
to which the name of New^ England was given. Irouble 
with the Indians, spring^g from the action of Thomas Hunt, 
who carried off twenty-seven natives to the West Indies for 
slaves, discouraged settlement. 
After the frustration of an attempt at colonization by Smith in 
1515 through adverse circumstances, the company itself made no more 
attempts at settlements, and the colonies that grew up in its territories 
were founded by companies or individuals under its charter but in- 
dependent of its action. One of the most important settlements, in- 
deed, was made without any authority from the company. In 1620 
the company was reorganized as the Council of Plymouth for New 
England with territory from Philadelphia to ChcUeur Bay (40<^ N. to 
480 N.) 

1620. Settlement of Pljnnouth in New England by 
English separatists from Holland. 
This religious sect, a sort of left wing of the larger body of 
Puritans, had left England in 1607-8 on account of the intolerance 
with which they were treated, and settled at Lcyden in Holland 
(1609) to the number of 1000 or more, under their minister, John Rob- 
inson, After several attempts to secure a patent from the London 
company (South Virginia), and a promise of toleration from the 
king, they succeeded m the former endeavor in 1619, but not in the 
latter. Procuring two ships, the Speedioell and the Mayflower^ a 
number of the cong^gation set sail Aug 5, from Southampton (hav- 
ing left Leyden in July) for the vicinity of Hudson's River. Twice 
driven back by stress of weather the Pilgrims (a name applied much 
earlier to the whole body in Holland) finally left Plymouth in the 
Mayflower^ Sept. 6. On Nov. 9 they sighted Cape Cod, but instead 
of running southward they were induced by fear of shoal water, by the 
late season, and perhaps by the cunning of the shipmaster, to anchor 
at the Cape. On Nov. 11, the company signed a contract of govern- 
ment (they being beyond the limits of the London Company), and 
elected John Carver governor. For some weeks they explored the 
coast, landing at various places. (Birth of Peregrine Whitey the first 
European child born in New England). Toward the close of De- 
cember they fixed on the site of Plymouth, and landing, began the 
erection of a house and portioned out land among the settlers (nine- 
teen families, 102 individuals).^ 

1 It is difficult to decide on the actual day of landing, as larger and smaller 

A. D. 

America. 295 

1621. lotercourse of the colonists (Capt. Miles Standish) with the In- 
dians (Samoset, MaBsasoit, chief of the Indians in that vicin- 
ity). Upon the death of Carver, "William Bradford was 
elected governor. Arrival of anew charter from the Plymouth 
Company, but made out in the name of some London mer- 
chants, with whom the Pilerims had had connection when in 
Holland. Over fifty of the original settlers died this year. 
Trouble with the Indians 1621-23. 
Meantime the territory of the Plymouth Company was being par- 
celed out among various adventurers by often conflicting grants. In 
1621 Sir William Alexander obtained a patent for the whole of Aca- 
dia, under the name of Nova Scotia, from the crown of Scotland 
(confirmed, 1625). The region from Salem River to the Merrimac was 
granted to John Mason and called Mariana. In 1622 Sir Fernando 
Gorges and John Mason obtained a grant of all lands between the 
Merrimac and the Kennebec^ which region was called at first Laconia, 
afterwards, Maine. In 1622 settlements were made on the site of 
the present Dover (Cochecho) and Portsmouth, In 1624 a few Pui-i- 
tans from England settled at Cape Ann ; the colony afterwards re- 
moved to Naumkeag (Roger Conant, 1626). In 1626 Captain WoUas- 
ton settled at Mount WoUaston, near Boston. 

1623. The Plymouth Company sent out FVancis West as " Admiral of 
New England,'' Robert Gorges as " Govemor-Greneral," and 
William MorreU as " Superintendent of Churches " but nothing 
came of this assertion of authority. 

1627. The colony at Plymouth succeeded in buying off the London 

merchants in whose name their charter Imd been issued. 
Growth of the colony ; friendly intercourse with the Dutch. 

1628. The Plymouth Company issued a errant of the land between 
three miles south of the Charles River, and three miles north 
of the Merrimac, reaching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, to 
a company which sent out John Endicott with a body of col- 
onists who joined the others at Naumkeag. In 1629 the 
name of the colony was changed to Salem. 

The colony at Plymouth obtained a grant of Kennebec. 

Suppression of the settlement at WoUaston (" Merry Mount ") 
by Endicott. Morton, who after Wollaston's departure had 
ruled the colony and had sold fire arms to the Indians, was 
seized by Standish from Plymouth and sent to England. 

1629. Establishment of the colony of Massachusetts 

Bay. ("The Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in 
New England ") by a charter issued directly by the crown to the 
company, enlarged by new associates, which had settled Salem. The 
company was permitted to elpct a governor, deputy governor and 
eighteen assistants yearly, and to make laws not repugnant to those of 
England. The first governor, Matthew Cradock, was succeeded by 

bandd were coining and going from the f>hip for several days. The conventional 
date, Dec. 11, O.S., or Dec. 91 (22), N.S., has been much disiputed. See Gtey, 
*• When did the Pilgrim Fathers land at Plymouth? " — Atlantic Monthly, No- 
vember, 1881, p. 612. 

296 Modem Hiitory. a. d. 

John Endicott» A number of influential men becoming interested in 
the enterprise, the governing council or court of the company in Eng- 
land (*' Ijie Governor and Council of London's Plantation in Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England ") consented that the charter and gov- 
ernment should be transferred to the colony (Aug. 20), under which 
agreement Jolin ^Vinthrop was chosen governor, and in 1630 sailed 
for New England with a large number of settlers, who landed at 
Charlestotvrif where an offshoot from the Salem colony was already 
established. Here a church was founded and two courts of assistants 

1629. Mason and Gorges dissolving their connection, a new grant was 
made to each. Mason receiving the territory between the 
Merrimac and the Piscataqua, a region afterwards called Noikt 
Hampshire.^ Gorges received the region between the Pis- 
caiaqua and the Kennebec, under the name of New Somerset' 

1630. Third and last patent of the Plymouth colony, whereby it was 
assigned the district between the Cohasset River and the iViar- 
raganset, extending westward to the limits of PokenahU or 
Sowamsel, '* The colonists were allowed to make orders, or- 
dinances, and constituti<His, for the ordering, disposing, and 
governing their persons, and distributing the lands within the 
umits of the patent." 

1630. Settlement of Boston, on the peninsula called Shawmut by 
the Indians, but Trimountcdn by the English, and then inhab- 
ited by an episcopal minister, William Blackstone. On Sept. 
7, the court at Charlestown changed the name of Trimauntain 
to Boston. First general court of Massachusetts held at 
Boston, Oct. 19. It was enacted that the freemen should 
elect the assistants, who were to choose out of their own num- 
ber the governor, but the next court decreed that the governor, 
deputy governor, and assistants should be elected directly by 
the freemen. Only church-members were freemen, so that the 
freemen formed a minority of the population. In 1631 a 
fortified town was begun on the Charles and called Newtown 
(afterwards Cambridge). 

Colony of Connectiout. 

The Dutch (Adrian Block, 1614) were the first to explore the 
coast of Connecticut and the river of that name, when they built a 
fort near Hartford. In 1630 the council of Plymouth granted to the 
earl of Warwick the land 120 miles S. E. from the Narraganset River, 
and extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In 1631 Warwick 
transferred this grant to the viscount Say and Seal, lord Brook, and 
others. In 1633 the colonies of Plymouth and Boston conferred on 
the question of settling the Connecticut valley ; as the Massachu- 
setts colony declined the enterprise a company was sent out from 

1 The *'Deed from four Indian sagamores to John Wlieelwright and others, 
1629," long accepted as the foundation of the history of New Hampshire, is 
now generally accounted a forgery. Holmes, Annah^ 1. 199, note 2. "Win- 
ihrop, Joamal, ed. by Savage. Fogg, Gazeteer o/N. H, 

A. D. America. 297 

Flymonth, which disregarded the prohibition of the Dnteh and set up 
a house on the Connecticut. The rival claims of the Dutch and 
English were discussed without effect by the colonies. 

1634. The growth of the colony of Massachusetts Bay preventing 
the attendance of all freemen at the general court, it was en- 
acted that whereas four courts should be held in a year, the 
whole body of freemen should be present at that court only in 
which the elections were held ; at the other courts the freemen 
in the towns should send deputies. 

1635. Surrender of the Charter of the Connoil of Plymouth 
to the crown in consequence of the hostility of the govern- 
ment and church. 

1635. Foundation of the Connecticnt colony by emigrants from Mas- 

sachusetts (Windsor, Wethersfield, Hartford), and by John 
Wintkrop, son of Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts, who 
built a fort at Saybrook, under commission from the proprie- 
tors. In 1636 a large part of the inhabitants of Newtown 
(Cambridge) migrated to Connecticut and settled at Hart- 

1636. A code of laws (the General Fundamentals) established at 


1636. Foundation of Providence by Roger 'WiUiama, who had 
been eicpelled from Salem in 1634 for holding heretical doc- 
trines subversive of church and state. 

At this time there were 20 towns in the Massachusetts Bay 
colony, and some 800 persons in Connecticut. 

1637. War of Connecticut (first general court at Hartford) and Mas- 
sachusetts against the unruly tribe of Pequots in Connecticut. 
Defeat of uie Indians. 

1638. Foundation of the colony of Rhode Island by John Clark 
and others, who left Massachusetts on account of religious 
differences. Purchase of the island of Aquedneck (afterwards 
Isle of Rhodes) from the Indians. 

In this year another attempt was made by quo warranto pro- 
cess to rescind the charter of Massachusetts, but it failea of 

In consequence of a bequest of £779 17s. 2d. ivaoiJohn Hot- 
vard, of Charlestown, Uie public school which the colony had 
enacted in the previous year should be established at Newtown 
received the name of Harvard College, while the name of 
the town was changed to Cambridge. 

1639. Windsor^ Hartford, Wethersjield, on the Connecticut, united to 
form a separate government. The constitution (Jan. 14) 
placed the executive, legislative, and judicial powers in the 
general assembly, composed of the deputies of the towns in 
the ratio of numbers of freemen, meeting twice a year. All 
could' vote who had taken the oath of allegiance to the con- 

The grant of Sir Ferdinando Gorges was confirmed to him by 
the crown under the title of the Province of Maine. 

A general assembly of the deputies of the towns in Fly- 
month colony met for the first time (June 4). 

298 Modem History. A. d. 

1641. The Body of Uberties, a code of 100 laws established by 
the general court of the colony of Massachusetts Bay. 

1643. Creation of the United Colonies of New England by the 
alliance of Connecticat, New Haven, Plymouth and Mas- 
saohusettB Bay (May 19) for mutual defense. 

B. Dutch Settlezaents. 

1609. Henry Hudson, an Englishman in Dutch service, coasted 
from Netcfoundland to the Chescmeake^ and entered Hudson^s 
River, Trading voyages of the Dutch (1610-1613). 

1613. Establishment of a Dutch trading post on the island of Man- 
kcUtan at the mouth of the Hudson, or North River (so called 
to distinguish it from the South River, or Delaware). Alleged 
submission of the Dutch to Argal (p. 292). 

1614. Establishment of the United New Netherland Company 
in Holland with a grant in America of territory from 40° N. 
to 45° N. Fort bmlt at Manhattan, another. Fort Orange, near 
the present Albany Q615). Voyage of Adrian Block through 
Long Island sound {Block Island)* 

1621. Creation of the Dutch West India Company to take the place 
of the New Netherland Company whose cluurter had expired. 

1626. Peter Minuit, having purchased Manhattan Island for 
twenty-four dollars, founded the settlement of New 

Settlements were made under the charter of the company in Con- 
necticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, as well as in New 
York. Many of these were founded under an enactment of the com- 
pany which gave the title of patroon to any person who should bring 
over a certain number of colonists under certain conditions ; the title 
represented a certain relation of suzerainty between the founder and 
the colonists. 

The council for New England had opposed what it regarded as the 
Dutch invasion in 1620-21, and the remonstrances of the English 
grew stronger after the foundation of New Amsterdam (1627,1632). 
The settlement of Connecticut from New England (1632-1638) was 
opposed by the Dutch in vain, and the entire region was wrested 
from them. (Protest of Kieft, governor of New Netherlands against 
the foundation of New Haven.) The Dutch drove a flourishing trade 
with the Five Nations of the Iroquois in central New York, whom they 
supplied with firearms. 

C. Swedish Settlements. 

1638. Foundation of Fort Christiana on the Delaware by a colony of 
Swedes and Finns. The colony was called New Svreden, 
and was followed by other settlements. The Dutch considered 
this an invasion of their rights, but the disputes that followed 
led to no result until 1655, when New Sweden was annexed to 
New Netherlands. 

A. D. America. 299 

D. New France and the Arctic Region. 

It must be remembered that France claimed, by right of the dis- 
coveries of Verrazano, the whole of North America north of Spanish 
Florida and Mexico, although settlements had been made only in 
Nova Scotia and on the St. Lawrence, nothing having come of the 
projected settlement between Spanish Florida and English Virginia. 
It was with the French in the North that the English settlers had to 
deal ; it was to Canada that they applied the name of New France, as 
that of Acadia was restricted to Nova Scotia. From the north 
the French afterwards made the great discoveries in the west which 
gave them new claims to the largest part of America. 

1606. An attempted settlement on Cape Cod repulsed by the Indians. 

1608. Foandation of Quebec (July 3) by a colony sent oat 
by De Monts, under Champlain. 

1609. Champlain, joining a war party of the Algonquins against the 
Iroquois, discovered Iiake Champlain. 

1610. Discovery of Hudson's Bay by Henry Hudson, who was 
searching for the northwest passage, in the service of an 
English company. On the return the crew mutinied and 
Hudson was put to sea in a small boat, and not heard of 

1610. English colony sent to Newfoundland 46° N. to 62° N. (Con- 
ception Bay). 

1612. Voyage of Hiomas Button in search of the Northwest Passage. 

Discovery of New South Wales and New North Wales, Button's 

1613. Madame de GuerchemUe, having secured the surrender of De 

Moms' patent, and the issue of a new patent from the crown 
for all New France between Florida and the St, Lawrence 
(except Port RoydT), sent Saussage with two Jesuits, who took 
possession of Nova Scotia and founded a colony (5^. Saviour) 
on Ml. Desert, which was immediately broken up by ArgaVs 
expedition from Virginia. All the French settlements in 
Acadia were also destroyed. 

1615. Expedition of Champlain to Lake Huron. 

1616. Voyage of By lot and Baffin in search of the Northwest Pas- 
sage. Discovery of Wolstenholme's Sound, Lancaster Sound, 
Baffin's Bay (78° N.). 

1621. Grant of Acadia under the name of Nova Scotia, to Sir 
William Alexander by the crown of Scotland. An attempt at 
settlement was unsuccessful and the French continued in pos- 
session. Grant of a part of Newfoundland to Sir George Cal- 
vert (Lord Baltimore) who resided there until 1631. 

1627. Transfer of the colony of Quebec to the company of a hun- 
dred associates under Cardinal Richelieu. 

1629. Conquest of Quebec by Louis and Thomas Kirk, under a 
commission from Charles I. for the conquest of New France. 
An attack of David Kirk in 1628 had been repulsed by 

300 Modem History. a. d. 

1630. St Estienne of La Tour, a Hagaenot, bought from Sir William 
Hamilton Yds patent for Nova Scotia, on condition that the 
colony should remain subject to Scotland. 

1631. Voyages of Fox and James in search of a Northwest Passi^. 

Fox explored the west coast of Hudson Bay from 65° 30^to 
65° 10' in vain, but discovered Fox*s Chantiel and reached Cape 
Peregrine. James discovered James Batf, where he passed a 
terrible winter. 

1632. Treaty of St. Germain between France and England. Ces- 
sion of New France, Acadia, and Canada to France. 

1635. Seizure of the trajding post established at Penobscot by the 
Plymouth colonists by tne French. Plymouth sent a vei^el 
against the French, but failed to recover the place. Death 
of Champlain. 

1641. Maisonneuve appointed governor of Montreal ; in 1642 he 
brought over several families and took possession of the 


1493-1514 Maximilian L, 

who at first took the title of " Roman Emperor elect." 
1495. Diet at Worms. Perpetual public peace. Imperial Cham- 
ber {Reichskammergericht\ first at Frankfort, then at Speier, 
after 1689 at Wetzlar, At the diet of Cologne (1512), establishment 
of ten circles for the better maintenance of the public peace (JLand- 
friedenskreise): Circle of : 1. Austria ; 2. Bavaria ; 3. Swabia; 4. Frann 
conia; 5. the Upper Rhine (Lorraine, Hesse, etc.) ; 6. the Lower 
Rhine, or the Electorates (Mainz, Trier, Cologne) ; 7. Burgundy 
(1556, ceded to the Spanish line of Hapsburg) ; 8. Westfhalia ; 9. 
Lower Saxony (Brunswick, Liineburg, Lauenburg, Holstem, Meck- 
lenburg, etc.) ; 10. Upper Saxony (Saxony, Brandenburg, Pommer- 
ania, etc.). In all comprising 240 estates of the empire, exclusive 
of the imperial knic^hts. Bohemia and the neighboring states, Moravia, 
Silesia, Lusatia, with Prussia and Switzerland, which was already 
completely independent, in fact, were not included in the circles. 

Establishment of the Aulic Council, a court more under the control 
of the emperor than the Imperial Chamber, and to which a large port 
of the work belonginsr to the latter was gradually diverted. 

Maximilian was obliged to invest Louis XII. of France with Milan. 
1508. League of Cambray between Maximilian, Louis XII., Pope 
Julius II., and Ferdinand the Catholic, against Venice. Maxi- 
milian took possession of a part of the territory of the republic, but 
besieged Paidua in vain (1509). The Pope withdrew from the 
league, and concluded with Vemce and Ferainand the Holy League 
(1511) against France, in which they were finally (1513) joined by 
Maximilian (p. 319). 

The following genealogical table shows the claim of the house of 
Hapsburg to Spam, and its division into a Spanish and German line. 

A. D. 

Germany. — Reformation* 


Maximilian /., 
emperor, t 1619 




queen of Castile, 
t 1604. 

of Burgundy, king of Aragon, 

t 1482. 1 1516. 

d. of Charles 
the Bold, 
duke of Burgundy. 
Philip the Fair, z==^==: Joanna the Insane 

archduke of Austria, 
t 1506. 


queen of Aragon and Castile, 
t 1555. 


Charles I. (V.), t 1558. 
m. Isabella of Portugal. 

Philip II., king of Spain, 
t 1598. 

Ferdinand I., 1 1564. 
m. Anna of Hungary. 

Maximilian II., 
emperor, f 1576. 

Maximiliau's son Philip married Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand 
(king of Aragon and iVa/?/^^), and Isabella (queen of Castile\ hence 
beii'ess of the three kingdoms and the American Colonies, Philip him- 
self inherited from his mother, Mary, the heiress of Burgundy, the Bur- 
fundian Lands ; from his father, MaximUianj all the possessions of the 
lapsburgs {Western Austria on the upper Rhine, Austria, Carinthia, 
Camiola, Tyrol, etcX All these lands descended to Charles, the eldest 
son of Philip and Joanna, the ancestor of the elder, Spanish, line of 
the Hapsburg house. His younger brother, Ferdinand, ancestor of 
the younger, German, line of the house of Hapsburg, married Anna, 
sister of Louis II., last king of Bohemia and Hungary (whose wife 
was Mary, Ferdinand's sister).^ 

1517. Beginning of the Befonnation. Luther. 

Martin Luther was bom 1483 at Eisleben, son of a miner, 
became master of arts and instructor 1505 ; monk in the Augustine 
monastery at Erfurt; 1507 priest; 1508 professor at Wittenberg; 1510 
sent to Rome on business connected with his order; 1512 doctor of 
theology. On Oct. 31, 1517, he nailed upon the door of the court 
church at Wittenberg his ninety-five theses against the misuse of 
absolution or indulgences (especially by the Dominican monk Tetzel), 

1518. Beginning of the reformation in Switzerland by Zwingli at 
Ziirich. Zwingli fell in battle at Kappel 1531. 

Summoned to Augsburg by Cardinal de Vio of Gaeta (Cajetanus), 
Luther could not be induced to abjure (1518), but appealed to the 

Mediation of the papal chamberlain v. Miltitz. After the discussion 
at Leipzig 1519 (Bodenstein, called Carlstadt against Eck), the latter 
secured a papal bull against forty-one articles in Luther's writings. 

1 These fortunate marriages of the house of Austria were celebrated in the 
following couplet : 

Bella gerant alii, tufelix Auttria^ nuht ! 
Qua d(U Mars aliis, dot tiH regna Venus. 

s De Papa male it^ormato ad Papam meUut informandum. 

302 Modem History, A. d. 

Luther burnt (1520) the papal bull and the canon law ; whereupon 
he was excommunicated. In the mean time the German electors, in 
spite of the claims of Francis I. of France, had chosen the grandson 
of Maximilian I. in Spaui, Charles I., as emperor. 

1519-1556. Chaxles V. 

He came to Grermany for the first time in 1520, for the pur^ 

Sose of holding a grand diet at Worms (1521). There Luther 
ef ended his doctrines before tlie emperor, under a safe-conduct. The 
ban of the empire being pronounced against him, he was carried to 
the Wartburg by Frederic the Wise, of Saxony, and there protected. 
The edict of Worms prohibited all new doctrines. Luther's transla- 
tion of the Bible. Hearing of Carlstadt's misdoings he returned to 
Wittenberg, and introduced public worship, with the liturgy in Ger- 
man and communion in both kinds, in electoral Saxony and in Hesse 
(1522). The spread of the Reformation in Germany was favored by 
the fact that the emperor, after the diet of Worms, had left Grermany 
and was occupiedF with the war with Francis I. 

Franz von Sickingen and Ulrich von HuUen advocated the Ref orma^- 
tion. Sickingen stood at the head of an association of nobles directed 
against the spiritual principalities. He laid siege to Trier (1522) in 
vain, was besieged in Lanostuhl, and fell in battle. Hutten fled the 
country and died on the island of Ufn&u in the Lake of Zurich (1523). 

152^1525. The PeasantB* "War, in Swabia and Franconia, ac- 
companied with terrible outrages. The Twelve Articles. The 
peasants defeated at Konigshof en on the Tauber and cruelly punished. 
Anabaptists in Thuringia. Thomas MUnzer captured at Franken- 
hausen and executed. 

Reformation in Prussia. Grandmaster Albert of Brandenburg 
diike of Prussia under Polish overlordship. 

Luther's marriage with Catharine of Bora, formerly a nun. Cate- 
chism. Ferdinand of Austria, the emperor's yoimger brother, edu- 
cated in Spain, to whom Charles had intrusted since 1522 the gov- 
ernment of the Hapsburg lands in Germany, formed an alliance in 
1524, at the mstigation of the papal legate Campeggio, with the two 
dukes of Bavaria and the bishop of Southern Germany, in order to 
oppose the religious changes. To counteract this move the league of 
Tor^u was formed (1626) among the Pi*otestants (John of Saxony, 
Philip of Hesse, Liineburg, Magdeburg, Prussia, etc.). They pro- 
cured an enactment at the diet of Speier, favorable to the new doctrine 

1521-1526. PiTBt war of Charles V. with Francis L 

Charles advanced claims to Milan and the diichy of Burgundy. 
Francis claimed Spanish Navarre and Naples. Tlie French (under 
Lautrec) were driven from Milan, which was given to Francesco Sforza 
(1522). The French Connetable, Charles of Bourbon, transferred liis 
allegiance to Charles V. Unfortunate invasion of Italy by the French 
1523-24, under Bonnivert. The chevalier Bayard (" sans peur et sans 
reproche ") fell during the retreat. Imperial forces invaded southern 
France. Francis I. crossed Mt. Cenis, and recaptured Milan. 

A. D. Germany. — Reformaticm, 803 

1525. Battle of Pavia. Francis defeated and captured. 

1526. Peace of Madrid. Francis renounced all claim to Milan, 
Genoa, and Naples, as well as the overlordship of Flandera 

and Artois, assented to the cession of the duchy of burgundy, and 
gave his sons as hostages. 

1527-1529. Second war between Charles V. and Francis I., who 
had declared that the conditions of the peace of Madnd wcrc 
.extorted by force, and hence void. Alliance at Cognac between Fran- 
cis, the Pope, Venice and Francesco S/orza against the emperor. The 
imperial aiiny, unpaid and mutinous, took Rome by storm imder the 
constable of Bourlx>n, who fell in the assault (by the hand of Ben- 
venuto Cellini?); the Pope besieged in the Castle of St. Angelo (1527). 
The French general, Lauirec, invaded Naples, but the revolt of Genoa 
(Doria), whose independence Charles V. promised to recognize, and 
the plague, of which jLautrec himself died, compelled the French to 
raise the siege of the capital and to retire to France. 

1529. Peace of Cambray (Paix des Dames), So called from the 
fact that it was negotiated by Margaret of Austria, Charles's 
aunt, and Louise of Savoy, duchess of Ang^uldme, mother of Francis. 
Francis paid two million crowns and renounced lus claims upon Italy, 
Flanders and Artois; Charles promised not to press his claims upon 
Burgundy yiw the present, and released the French princes. 

1529. Second diet at Speier, where, in consequence of the victorious 
position of the emperor, Ferdinand and the Catholic party took 

a more decided position. The strict execution of the diet of Worms 
(p. 302) was resolved upon. The evangelical estates protested against 
this resolution, whence they were called Protestants. 

1526-1532. "War with the Turks. Louis II., king of Hungary, 
having fallen in the battle of Mohacs (1526), one party chose 
Ferdinand, Charles's brother, the other John Zapolya. The latter 
was assisted by the Sultan Soliman (Suleiman), who besieged Vienna 
in vain (1529). 

1530. Charles crowned emperor in Bologna by the Pope. This was 
the last coronation of a German emperor by the rope. 

1530. Brilliant Diet at Augsburg, the emperor presiding in per- 
son. Presentation of the Confession of Augsburg (Confes- 

sio Angustana) by Melanchthon (trae name Schicarzerd, 1497-1560), 
the learned friend of Luther. The enactment of the diet commanded 
the abolition of all innovations. 

1531. Schmalkaldic league, agreed upon in 1530, between the ma- 
Feb. 6. jority of Protestant princes and imperial cities. 

Charles caused his brother, Ferdinand, to be elected king of Rome, 
and crowned at Aachen. The elector of Saxony protested against 
this proceeding in the name of the Evangelicals. In consequence of 
the new danger which threatened from the Turks, 

1532. Religious Peace of Nuremberg. The Augsburg edict was 
revoked, and free exercise of their religion permitted the 

Protestants until the meeting of a new council to be called within a 

304 Modem History. A. D. 

Soliman invaded and ravaged Hungary. Heroic defence of GUnz. 
A great imperial army was sent to the aid of Hungary, and Soliman 

1534-1535. Anabaptists in Miinster (Johann Bockelsohn, from Ley- 

1534. Philip, landgrave of Hessen, restored the Lutheran duke, 
Ulrich of Wiirteinherg, who had been driven out (1519) by 
the Swabian league of cities. The Emperor had invested Fer- 
dinand with the duchy, but the latter was obliged to ag^ree to 
a compact, whereby he was to renounce Wiirtemberg, but 
should be recognized as king of Rome by the evangelical 

1635. Charles's expedition against Tvatis (Chaireddin Barbarossa, the 
pirate). Tunis conquered ; liberation of all Christian slaves. 

1536-1538. Third war, between Cliarles V. and Francis L, about 
Milan ; Francis I. having renewed his claims upon that duchy 
after the death of Francesco Sforza II., without issue. Charles in- 
vaded Provence <anew, but fruitlessly. Francis made an inroad into 
Savoy and Piedmont, and accepted the alliance of Soliman, who 
pressed Hungary hard, and sent his fleet to ravage the coast of Italy. 
The war was ended by the 

1538. Truce of Nice, which was concluded on the basis of posses- 
June 18. sion, at the time of its formation, for ten years. 

July. Meeting between Charles and Francis at Aigues Mories. 

1539-1540. Charles V. crossed France, for the purpose of suppress- 
ing a disturbance in Ghent, and was received by Francis with 
special distinction. Ghent punished by deprivation of its privi- 

1540. The Order of Jesuits, founded by Ignatius Loyola (1534), 
approved by Pope Paul III., successfully opposed the spread 
of the Reformation. 

1541. Refoxmation introduced into Geneva by Calvin (Jean Cau- 
vin, from Noyon in Picardy ; born 1509; Catholic pastor in his 

eighteenth year, resigned his office ; studied law at Orleans and 
Bourges ; came forward as a reformer at Paris in 1532, findins^ pro- 
tection from Margaret of Navarre, sister of Francis I. Exiled from 
France, Calvin went to Basel, published the Institutio Christiana relig- 
ionus 1535 ; 1536-1538 in Geneva ; 153&-1541 in Strasburg, after- 
wards head of the state in Geneva, f 1564). From Geneva the 
Reformation spread to France and Scotland (John Knox), 

1541. Charles's unsuccessful expedition against Algiers. 

1542. Henrj/f duke of Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel, driven from the 
country by the Schmalkaldic League. 

1542-1544. Fourth -war between Charles V. and Francis I., ocean 
sioned by the investiture of Charles's son, Philip, with Milan. 
The fact that two secret agents, whom Francis had sent to Soliman, 
were captured in Milan, and when they resisted, put to death, served 
as a pretext. 

▲. D. Germany, — Reformation. 806 

Francis m alliance with Soliman and the duke of Cleve. The allied 
Turkish and French fleets bombarded and plundered Nice. Charles, 
in alliance with Henry VIII, of England, conquered the duke of 
Cleve, and advanced as far as Soissons. Solimau invaded Hungary 
and Austria. 

1544. Peace of Creepy ; Francis' second son, the duke of Orleans, 
Sept. 18. was to mai-ry a princess of the imperial family and receive 
Milan. He died in 1545, however ; Milan continued in the 
possession of the emperor, who g^ve it, nominally, to his son Philip, 
as a fief. Francis gave up his claims to NapleSf and the overlordship 
of Flanders and Artois; Charles renounced his claims to Burgundy. 

1545-1563. Counoil of Trent, not attended by the Protestants. 
Keforms in the church. Establishment of a number of dog- 
mas of the Catholic church. 

1546, Feb. 18. Death of Luther at Eisleben. 

Charles V., who, since the peace of Crespy, was unhindered 
by foreign complications, sought to crush the independence of 
the estates of the empire in Germany, and to restore the unity of the 
church, to which he was urged by the Pope, who concluded an alli- 
ance with him, and prombed money and troops. 

1546-1547« Sohmalkaldic Wax. 

The leaders of the league of Schmalkalden, John Frederic^ 
elector of Saxony, and Philip, landgrave of Hesse, placed under the 
ban. Duke Maurice of Saxony concluded a secret alliance with the 
emperor. Irresolute conduct of the war by the allies in upper Ger- 
many. The elector and the landgrave could not be induced by gen- 
eral Schartlin of Augsburg to make a decisive attack, and finally re- 
tired, each to his own land. John Frederic of Saxony reconquered 
his electorate, which I^Iaurice had occupied. Charles V . first reduced 
the members of the lea^^ue in southern Germany (Augsburg, Nurem- 
berg, Ulm, duke of Wiirtemberg, etc.) to subjection, then went to 
Saxony, forced the passage of the Elbe, and defeated in the 

1547. Battle of Mtlhlberg, on the Lochau Heath, near Torgau the 
24 April, elector of Saxony, captured him, and besieged his capital, 

Wittenberg. Treaty mediated by Joachim II. of Brandon- 
bnrg. The electoral dignity and lands given to the Albertine 
line (duke Maurice). The Ernestine line retained Weimar, Jena, 
Evtenach, Gotha, etc. The elector was kept in captivity. Philip of 
He^se surrendered, and was detained in captivity, although Maurice 
and Joachim II. of Brandenburg had pledged themselves for his 
liberation. Interim of Augsburg (1548), not generally accepted by 
the Protestants. Tlie city of Magdeburg, the centre of the opposition, 
placed under the ban. Maurice of Saxony, intrusted with the exe- 
cution of the decree, armed himself in secret agauist Charles V., and 
1552. Surprised the emi)eror, after the conclusion of the treaty of 
Friedevxilde (1551) with Henri/ 1 1, of France, and forced him 
to liberate his father-in-law, Philip of Ilesse, and to conclude 

1552. Convention of PasBao. Free exercise of religion for the 



306 Modem Hiitory, A. D. 

Aug. 2. adherents of the confession of Augsburg until the next diet. 
Maurice defeated Albert, margrave of Brandenburg-Culmbach 
at Sievershausen (1553), but was mortally wounded. 

1555. Religious Peace of Augsburg. 

Sept. 25. 

The territorial princes and the free cities, who, at this date, 
acknowledged the confession of Augsburg, received freedom of wor- 
ship, the right to introduce tlie reformation within their territories 
(^jus reformandi), and equal rights with the Catholic estates. No 
agreement reached as regarded the Ecclesiastical Reservation (^Reser- 
vatum ecdesicuticum) that the spiritual estates (bishops and abbots) 
who became Protestant should lose their offices and incomes. This 
peace secured no privileges upon the Reformed religion (Genevan). 

1552-1556. War between Charles V. and Henry II., who, as the 
ally of Maurice, had seized MetZj Toul, and Verdun. Charles 
besieged Metz, which was successfully defended by Francis of 

Tlie truce of VauceUes left France, provisionally, in possession of 
the cities which had been occupied. 

1556« Abdication of Charles V. in Brussehi (Oct 25, 
1555, and Jan. 15, 1556). 

The crown of Spain with the colonies, Naples, Milan, Franche- 
Cointe, and the Netherlands, went to his son Philip; the imperial office 
and the Hapsburg lands to his brother Ferdinand I. (p. 302, 303). 
Charles lived in the monastery of St. Just as a private individual, 
but not as a monk, and died there in 1558. 

1556-1564. Ferdinand I., 

husband of Anna, sister of Louis II., king of Bohemia and 
Hungary, after whose death he was elected king of these countries 
by their estates. Constant warfare over the latter country, which he 
was obliged to abandon, in g^eat part, to the Turks. His son, 

1564-1576. Maximilian II., 

was of a mild disposition and favorably inclined to tho Protes- 
tants, whom he left undisturbed in the free exercise of their religion. 
War with Zapolya, prince of Transylvania, and the Turks. Sultan 
Soliman II, died in camp before Sigeth, which was defended by the 
heroic Zriny, By the truce with Selim II, (1506) each party retained 
its possessions. The impeiial knight, Grumhach, who had broken the 
public peace by a feud with the bishop of Wiirzburg, had plundered 
the city of Wiirzburg (1563), and haa been protected by John Fred- 
eric, duke of Saxony, was placed under the ban, and after the cap- 
ture of Gotha, cruelly executed (1667). The duke was kept in strict 
confinemeiit in Austria until his death. 

Reaction against ProtestantiBm. Anti-Reformation. 

1576-1612. Rudolf II., son of the Emperor Maximilian IT., 
a learned man, an astrologer and aBtronomer (^Kepler, f 1630, 

A. D. 



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80ft Modem History, a. i>. 

was appointed imperial mathematician by him), but incapable of gov- 
erning. New quarrels over the ecclesiastical reservation (p. 306). The 
imperial city of Donauworthy placed under the ban by the emperor, 
because a mob had disturbed a Catholic procession, was, in spite of 
the prohibition of the emperor, rctahied by Maximilian of Bavaria^ 
who had executed the ban (1607). These troubles led to the forma- 
tion of a 

1G08. Protestant Union (leader, Frederic IV., elector Palatine), 

which was opposed by the 
1G09. Catholic League (leader, Maximilian, duke of Bavaria). 

Both princes were of the house of Wittelsbach. 
Rudolf, from whom his brother, Matthias, had forced the cession 
of Hungary, Moravia, and Austria, hoping to conciliate the Bohe- 
mians gave them the 

1C09. Royal Charter (Maj'estaUbrief), which permitted a free exei^ 
cise of religion to the three estates of lorclSf knights, and 
royal cities. 
1609. Beginning of the quarrel about the succession of Jiilich-Cleves 
on the death of John William, duke of Cleves. The elector 
of Brandenburg and the prince of Neuburg were the principal 
Rudolf, toward the close of his life, was forced by Matthias to ab- 
dicate the government of Bohemia. 

1612-1619. Matthias, 

being childless, and having obtained the renunciation of his 
brothers, secured for his cousin Ferdinand, duke of Styria, Carin- 
thia, and Caniiola, who had been educated by the Jesuits in strict 
Catholicism, the succession in Bohemia and Hungary, in spite of the 
objections of the Protestant estates. 



The Thirty Years' War is generally divided into four periods, 
which were properly as many different wars. The first two, the Bo- 
hemian and the Danish, had a predominant religious chai-actcr ; they 
developed from tlie revolt in Bohemia to a general attack by Catholic 
Kuroi)e upon Protestant Europe. The latter two, the Sicedish and 
Sioedish-French, were political wars ; wars against the power of the 
house of Hapsburg, and wars of conquest on the part of Sweden and 
France upon German soil. 

1. Period of war in Bohemia and the County Palatine. 


Occasion : Closing of a Utraquist ^ church in the territory of the 
abbot of BraunaUy and destruction of another in a city of the arch' 
bishop of Prague, that is, in the territory of ecclesiastical estates, which 

1 Utntquist, that is, favoring communion in both kinds. 

A. D. Germany. — Thirty Tears* War, 809 

according to the view of the Protestants ought to be regarded as 
royal estates y in accordance with the Bohemian constitution.^ The irri- 
tation of the Bohemian Protestants (Utraquists) was increased by the 
transference of the administration of the country to ten governors, 
seven of whom were Catholics. Meeting of the defensors, and revolt 
in Prague, headed by count Matthias of Thum. The governors, A/ar- 
tinilz and Slawata, and the secretary, Fabricius, thri>wn from a win» 
dow in the palace of Prague, seventy feet into the dit.h, but escaped 
with their lives (May 23, 1618). Tliii-ty directors appointed by the 
rebels. The Protestant Union sent count Mans/eld to the aid of 
the Bohemians. From Silesia and Losatia came troops under mar- 
erave John George of Jdgemdorf. The imperial forces were defeated 
by Mansfeld and count Thurn. The emperor Matthias died 1G19. 

Comit Thurn marched upon Vienna. The Austrian estates, for the 
most part Protestants, threatened to join the Bohemians, and made 
rough demands upon Ferdinand, who, by his courage and the arrival 
of a few troops, was rescued from a dangerous situation. Thum, 
who arrived before Vienna shortly afterwards, was soon obliged to 
retire by an unfavorable turn of the war in Bohemia.^ Ferdinand 
went to Frankfurt, where he was elected emperor by the other six 

1619-1637. Ferdinand n. 

Meantime the Bohemians had deposed him from the throne of 
Bohemia and elected the young Frederic K., elector palatine, the head 
of the Union and of the German Calvinists, son-in-law of Jamss I., 
king of England. (" The Winter King "). 

Count Thum, for the second time before Vienna, allied with Beth" 
ten Gabor, prince of Transylvania (Nov. 1619). Cold, want, and an 
inroad of an imperial partisan m Hungary, caused a retreat. 

Ferdinand leagued himself with Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, head 
of the Catholic League, the friend of his youth, who helped him sub- 
due the Austrian estates, with Spain {Spinola invaded the county 
palatine; treaty of Ulm, July 3, 161^0; neutrality of the Union se- 
cured), and with the Lutheran elector of Saxony, who re-subjugated 
Lusatia and Silesia. Maximilian of Bavai'ia, with the arm^ of the 
League commanded by TiUy, marched to Bohemia and jomed the 
imperial general Buquoy. They were victorious in the 

1620> Nov. 8. Battle on the White HiU 

over the troops of Frederic V., under the command of CkriS" 
tian of Arihalt, Frederic was put under the ban, and his lands confis- 
cated ; he himself fled to Holland. Christian of Anhalt and John 
Greorge of Brandenbnrg-Jdgcmdorf, also put under the ban. Sub- 
jugation of the Bohemians, destniction of the Royal Cliarter, ex- 
ecution of the leading rebels, extirpation of Protestantism in Bohemia. 
Afterwards, violent anti-reformation in Austria, and, with less vio- 
lence, in Silesia. 

Dissolution of the Protestant Union and transfer of the seat of war 

1 Of. Gindely, Geach. d. drelmaiShr, Kriegif vol. i. (1869), chap. 2. 
> aindely, ii. (1878), chap. 2. 

310 Modem History. ▲• D. 

to the palatinate, which was conquered in execution of the ban by 
Maximilian's general, Tilly {Jan Tzerkla.% baron of Tilly, bom 1559, 
in the Walloon Brabant), with the help of Spanish troops under 
Spinola. Tilly, defeated at Wieslock by Mans/eld (April, 1622), de- 
feated the margrave of Baden-Durlach at Wimpfen (May), and 
Christian of Brunswick, brother of the reigning duke and admxnistror 
tor of the bishopric of Halberstadt, at Hochst (June, 1622), and again 
at Stadtlohn in Westphalia (1623). 

1623. Maximilian received the electoral vote belonging to Frederic 
V. and the Upper Palatinate ; Saxony obtained Lusatia, for the 
present in pledge. 

2. Danish Period. Seat of War in Lower Saxony. 


ChriBtian IV., king of Denmark and duke of Holstein, was the head 
of the Lower Saxon Circle, and the leader of the Protestants. 

Albert of Wallenstein (Waldsteiu, bom 1583, in Bohemia, of an 
utraquist family, but educated in the Catholic faith, 1617 count, 1623 
prince of the empire, 1624 duke of Friedland) became the imperial 
commander of an army, recruited by himself, which was to be provi- 
sioned by a system of robbery. 

IVallenstein defeated Mansfeld at the Bridge of Dessau (1626), 
pursued him through Silesia to Hungary, where Mansfeld joined 
Bethlen Gabor, Mansfeld died in Dalmatia (Nov., 1626). Christian 
of Brunswick had died in June of the same year. 

Tilly defeated Christian VI. at Luther am Barenberge, in Bruns- 
wick (Aug., 1626). Tilly and Wallenstein conquered Holstein (1627). 
Wallenstein alone conquered Schlestoig and Jutland, drove the dukes 
of Mecklenburg from the country, forced the duke of Pommerania to 
submission, but besieged Stralsund (1628) in vain, the citizens de- 
fending themselves heroically for ten weeks. 

1629. Peace of LiUbeck 

May 22. between the emperor and Christian IV. The latter re- 
ceived his lands back, but promised not to interfere in German 
affairs, and abandoned his allies. The dukes of Mecklenburg put un- 
der the ban. Wallenstein invested with their lands. 

1629, March 29. Edict of Restitution: 1. Agreeably to the eccZenos- 
tical reservation (p. 306), all ecclesiastical estates which had 
been confiscated since the convention of Passau should be restored. 
This affected two archbishoprics: Magdeburg said Bremen j twelve bis- 
hoprics: Minden, Verden, Halberstadt, Lijieck, Ratzeburg, Meissen, 
Merseburg, Naumburg (the latter three were, however, left in the pos- 
session of the elector of Saxony), Brandenburg, Havdberg, Lebus and 
Camin, besides very many (about 120) monasteries and foundations. 
2. Only the ahherents of the Augsburg confession were to have free 
exercise of religion ; all other " sects '* were to be broken up. Be- 
ginning of a merciless execution of the edict by Wallenstein's troops 
and those of the League. 

A. D. Germany, — Thirty Tear^ War. 311 

1630. Blectoral Asseinbly at Regensburg (Ratisbon). 

The party of Bavaria and the League was hostile to Wallen- 
stein and took up a position of determined opposition to the too pow- 
erful general. An excuse was found in the loud and well founded 
complaints of all estates of the empire, particularly the Catholics, over 
the terrible extortion and cruelty practiced by Wallenstein's army. 
The emperor consented to decree the dismissid of the general and a 
large part of the army. 

1627-1631. War of succession over Mantua by the houses of Nevers 
and Guastella. The former, supported by France (Richelieu 
himself took the field) obtauied the duchy in the peace of Cheerasco 
(April 6) although the imperial forces had been victorious and cap- 
tured Mantua. 

3. Swedish Period (1630-1635). 

1630. Gustavus 11., Adolphus, king of Sweden, landed on 
July, the coast of Pommerania. 

Object and grounds of his interference : protection of the oppressed 
Protestants ; restoration of the dukes of Mecklenburg, his reUitives ; 
the rejection of his mediation at the peace of Liibeck ; anxiety in 
regard to the maritime plans of the emperor. 

Political position of Sweden : Finland, Ingermannland, Esthonia, 
Livonia, belonged to the kingdom of Gustavus ; Curland was under 
Swedish influence. An ambitious monarch might easily dream of 
the acquisition of Prussia and Pommerania, which would have almost 
made the Baltic a Swedish sea. 

Gustavus concluded a subsidy treaty with France (Richelieu). 

Gustavus Adolphus drove the imperial forces from Pommerania 
and marched up the Oder, where Tilly came against him (1631). The 
king went to Mecklenberg. TQly retired to the Elbe, and hiid siege 
to Magdeburg. Gustavus Adolphus captured Frankfurt an the Oder. 
Negotiations with his brothex^in-law, 'George William, elector of Bran- 
denburg (1619-1640), who was under the influence of Schwarzenberg. 
Spandau was at last surrendered to him. Negotiations in regard to 
the surrender of Wittenberg, with Saxony, which endeavored to main- 
tain the position of a third, mediatory, party in the empire, a sort of 
armed neutrality (diet of princes at Leipzig, 1631), and was with 
difficulty brought to form an alliance with an enemy of the empire. 

1631. Capture of Magdeberg by Tilly. The storm was conducted 
May 20. by Pappenheim. Terrible massacre and sack of the city by 

the unbridled soldiery of Tilly, who did what he could to check 
the outrages. Fire broke out suddenly in many places far removed 
from one another, and the whole city with the exception of the cathe- 
dral was consumed (Not by Tilly's command ).i 

Tilly took possession of Halle, Eisleben, Merseburg, and other cities 

1 Probably the fire was set by pre'vious agreement of the more determined 
portion of the defenders {Falkenbirg). Cf. Wlttioh, Magdeburg, Onstav Adolf 
u. Tilly ^ vol. ii. 1874. 

312 Modem IKstory. a. d. 

and burned them. John George^ elector of Saxony, formed an alli- 
ance with Gustavus Adolphus, who crossed the Elbe at Wittenberg. 
Leipzig occupied by Tilly. The imperial army and that of the 
Swedes and Saxons, each about 40,000 strong, were face to face. 

1631. Battle of Leipzig or Breitenf eld. 

Sept. 17. The Saxons were at first put to rout by Tilly, but after a 
bloody fight Gustavus Adolphus won a brilliant victory. 

The Saxons entered Bohemia. Gustavus crossed Thuringia and 
Franconia to the Rhine by way of Erfurty Wilrzburff, Hanauy Frank- 
fort, Damistadty crossed the Rhine at Oppenheim, and occupied Mainz. 
Winter quarters. 

Meantime Prague was captured by the Saxons under Amim (Boyt-' 
zenburg), a former subordinate of Wallenstein. The emperor held 
fruitless negotiations with the Saxons. 

At the urgent request of Ferdinand, Wallenstein collected an army, 
over which he received uncontrolled command. He recaptured Prague, 
and drove the Saxons from Bohemia. Their eagerness for the war 
and the Swedish alliance was already chilled. 

1632. Gustavus advanced to the Danube by way of Knremberg to 
meet Tilly. Conflict at Rain, near the confluence of the Lenz 

and the Danube. Tilly, mortally wounded, died at Ingolstadt. He 
was seventy-tliree years old. 

Gustavus went to Augsburg, vainly besieged Maximilian in Ingol- 
stadt, but forced Munich to surrender. Wallenstein summoned to 
the assistance of Maximilian. 
1632. Fortified camp near Nuremberg. 

July-Sept. (Burgstall). Gustavus and Wallenstein face to face for 
eleven weeks. Wallenstein declined battle. Reinforced by 
the army of Bernhard of Weinmr, the Swedes attacked Wallenstein^s 
intrenchments, but were repulsed with heavy loss. Gustavus ad- 
vanced to the Danube. Wallenstein turned upon Saxony, now de- 
fenceless, Arnim having marched through Lu9atia to Silesia with 
the Saxon and Brandenburg troops. Terrible ravages committed by 
the bands of Wallenstein. At the call of the elector of Saxony, 
Gustavus hastened back by way of Kitzingen and Schweinfurt, joined 
Bernhard of Saxe- Weimar in Amstadt, marched upon Naumburg, and 
hearing that Wallenstein had dispatched Pappenheim from L eipzig 
to the Rhine, attacked the imperial forces (18,000 against 20,000 

1632. Battle of Liitzen. Death of Gustavus Adol- 

Nov. 16. Pappenheim, recalled in haste, took part in the battle 
with his cavalry, after three o'clock ; he was mortally wounded. 
The victory of the Swedes was completed by Bernhard of Saxe- 

Bernhard, Gustavus Horn, and Baner took command of the Swedish 
forces. The conduct of foreign affairs was assumed by the Swedish 

1 The suspicion that the king was murdered by Francis Albert, duke of Lau- 
enburg, is totally unfounded. 

A* D. Germany. — Thirty Tears' War, 813 

chancellor, Azel Ozenstiema (l)om 1583, councillor since 1609). 
League of Heilbronn between the circles of Swabia, Franconia^ Upper 
and Lower Rhine, on the one part, and Sweden on the other. 

1633. Expedition of Bemhard of Saxe- Weimar to Franconia. He 
took Bamberg and Hbchstadt, drove back the Bavarians under 

AldrmgeTj and joined fieldmarshal Horn. Bemhard received from 
the chancellor the investiture, with the bishoprics of Wurzburg and 
Bamberg, under the name of the Duchy of Franconia, and occupied 
the upper Palatinate. 
Feb. After Wallenstein had tried and punished with death mauy 

of his officers in Prague, and had filled their places with new 
recruits, he marched to Silesia, fought with the Saxon, Brandenburg, 
and Swedish troops, and negotiated frequently with Arnim. Nego- 
tiations with Oxenstiema. 
Oct. Capture of a Swedish corps at Steinau-on-the-Oder. Wallenstein 

invaded Brandenburg, sending raiders as far as Berlin, and 

then plundered Lusatia. 
Nov. Regensburg (Ratisbon) captured by Bemhard of Saxe- Weimar. 

Wallenstein found himself unable to go to the assistance of the 

elector of Bavaria, as the emperor urged, and went into winter 

quarters in Bohemia. 
Growing estrangement between Wallenstein and the imperial court. 
The Spanish party and the league wished him removed from his com- 
mand. Wallenstein conducted secret negotiations with the Saxons, 
the S^f^des, the French. He intended to create, with the help of the 
army (declaration of the generals Piccolomini, GaUas, and Aldringer, 
at Pilsen), an independent position for himself, whence he could, with 
the aid of the two north Grerman electors, liberate the emperor from 
the control of the Spanish party, and, if necessary, compel him to 
make peace and reorganize the internal affairs of the empire (on the 
basis of a religions peace?). He had resolved upon open revolt if the 
hostile party continued in power. Whether he harbored a wish for 
the crown of Bohemia, along with other fantastic plans, it is hard to 
decide. The court of Vienna succeeded in detaching the principal 
generals {Piccolomini, Gallas, Aldringer, Marradas, CoUoredo) from 
liis cause. How, Trzka, Kinski, remained faithful. 

1634. Imperial proclamation : '^ Fricdland was concerned in a con- 
Jan. 24. spiracv to rob the emperor of his crown." The chief 

officers of the army commanded to no longer o1)ey him. 

Feb, 18. Second proclamation, formall}' deposing Wallenstein. On 
the 24th Wallenstein went to E(jer, where he was to be met by 
Bemhard of Saxe- Weimar, and Arnim. Tliere occurred the 

Feb. 25. ABsaBsination of Wallenstein by captain Devereux, at 
the instigation of the Irish general, Butler, after his intimate 
friends had been treacherously massacred. The emperor had 
not commanded the murder, nor had he definitely desired it ; 
but he had given rein to the party which he knew wished " to 
bring in Wallenstein, alive or dead/' and, after the deed was 
done, he rewarded the murderers with honor and rielies. 

1634. Victory of the imperialists under Ferdinand, the emperor's son; 
and Gallas and the Bavarians (John of Wertk), over the Sweded 
at NordUngen. 

814 Modem History. A. d. 

1635. Peace of Prague, 

May 30. between the emperor and the elector of Saxony. 1. The 
elector received Lusatia permanently, and the archbishopric of 
Magdeburg for his second son, August, for life. 2. Those ecdestasticcd 
estates, not held immediately of the emperor, which had been confis- 
cated before the convention of Passau (p. 305), should remain to the 
possessor forever ; cUl others should remain for forty years (from 
16^7), and in case no further understanding was reached before the- 
expiration of that period, forever, in the condition in which they were 
on Nov. 12, 1627. 3. Amnesty, except for participants in the dis- 
turbances in Bohemia and the Palatinato ; common cause to be made 
against Sweden. The Lutherans alone to be allowed freedom of wor- 
ship. Brandenburg and the majority of the other Protestant estates 
accepted the peace. 

4. Swedish-French period (1635-1648). 

The policy of Sweden was determined by Oxenstiema, that of 
France l)y Richelieu (f 1642), and afterwards by Mazarin. France 
fought at first in the person of Bemhard of Saxe- Weimar only, with 
whom subsidy-treaties had been concluded, and who was trying to 
conquer himself a new state in Alsace, in place of the duchy of 
Franconia, which he had lost by the battle of Ndrdlingen. Capture 
of Breisach, 1638. After his death (1639) France took control of his 

1636. Victory of the Swedes under Baner at Wittstock over the 

imperialists and the Saxons. Death of Ferdinand II. His 

1637-1657. Ferdinajid III,, was desirous of peace. 
The ducal house of Pommerania became extinct (1637). 
After the death of Baner (l&ll) Torstenson became commander- 
in-chief of the Swedes. 

1640. Death of George William. Frederic William, elector of 
Brandenburg. (The great elector, 1640-1088). 

1641. Discussion of the preliminaries of peace in Hamburg. A con- 
gress agreed upon. 

1642. Second Battle of Leipzig (Breitenfeld). Torstenson defeated 
the imperialists under Piccolomini, 

Torstenson threatened the liereditary estates of the emperor. These 
Swedish successes aroused the envy of Christian IV. of Denmark. 

1643-1645. "Wax between Denmark and Sweden. 

164d. Torstenson hastened by forced marches through Silesia, Sax- 
Sept, ony, Brunswick, to the north, conquered Holstein and Schles- 
wig, and invaded Jiitland. 
Meanwhile the French in South Germany, under Marshall Gu^mantf 
had penetrated to Rottweil (WurtembeTg). Gnebriant fell in battle. 
Shortly afterwards the French, under Ilantzau, were surprised al 
tJhatUngen by an Anstro-Bavarian army under Mercy and Werth^ and 
totally defeated. 

A. D. Germany. — Thirty Years^ War. 815 

1643. Opening of the negotiations for peace in OsnabrUck with the 
Swedes ; 1644 in MUnster with the French. 

Marshal Turenne and the twenty-one-year-old prince of Bourbon, 
doke of Enghien^ afterwards Prince of Conde, appointed commanders- 
in-chief of the French troops. They forced the 

1644. Bavarians under Mercy to retreat. Cond^ captured Mann- 
heim, Speier, and Philippsburg. Turenne took Worms, Oppen- 
heun, Mainz, and Landau. 

Meanwhile an imperial army, under Gallas, had been sent to 
the aid of the Danes, who were hard pressed, both by land and 
by sea (by the Swedish admiral, Gustatms Wrangel). The im- 

1645. perial force was repulsed by Torstenscn and Konigsmarky pur- 
Jan* sued into Germany, and almost annihilated at Magdeburg. 

March. Brilliant victory of Torstenson over the imperialists at Jan- 
kau, not far from Tabor, in Bohemia, whereupon, in union 
with the prince of Transylvania, Bakoczy, he conquered the 
whole of Moravia, and advanced hard upon Vienna. 

May. Turenne defeated by John of Werth at Mergentheim, in Fran- 

Aug. Turenne, at the head of the French and Hessians, defeated the 
Bavarians at Allersheim. 
Peace between Sweden and Denmark at Bromsebro (p. 352). 
After a futile siege of Briimi, the plague having broken out in his 

army, Torstenson returned to Bohemia. He resigned his command 

on account of illness, and was succeeded by Wrangel. 

1646. Wrangel left Bohemia, united to his own force the Swedish 
troops under Konigsmark in Westphalia, and joined Turenne at 
Giessen. Swedes and French invaded Bavaria and forced the 
elector Maximilian to conclude the 

1647. Truce of Ulm, and to renounce his alliance with the emperor, 
after Turenne had been recalled, from envy at the Swedish 

successes, and Wrangel had gone to Bohemia, Maxm[iilian broke the 
truce and joined the imperialists again. 

1648. Second invasion of Bavaria by the French and Swedes ; terrible 
ravages. A flood in the Inn prevented the further advance 

of the allies, who returned to the upi>er Palatinate. ' The Swedish 
general Konigsmark captured that part of Prague on the right 
bank of the Moldau (KUinseite). 

Terrible condition of Grermahy. Irreparable losses of men and 
wealth. Keduction of population ; increase of poverty ; retrograda- 
tion in all ranks. 

1648. Peace of Westphalia. 
Oct. 24. 

Negotiations from 1643-1648. Imperial ambassadors, count 
Trautmannsdorf 9iid Dr. Volmar. French, count d'Avaux and count 
Servien. Swedish, count Oxenstiema, son of the chancellor, and 
baron Salvius. France and Sweden, against the will of the emperor, 
secured the participation of the estates of the empire in the negotia^ 

316 Modem Hiaiory. A. ix 

Conditions of tbe Peaoe.^ 

A, Indemnifications. 

1. Sweden received as a fief of the empire the whole of hither 
Pommerania and Riigen with a part of farther Pommerania (Stettin, 
Garz, Damm, Golhiow, Woliin, and Usedom), the city of Wismar, 
formerly belonmug to Mecklenburg, and the biahoprica Bremen (not 
the city) and Wenlen as secular duchies, and five million riz doUara. 
Sweden became a member of the diet with three votes. 

2. France received without reservation of the feudal overlordship 
of the empire, hence with absolute sovereignty : the bishoprics 
and cities of Metz, Tout, and Verdun, which had been in French 
hands since 1552 ; Pignerol, the city of Breisachy the landgravate of 
upper and lower Alsace, which belonged to a branch of the Austrian 
house, and the government of ten imperial cities in Alsace (prsefec- 
tura provincialLs decem civitatum imperialium), with express acknowl- 
edgment of their previous freedom. The other imperial estates in 
Alsace (particularly Strasbnrg) retained their inomediate rehition to 
the empire and their freedom. France also received the right of gar- 
risoning Philippsburg. 

3. Hesse-Cassel : abbey of Hersfeld, Schaumburg, the fiefs of 
the foundation of Minden, and 600,000 rix dollars. 

4. Brandenburg : as indemnification for Pommerania which be- 
longed to Brandenburg by the law of inheritance, but of which it re- 
ceived the larger part of farther Pommerania only, the bishoprics of 
HcUberstadty Minden, and Camin as secular principalities, the arch- 
bishopric of Magdeburg as a duchy, with the reservation that it should 
remain in possession of the administrator August of Saxony, during 
his life (t 1680). 

5. Mecklenburg : the bishoprics of Schwerin and Ratzeburg as 

6. Brunswick : alternate presentation to the bishopric of Osna" 
briick, where a Catholic and evangelical bishop were to alternate. 

B. Secular Affairs of the Empire. 

1. General amnesty and return to the condition of things in 1618. 

2. The electoral dignity and the upper Palatinate were left in 
the hands of the Wilhelmian line (Bavaria) of the house of Wittels- 
bach, while a new elector$kte (the eighth) was created for the Rip- 
dolfian line (Palatinate). 

3. The territorial superiority (Landeshoheit) of the whole body of 
estates, as regarded their relation to the emperor, was recognized, 
which involved the right of concluding alliances with one another 
and \7ith foreign powers, if they were not directed against empire or 
emperor. (Afterwards, since 1663, the standing diet at Regensbtarg 
developed tiie German constitution more in detail.) 

4. The republics of the United Netherlands and of Switzerland 
were recognized as independent of the empire (p. 247). 

1 K. 1*. motahom, DeiXM&e StaatM^. Rechtsguchkhtty iv. $ 622 foil. 

A. D. Uranee. 817 

C Ecclesicistical Affairs {Gravamina ecdesiastxcd). 

1. The Convention of Passau and the Peace of Augsburg (p. 905) 
were approved and extended so as to include the Calvinists, 

2. Catholic and Protestant estates were to be on an entire equality 
in all affairs of the empire. 

3. January 1, 1624, was adopted as the norm (annus normalis) by 
which questions of ownership of ecclesiastical estates and exercise of 
reUgion should be settled. As things were upon that date, so they 
were to remain forever ; that is, the ecclesiastical reservation (p. 306) 
was acknowledged to be binding for the future. The subjugated Pro- 
testants in Austria and Bohemia obtained no rights by the peace, but 
those evangelical states which had been gained by the anti-reformation 
during the war (the Lower Palatinate, JVUrtemberg, Baden, etc.) were 
allowed to resume the exercise of that religion which had been theirs 
in 1618. The JUS reformandi, the privilege of deciding by fiat the re- 
ligion of those subjects to whom the year 1628 did not secure free ex- 
ercise of religion, was retained for the future by the territorial lords. 
The right of emigration was, however, reserved to the subjects in such 
cases. The imperial court (Reichslrammergericht) was restored, and 
its members were to be equaUy divided between Protestants and 

France and Sweden gu^uranteed the peace. 


Modem History. 

A. D. 

§ 5. FRANCE. 

1498-1589. Houses of Orleans and Angouldma 

Branch line of the house of Valois (since 1328, p. 257) whose 
relation to the main line is shown in the following genealogical table : 

Oharles V. (third king of the house of Yalois). 1364-1380. 

Charles VX 


Louis, duke of Orleans, f 1407. 
m. Valentine Yisconti. 


Charles Vll. 


Charles, duke of Orleans, 
t 1467. 

Iiouis XII. 

m. ('^) Anna 
of Brittany, 
died without 

male issue. 

Charles Vm. 

m. Anna of Brit- 
tany. 1483-1498. 
died without 
male issue. 

TV ' 

John, count of 
f 1467. 

Charles, count 
of Angouleme. 

t 1496. 
m. Louise 

of Savoy. 


(2) Francis I. 

Henry H. 


m. Catharine of Medici. 


Francis II. 
1559-1560 m. 
Mary Stuart. 



Philip II. 

king of 




Henry III, 


duke of 


king of 


•duke of 

t 1584. 

Henry IV. 
see p. 323. 

1498-1515. Louis XIL 

obtained a divorce from Joanna, daughter of Louis XI., and 
married Anna of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII., in order to keep 
this duchy for the crown ; as grandson of Valentine Visconti he laid 
claim to Milan, drove out Ludovico Mora, who was imprisoned when 
he ventured to return to Milan (1500). 

1501. Louis XII, in alliance with Ferdinand the Catholic, hing of Ar- 
ragon, conquered the kingdom of Naples. The Spaniards and 

French soon falling out, the latter were defeated by the Spanish general 

Gonzalvo de Cordova on the Garigliano (1504). Louis XII. gave up 

his claims to Naples. 

1608. Louis a party in the league of Camhray, p. 300. In 1511 the 
Pope, Ferdinand the Catholic, and Venice, concluded the Holy 

League, with the object of driving the French out of Italy. The lat- 

A. D. France. 819 

ter, under the young Gaston de Foixy duke of Nemours, nephew of 
Louis XII., were at first successful in the war, taking Brescia (1512) 
by stonn (Bayard, "without reproach or fear"), and defeating 
the united Spanish and Papal armies at Ravenna, with the aid of 
6000 Germtin mercenaries, in the same year ; they were, however, 
compelled by the Swiss to evacuate Milan. In 1513 the French 
formed a new alliance with Venice, but were defeated by the Swiss 
at Novara and withdrew from Italy. Henry VIII. of England, who 
had joined the Holy League in 1512, and the emperor Maximilian 
who had joined in 1513, invaded France, and defeated the French at 
1513. Gmnegate, called the " Battle of the Spurs " from the hasty 
Aug. 17. flight of tlie French. 

France concluded peace with the Pope, with Spain (1513), 
with the emperor, and with Henry VIII. (1514). Anna of Brittany 
having died, Louis took, as his third wife, Mary the sister of Henry 
VIII. He died soon after the marriage (Jan. 1, 1515). He was 
succeeded by his cousm, the Count of Angoideme, who had marrie4L 
Claudia^ daughter of Loxis XII. and Anna, hence heirese of Brittanyi 
which, however, was not actually incorporated with France until 1598, 
As king the coimt of AngoulSme is known as 

1515-1547. Francis I. Courageous, fond of display, dis* 


1515. He reconquered Milan by the brilliant victory of Marignano 
Sept. 13-14. over the Swiss, who fought most bravely. Peace and 

alliance between France and Switzerland. Treaty of Geneva 
(Nov. 7, 1615) ; treaty of Prlbourg (Nov. 29, 1516). The Ut- 
ter Qa paix perpetuelle) endured till the French Revolution. 

1516. Increase of the royal power by a Concordat with the Pope 
which rescinded the Prao^matic Sanction of 1438 and placed the 

choice of bishops and abbots m the hands of the king ; the Pope on 
the other hand received the annates, or the first year's revenue of 
every ecclesiastical domain where the king's right of presentation was 
exercised. Francis also abandoned the principle of the Council of 
Baslej that the Pope was subordinate to an (ecumenical coimcil. 
1520. Meeting of Francis and Henry VIII. of England in the neigh- 
borhood of Calais. « Field of the Cloth of Gold." The wars 
oi Francis with Charles V. (p. 302, etc.) occupied Uierestof Francis* 
reign. Restrictions upon the political rights of the Parliaments. 
Cultivation of literature and the arts. Rabelais (1483-1553). Perse- 
cutions of the Protestants. Francis died March 31, 1547. He was 
succeeded by his son 

1547-1559. Henry II. 

Growing power of the house of Q>uifle (JFrands, duke of GuiaOi 
and Charles, " Cardinal of Lorraine "). 


Modem History. 

▲. D. 

Margaret, m. John II., 
Henry VI., k. tl. of JLwr- 
of England. raine and 



Ren^ le Bon, d. of Anjoa 
and titular king of Naples 
and Sicily, m. Isabella, d. 
of liorraint, 


d. of Lorraine, 
m. Ferri II., c. of 
Yaudemont, Guiu^ etc. 

Rend II., 
d. of Lorraine and Bar. d. of Lorraine and Bar, 

t 1473. c. of Vaudeniont, Guise^ etc 

no male issue. t I&08. 


Antoine, d. of 
Lorraine and 
Bar. t 1544. 

Claude I., c. of 
Aumalc*, d. of 
O'uwc (1527). 

Francis I.^ 
d. of Lorratnt 
and Bar. 

I I 

Francis, d. of Charles, 

Guise, mur- Card, of 

dered 1563. LoiTaine» 


Claude, d. I^uis, Mary, m. 
of Aumale. Card, of James V. 
Guiae, of Scot>- 

Ma '.oeen 
01 Scots. 

Charles 11., d. of Henrv, d. 
Lorraine and Bar. of Guise. 
t 1608. t 1588. 

Charles, d. of 

Louis, Cardinal 

of Guise. 

t 1588. 

Henry's mistress, Diana of Poitiers^ duchess of Valentinois, ruled 
him almost absolutely. Montrrwrenajy constable. Persecution of the 
Protestants in France ; assistance to German Protestants. 
1547. Final union of Brittany with the French crown. 


Francis II., d. of Brittany, 
t 1488. 

Charles VUI. == (i) Auue (3) = liouiB Xn., k. of France, 
k. of France. 

Claude = Francis L 


Francis the 


t 1536, 

without male 


Henry II., 

k. of France. 

A. D. France. 321 

1552. War with Charles V. (p. 306.) Seizure of the three bishop- 
rics, Tovl, MeiZj Verdun. 

1556-1559. War with Philip II, of Spain. The French defeated by 
the Spaniards with the aid of the English at 

1557. St. Quentin (on the Somme), and by count Egmont at Grave^ 
lines (1558). 

1558. Calaifl and GuineSf the last English possessions in France, 
Jan. captured by FranciSy duke of Chdse, 

1559. reace of Caieau-Cambresis : the French restored all their con- 
April, quests except Calais and the three bishoprics (MetZf Tout 

and Verdun). Henry II., who died of a wound received in a 
tourney, was succeeded by his three weak sons. 

1559-1560. Francis II. (sixteen years old), 

the first husband of Mary Stuart of Scotland, a niece of the 
Guises. Persecution of the Protestants (chambres arderUes). Cruel 
executions. The king's mother, Catharine de' Medici, struggled for 
power and influence against the Bourbon princes, Anton (king of Na- 
varre) and Louis of Conde, descended from Louis IX. The Guiaes, 
at first rivals of the queen and then in alliance with her, conducted all 
affairs of state and surpassed in influence their opponents, the Catholic 
constable Montmorency^ and his nephews, the three brothers Ckdtillon : 
Gaspard, admiral de Collgny (1517-1572), Francois d^Andelotf Cardi- 
nal ChdtiUon, afterwards leaders of the Huguenots. De IHopital, 
chancellor. Conspiracy of Amboise (La Renaudie) against the Guises 
defeated (1560). Death of Francis II. 

1560-1574. Charles IX., 

ten years old, under the influence of his mother, Cathar 
rine de' Medici. 

1562-1598. Wars of the Hugruenots.^ 

Cruel persecutions compelled the Huguenots to take up arms. 
At the same time they became apolitical party opposed to the Catho- 
lic /Kir/y. The wars of the Huguenots were therefore not simply 
religious wars, but also political civil wars, in which the leaders of 
both parties were endeavoring to take advantag^e of the weakness of the 
king and get control of the government. The first three wars form 
properly one war, interrupted by truces called peaces (Afnboise, 1503, 
ijongjumeauy 1568, St. Germain^ 1570), which were without result. 
The conditional freedom of religious worship permitted the Hugue- 
nots was to be guaranteed by the surrender to them for two years, of 
the four strong towns Iia Rocheile, Cognac, Montauban, La Charitd. 
1572. Night of St Bartholomew. 

Aug. 23-24. Murder of admiral Coliany and general massacre of Hu- 
guenots, under the conduct oi Henry of Guise and Tavannes, 
on the occasion of the marriage of Henry of Bourbon, king of 

1 Huouenots is said to be a nickname derived from Kinff TfugOj a spectre 
which, m the belief of the people, nightly haunted the streets of Fans; wnenco 
the Protestants, from their nocturnal p:atherin^!(, were called Huguenots. Others 
derive the name from a corruption of Eidyenotaen, confederates. 


822 Modem History, A. D. 

Navarre (son of Anton, king of Navarre) with the sister of Charles 
IX., Margaret of Valois. Henry of Navarre saved his life by a pre- 
tended conversion to Catholicism. Over 3,000 Huguenots were slain 
in the capital, in the whole of France about 30,000. This bloody deed 
led to the 

1572-1673. Fourth Civil War. La Rochelle, besieged by Hsnry, 
duke of AnjoUf brother of Charles IX., made a brave defense. 
The election of the duke of Anjou to the crown of Poland 
brought about a compromise. Edict of Boulogne (July 8, 
15731 ended the war favorably to the Huguenots. 
Charles IX. died May 30, 1574. His brother, who fled from Po- 
land, became king. 

1574-1589. Henry III., a debauched weakling. 

The fifth civil war, during which Henry of Navarre re-as- 
sumed the Protestant faith, was concluded (1576) by conditions more 
favorable to the Huguenots than those of any previous peace. Peace 
of Chastenoy ( Paix de Monsieur^ after the duke of Alen<^on) May 6, 
1576. Hence dissatisfaction amon^ the Catholics. Origin of the 
Holy League (1576) which in aUiance with Philip II, of Spain 
purposed the annihilation of the reformed party, and the elevation of 
the Guises to the throne. The king, out of fear of the League pro- 
claimed himself its head and forbade the exercise of the Protestant 
religion throughout France. The Protestants and moderate Catho- 
lics had joined forces in 1575 by the confederation of MUhaud (po- 
litique-Huguenot) . 

Sixth Civil War, wherein the Huguenots were defeated, bat ob- 
tained favorable terms at the peace of Bergerac (or Poitiers^ 
Sept. 17, 1577), as the king was unwilling to let the League become 
too powerful. In spite of tiie renewal of the treaty of peace, not one 
of its articles was executed. This caused the 

Seventh Civil "War {La guerre des amoureux) (1680), which was 
ended in the same year by the treaty of Fl^ (near St. Foy), 
Nov. 26, in which the conditions g^ranted the Huguenots in former 
treaties were confirmed. The death of Francis, duke of Alerifon 
(since the accession of Henry III., duke of Anjou), the younger 
brother of the king, in 1584 rendered the extinction of the house of 
Valois certain. As it was the intention of the League to exclude 
from the throne Henry of Navarre, who belonged to the reformed 
religion, and to g^ve the crown to the latter*s uncle, the Cardinal of 
Bourbon, and as the League meantime induced the king to revoke the 
concessions granted to the Huguenots, there broke out the 

1585-1589. Eighth CivU War called the War of the Three 
Henrys {Henry III. of Valois, Henry of Navarre, Henry of 
Guise). The Catholic party triumphed in spite of the victory of 
CoiUras (Oct. 20, 1587), gained by Henry of Navarre. Formation 
of the League of Sixteen at Paris, which purposed the deposition 
of the weak king. ' Guise entered Paris, was received with ac- 
clamation (<' King of Paris ") ; the timid resistance of the king was 
broken by a popular insurrection (day of the Barricades, May 12, 

A. D. 

























t' A O 


3-- s 












a9_ II 




» ■ 







e^ f •" 

ft "1 »-® 

f 1 1 







** 3 


i^S |i 
l| II- 





p-i*— ' 

— -*1 "*o •* "•? 

Irs i^ 

r o 


'p. 9g 

824 Modem History, A. d. 

1588). Henry III* fled to Blois, where he summoned the estates 
of the kingdom (6taf8-GenerauXj States General). Finding no sup- 
port among them against the League, he caused Henry, duke of Guise, 
and his brother, Louis the Cardinal, to be murdered (Dec. 23, 1588). 
At this news, a revolt of the Catholic party broke out, headed by 
the brother of the murdered men, the duke of Mayenne. Henry III. 
fled to Henry of Navarre in the Huguenot camp, where he was mur- 
dered before Paris, at St. Cloud, by the monk Jacob Clement 
(July 31, t Aug. 2). Death of Cathannede' Mediei (Jan. 6, 1589), 
Micliael Montaigne, 1533-1592. 

1589-1702. (1830.) House of Bourbon 

descended from St. Louis I^.'s younger son Robert^ count of 
Clermont, husband of Beatrice of Eourbon. 

1588-1610* Henry IV. 

The Catholic party refused to recog^nize Henry and made the 
old cardinal of Bourbon king under the name of Charles X, (f 1590). 
Some wished the duke of Mayenne to be his successor, while others 
joined themselves to Philip II. of Spain, who laid claim to the throne 
of France on behalf of his daughter by his third marria^ with Eliz^ 
abeth of Valois, sbter of Hem-y III. Victory of Henry IV. over the 
duke of Mayenne at Arques (1589) and at the 

1590. Battle of Ivry. 
March 14. 

Henry besieged Paris, which was relieved by Mayenne and 
the duke of Parma. Henry abjured the reformed religion at St. 
Denis (1593) and was crowned at Chartres (1594). Brissac having 
thereupon surrendered Paris to him, the power of the League was 
broken. Not, however, until Henry, after public penance, by his 
ambassadors at Rome, had been freed from the papal ban, was he 
generally recognized (by Mayenne too). The civil wars of religion 
were ended by the 

1598. Edict of Nantes, 

April 15. 

which gave the Huguenots equal political rights with the 
Catholics, but by no means secured them entire freedom of religious 
worship. The edict granted the exercise of the reformed religion to 
nobles having the right of criminal jurisdiction (seigneurs hauts Jus- 
ticiers), and to the citizens of a certain number of cities and towns, 
but prohibited it in all episcopal and archiepiscopal cities, at the 
court of the king, and in Paris, as well as within a circle of twenty 
miles around the capital. Public offices were opened to the Huguenots 
and mixed chambers were established in four Parliaments {Parisj 
Toulouse^ Grenoble, Bordeaux), The Huguenots obtained some forti- 
fied towns, and were recognized, to a certain extent, as an armed po- 
litical party. The Edict of Nantes was registered by the Parliament 
only after a long delay. Treaty of Veruins (May 2, 1598) with 
Spain ; restoration of all conquests to France. 

Adoption of measures looking to the improvement of the finances 

▲. i>. France. 325 

and the general prosperity, which had gone to decay, especially by 
Rosnyj afterwards duke of Sully (1560-1641). Fantastic plan of 
the king's (?) to establish a universal Christian republic in Europe, 
comprising six hereditary monarchies ^France, England, Spain, Den- 
mark, Sweden, Lombardy), five elective monarchies (the Empire, 
Papacy, Hungary, Poland, Bohemia), and four republics (Switzer^ 
land, Italy, Venice, Belgium), which probably would have turned 
out to be a league against the too great power of the house of Haps- 
burg. Question of ClevesnJiilich succession. Henry IV. supported 
the -claims of Brandenburg. In the midst of sreat preparations for 
war, Henry was assassinated at Paris, 1610 (May 14), by the fanatic 
(Francois) RavaUlac, He was succeeded by his minor son, 

1610-1643. Louis XIIL, 

nine years old. Regency of his mother, Mary de* Medici 
(1610-1617). Sully removed from office ; the Italian Concini 

iMarechal d^Ancre) was placed in control of affairs. Louis XIII., 
eclared of age in 1614, was in fact all his life under the guidance 
of others. Summons of the Statea-Gtoneral, 1614, being the last 
before the Revolution of 1789. Arrest and murder of Concini ; 
the queen mother banished to Blois (1617). The king under the in- 
fluence of his favorite, the duke of Luynes, By the mediation of 
'Armand-Jean du Plessis (bom 1585, in Poitou, 1607 bishop of Luoon, 
1622 cardinal), duke of Richelieu, a treaty was concluded between 
Luynes and the queen mother (1619). New civil war. Contest of 
the crown with the nobility and the Huguenots. After the death of 
Luynes (1621) Mary de^ Medici and her favorite, Richelieu, obtained 
control of affairs. The influence of the latter soon became supreme, 
and the queen-dowager quarreled with him. 

1624-1642. Administration of Richelieu, whose influence 
over the king was henceforward unbroken. Numerous con- 
spiracies against Richelieu instigated by Gaston of Orleans^ the king's 

1625. Revolt of the Huguenots under the dukes of Rohan and Sou- 

1627-1628. Biege of Iia Rochelle, under the personal supervision 

of Richelieu. In spite of the dispatch of three fleets from 
England to the aid of the Huguenots, the city surrQ^dered Oct. 28, 
1628, after a heroic resistance of fourteen months. Defeat of the 
duke of Rohan, and complete subjugation of the Huguenots, who 
hereafter were no longer an armed political party, but only a toler^ 
ated sect. War in Italy with Spain ; subjugation of Savoy, Riche- 
lieu at the head of the army. Treaty of Cherasco (April 6, 1631). 
France renounced all conquests in Italy, but by a secret treaty with 
Victor Amadeus, duke of Savoy, Pignerol was surrendered to France 
(negotiators of these treaties, Richelieu's confidant, Father Joseph 
and the Pope's agent, Mazarin). 

A final attempt of Mary Medici to overthrow the cardinal igno- 
miniously faUed (Nov. 11, 1630, the " Day of Dupes "). Mary died 
at Cologne, 1642. 

326 Modem History. A. d. 

Conspiracy of Gaston and the duke of Montmorency. 
1632, Oct. 30. Defeat of the allies and execution of Montmorency, 

Foundation of the French Academy (1635). 
1631-48. Participation of France in the Thirty Yeiars' War. See 

p. 314. 

1641. Conspiracy of Henri d*Effiat, marquis of Cinq-Mars ('' Mon- 
sieur le Grand "). Secret treaty with Spain. The plot was 
exposed by Richelieu. 

1642. Dec. 4. Death of Richelieu. 

The effect of Richelieu's administration had been to break the 
power of the nobles and make the crown independent of the parlia- 
ments. He restored French influence in Italy, in the Netherlands, in 
Germany (311), and established it in Swetlen. Richelieu laid the 
foundation of the power of Louis XIY. 
Louis XIIL died May 14, 1643. 

§ 6. ITALY. 

The duchy of BUlan, since 1556 (p. 306) an appanage of the 
Spanish crown, was held, nominally, as a fief of the empire. 


The discovery of the new route to the Indies stnick at the root of 
the commercial prosperity of Venice, and her power was steadily de- 
clining during this period. The danger which threatened the repub- 
lic from the League of Cambray (1508^, between the Pope, the 
emperor Maximilian, Louis XII., and Ferainand the Catholic, passed 
away as the Pope, Julius II. withdrew from the League in 1510, made 
his peace with the Venetians and induced Ferdinand the Catholic to 

J'oin the Holy League, which had for its object the expulsion of the 
i'rench from Italy. On the other hand the Turkish power confined 
Venice to the coasts of the Mediterranean. In 1570 the Turks at- 
tacked Cyprus, of which Venice had acquired possession in 1489 
(p. 262). The victory of Lepanto, gained by Don John of Austria 
(p. 331), retarded the progress of the Turks but little. In 1573 
\enice was forced to deliver Cyprus to them, and at the close of 
this period retained of all her possessions in Grecian waters, Candia, 
ParoSf and the Ionian Islands only. 


Genoa freed herself in 1529 from French supremacy, under the 
doge, Andrea Doria, who ^ve the republic a new constitution. 
Unsuccessful conspiracy of Fiesco (Jan. 2, 1547). Gianettino Doria, 
the ucphew of the doge, was murdered, and Andrea Doria was com- 
pelled to fly. The conspirators had got possession of nearly the whole 
city, when Fiesco was accidentally drowned. Return of the doge, 
restoration of the constitution. 

A. D. Italy. 827 


The dukes of Savoy, who also possessed Piedmont^ were the most 
powerful of the native 'dynasties of northern Italy. Nevertheless, 
during this period, Bern deprived them of the Waadtlandy and they 
got into straits during the war between France and the empire. 
After the peace of Cateati-Cambresis (1559), Emmanuel Philibert waa 
reinstated m his duchy. 


In the year in which Charles VIII. of France invaded Italy (1494), 
Peter di Medici, son of Lorenzo, who had concluded a treaty with the 
king, was driven from the city. The Dominican monk Savonarola 
(bom 1452, prior of San Marco, 1490^ was leader of the democratic 
party in Florence ; asceticism for a snort time fashionable in Flor- 
ence. Savonarola ezconununicated, and executed (May 23, 1498). 
In 1512 the Medici were restored in consequence of the victory of the 
Holy League (pp. 300 and 318). In 1527 the Medici were a second 
time expelled, and the republic for a while restored. In 1530, how- 
ever, Charles VIII. appointed Alexander di Medici hereditary ruler in 
Florence, and he soon assumed the ducal title. After his murder by 
his cousin, Lorenzino, Cosimo (Cosmus) di Medici became duke (1537). 
He incorporated the republic of Siena with his territory, and in 1569 
was created grand duke of Tuscany by Pope Pius V. Under Cosi- 
mo II., Galileo Galilei (1564^1642) taught in Florence, who, in 
1633, was forced to abjiu'e the Copernican System by the Inquisition 
at Rome (" It does move though " i). 

The Papacy. 

The following popes of this period deserve mention : the debauched 
and criminal Alexander VI. (1492-1503), of the family of Borgia. 
His daughter was Lucrezia Borgia : his second son Cczsar Borgia, 
ruler of the Romag^; the warlike Julius II, (1503-1513) ; the schol- 
arly Leo X, (1513-1521) of the family of Medici, a patron of art ; 
the fanatical Paul IV. (Caraffa, 1555-1559), upon whose advice 
Paul III. had establishea the Inquisition in 1542 ; Gregory XIII. 
(1572-1585), who revised tlie calendar by striking out leap year at 
the close of each century, excepting every fourth century ; the wise 
and severe Sixtus V. (1585-1590), who suppressed the banditti in the 
Papal States and adorned Rome. (Reerection of obelisks, completion 
of the dome of St. Peter's.^) 


Naples throughout this period was an appanage of Spain (since 
1504, see p. 318). Insurrection of the fisherman, Tommaso Aniello, 
called Masaniello (1647), soon suppressed (f July 16). 

Most tiourisliing period of Italian art. Painters : Leonardo da 
Vinci (1452-1519) ; Raphael Santi (erroneously called Sanzio, 1483- 

^ Thifi sayinf!:, it i» now claimed, \fK unauthonticated. — [Tbams.] 
2 Banke*, dit ramichen PapttCf 6th ed., 1878. 

828 Modem History. A. D« 

1520); Antonio AUeffri, called Correggio (14^4-1634); Michael Angelo 
Buonarotti (1475-1604), also sculptor and architect ; Titian (1477- 
1576); Paid Veronese (about 153&-1588). Poets: Ariosto (1474- 
1533); Torquaio Tasso {lM4r-imby Politician: iUaccAia»cflt (1469- 


By the marriage of 

1479-1516. Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon and Isabella 
1474-1504. of Castile (p. 276), which was consummated before the 

accession of either to the throne, the way was prepared for the 

future union of the two kingdoms. 
1492. Conquest of Grenad£^ capita of the last Moorish kingdom 
Jan. 2. in the peninsula. In the same year, discovery of America 

(p. 282), and consequent acquisitions on the other side of the 
ocean for the crown of CaatHe. Conquest of Naples (1501-1504, see 
p. 327) for the crown of Aragon, Annexation of the grandmaster- 
ships of the three military orders of Calatrava (1487), Alcdntdra 
(1494), and San Jago (1499), to the crown. Support given to the 
league of the cities (Hermandad) against the robber-nobles; (Spanish) 

Upon Isabella's death (1504) her daughter, Joannay wife of Philip^ 
archduke of Austria (p. 301), was the legal heiress of Castile. Her 
&ther, Ferdinand the Catholic, however, who had long planned the 
union of the two kingdoms in one kingdom of Spain, obtained from 
the Cortes authority to carry on the government in place of his absent 
daughter. In 1506, Philip and Joanna went to Castile to expel Fer- 
dinand by force. Meeting of the two princes and treaty of Villa/a' 
Jila, whereby the regency was granted to Philip. Shortly after the 
treaty Philip died suddenly (of poison ?), and Ferdinand resumed the 
regency (f 1516). Joanna, who was insane, was kept in strict con- 
finement for 49 years (f 1555), first by her father, afterwards by her 
son Charles.^ Ferdinand was succeeded in both kingdoms (at first as 
co-regent of his mother, in theory) by the son of Philip and Joanna. 


Preliminary : These provinces, originally inhabited by Batavians 
and other German tribes, formed a part of the empire of Charles the 
Great, and after the treaty of Mersen (870) belonged in great part to 
Germany, forming a dependence of the duchy of Lotharingia. The 
decline of the ducal power favored the g^wth of powerful counties 
and duchies, such as Brabant, Flanders, Guelders, Holland, Zealand, 
Hainault, and the bishopric of UtrecM. After 1384, and during the 
fifteenth century, the provinces were brought under control of the 
dukes of Burgundy. 

1 The view advanced by Bergenroth (Karl V. und Johanna^ in V. Sybers 
nUl. Ztits.^ 1868), that Joanna was only dtdartd insane from political reasons, 
has been clearly shown bv other scholars'COaohard, Boealer, luurenbreoher) 
to rest on misunderstandings. 

▲• D. Spanish Peninsula and the Netherlands, 329 

Philip n. the Bold, 

Fourih son of John II., k. of France. In 1363 made duke 
of Burgundy (the duchy reverted to the crown, 1361, hy the 
extinction of the first ducal line in the person of Philip I.). 
In 1369 m. Margaret, dau. and heiress of Louis IIL, c. of 
Flandera and Artois, f 1404. 

John the Fearless, 
duke of Burgundy, 1404-1419. 

Philip the Good, 

duke of Burgundy, 1419-1467. 

Acquired Namur, hy purchase, in 1425 ; in 1430, Brabant 
and laimburg, which had heen bequeathed by Joanna, dau. 
of John III., d. of Brabant, to her great-nephew, Antoine, 
brother of John the Fearless ; in 1433, Holland, Hainault 
{Hennegau), Zealand, by cession from Jacqueline c. of Hol- 
land (of the Bavarian line) ; in 1443, Lajcembnrg, by ces- 
sion from Elizabeth of Luxemburg, and by purchase ; he 
also acquired Antwerp and MecUin. 

Charles the Bold, 

duke of Burgundy, 1467-1477. 
Acquired Oelderland and Zutphen in 1472, by bequest 

from duke Arnold. 

'M.ary, f 1482 == Maximilian, arch- 
duke of Austria. 

Joanna, dau. of Ferdi- 
nand of Arragon, and 
Isabella of Castile. 

Philip the Handsome, 
archduke of Austria, 
duke of Burgundy. 

Charles I. (V.) 

k. of Spain; archduke of Austria, d. of Burgundy, 
k. of Naples and Sicily, lord of Spanish America, 

They descended to the Hapsburg heirs of Charles the Bold, united 
and having a common Rtates-general. In 1548 Charles V . annexed the 
seventeen provinces (Brabant, Limhurg, Luxemburg, Gelderland, Flan- 
ders, Artois, Hainault, Holland, Zealand, Namur f Zutphen, East and 
West Friesland, Mechlin, Utrecht, Overyssd^ Groningeh) to the Bur- 
gundian circle of the empire. 

1516-1556. Charles I. (as emperor, Charles V. p. 302). 

330 Modem History. A. D. 

After suppressing a revolt in Castile he founded the absolute mon- 
archy y the Cortes henceforth having no importance. In America con- 
quest of Mexico^ Peruy Chili, New Granada (p. 283, etc.). Upon his 
abdication the Spaniah lands and the ooloniea, the Netherlanda, 
Franche-Comttf, Naples, and Milan, descended to his son 

1556-1598. Philip II., who married four times : 1. Mary of 
Portugal, mother of Don Carlos ; 2. Mary the Catholicy of Eng- 
land (p. 336); 3. Elizabeth of Valois (p. 318); 4. Anne, daughter of 
Maximilian II. 

War with France (p. 381). Bloody persecutiqp of the Moors and 
the Protestants in Spain. Inquisition, atUos da fe (t. e, acts of the 
faith). Conflict between the king and his heir, Don Carlos ; the lat- 
ter was arrested and died in prison (1568). Don John of AxiStria, a 
natural son of Charles I. (V.), gained over the Turks the 

1571, Oct. 7. Naval battle of Lepanto (on the Gulf of Corinth). 
1568-1648. War of Liberation in the Netherlands. 

Cause: The provinces of the Netherlands, which fell to Spain after 
the abdication of Cliarles I., rejoiced in the possession of ancient and 
important privileges. The estates (^Staaten, etats) granted taxes and 
troops. The Spanish garrison, the penal edicts against heretics, the 
dread of the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition, led, during the 
rule of the regent Margaret of Parma (1559-1567), the natural sister 
of king Philip II., and her adviser, bishop Granvella, to a league of 
the nobles (the Compromis de Breda), headed by Philip Mamix of St, 
Aldegonde. Presentation of a petition by 300 nobles (Gteuaen, Gtteux, 
a party name, originating in the contemptuous exclamation of the 
count of Barlaiinont : Ce n^est qu*un tas de gueux). Insurrection of 
the lower classes. Destruction of images, and sack of the churches. 
These disturbances were opposed by Lamoral, count of ISgmont (b. 
1522, fought under Charles V. in Algiers, Germany, France ; led the 
cavalry at St. Quentin, and Gravelines, 1558 ; appointed governor of 
Flanders and Artois by Charles Y. ; executed June 5, 1568), and 
William of Nassau, prince of Orange, the leaders of the higher nobil- 
ity in the Netherlands, who were soon no longer masters of the move- 
ment. Separation into a Catholic and a Protestant party. Although 
quiet was iinally restored Philip sent the 

1567. Duke of Alva with 20,000 Spaniards by way of Genoa, Savoy, 
and Franche Comli to the Netherlands. William of Orange 
and many thousand Netherlanders left their native land. Margaret 
resigned her regency and left the country. Creation of the " Council 
of Blood." The counts of £e;mont and of Hoom and many others 
wei-e executed (1568). The estates of those who did not appear be- 
fore the tribunal were confiscated, including those of IVUliam of 
Orange. The latter and his brother, Louis qf Orange, invaded the 
Netherlands, but were repulsed by Alva. 

The arbitrary taxes imposed by Alva (the tenth pfennig from the 
price of every article sold, the one hundredth part of every income), 

Eroduced a new revolt. Capture of Brille, on the mouth of the Mouse 
y the Water Beggars (1572). Rapid spread of the insurrection^ 
particularly in the northern provinces. 

A* D« Spanish Peninsula and the Netherlands, 831 

1573. Alva recalled at his own request. His successor, Luis de Re^ 
quesens y Zuniga, gained a victory 

1574. At Mookerheide, where two brothers of the prince of Orsmge 
fell, but could not suppress the revolt, and died (1576). The 

sack of the cities of Antwerp, Mastricht, Ghent, etc., by the royal 
troops brought about the 

1576. Pacification of Ghent, a treaty between all the provinces, 
whereby they united, without regard to national or religious 
differences, to drive the Spanish soldiers from the country. 

The new governor, Don John of Austria (p. 330), was not recog- 
nized by the majority of the provinces. In spite of the new disputes 
which had broken out among them he was unable to quiet the country, 
and died, 1578. He was succeeded by Alexander Pamese, duke of 
Parma (1578-1592), a shrewd statesman and an excellent general. 
He reduced the southern Catholic provinces, which form modem Bel- 
gium, to submission on condition of the restoration of their old politi-^ 
cal freedom. The seven northern provinces, Holland, Zeadfuid, 
Utrecht, Oelderlfuid, Oroningen, Fxiealand, Overysael, con- 

1579. The Union of Utrecht, 

proclaimed tlieir complete independence of Spain (in 1581) 
and settled the hereditary Statthaltership upon 'William of Orange 
(the Silent, b. 1533, inherited the principality of Orange, 1544, ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the Netherlands and governor of Hol- 
land, Zealand and Utrecht, by Charles Y., resigned his ofiBces 1567, 
converted to Protestantism, elected commander-in-chief by the rebels, 
1572, relieved Leyden, Oct., 1574, murdered by Balthazar Gerard, 
10th July, 1584). After his murder at Delft, his son, the seventeen- 
year-old Maurice of Nassau, became the head of the seven provinces. 
Successful campai^ of Alexander of Parma ; capture of Antwerp. 
The help furnished the Hollanders by the English (Leicester) induced 
Philip to fit out the Great Armada, which was destroyed by terrible 
storms and the bravery of the English (1588). After a long contest 
with changing fortunes, there was concluded under 

1598-1621. PhiHpin. 

1609. The ten years' truce, on the basis of possession at the time. 
Under the weak king, who was controlled by his favorites, the 
dukes of Lerma and Uzeda, father and son, the power and the pros- 
perity of Spain declined, exhausted by constant war, the demoraliz